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Academic Staff

Professor Paul Hibbard

Staff positionProfessor
Telephone01206 873516

Paul Hibbard studied Psychology at University College London, where he gained a BSc and PhD . He then worked at the University of Surrey as a research fellow, and as a lecturer, then senior lecturer, at the University of St Andrews. He joined the department of Psychology in 2013.

Research interests
  • 3D shape
  • binocular vision
  • image statistics
  • visual discomfort


Beattie L, Curran W, Benton CP, Harr JM & Hibbard PB (2017) Perceived duration of brief visual events is mediated by timing mechanisms at the global stages of visual processing, Royal Society Open Science, 4: 160928,


Jonas C., Spiller M.J. & Hibbard, P.B. (in press) Summation of visual attributes in auditory-visual crossmodal correspondences, Psychnomic Bulletin and Review

Hornsey R.L., Hibbard, P.B. & Scarfe P. (2016) Binocular Depth Judgments on Smoothly Curved Surfaces, PLOS ONE,

Romei V, Chiappini E, Hibbard P.B., Avenanti A. Empowering reentrant projections from V5 to V1 boosts sensitivity to motion. Current Biology. 2016 Aug 22;26(16):2155-60.

Curran W., Benton C.P., Harris J.M., Hibbard P.B. & Beattie L. (2016) Adapting to time: Duration channels do not mediate human time perception, Journal of Vision, 16(5):4,

Hunter D.W. & Hibbard, P.B (2016) Ideal binocular disparity detectors learned using Independent Subspace Analysis on binocular natural image pairs, PLoS ONE, 11(3): e0150117.

Hibbard, P.B., Goutcher, R. & Hunter, D.W. (2016) Encoding and estimation of first- and second-order binocular disparity in natural images, Vision Research, 120, 108-120,

O'Hare, L. & Hibbard, P.B. (2016) Visual processing in migraine, Cephalalgia, 361057-1076, doi:10.1177/0333102415618952, fulltext


Haines, A.E., Hornsey, R.L. & Hibbard, P.B. (2015) Quality, quantity and precision of depth perception in stereoscopic displays, Proceedings of the International Conference on 3D Imaging.

Hornsey, R.L., Hibbard, P.B. & Scarfe, P. (2015) Ordinal judgments of depth in monocularly- and stereoscopically-viewed photographs of complex natural scenes, Proceedings of the International Conference on 3D Imaging.

Hornsey R.L. & Hibbard, P.B. (2015) Evaluation of the accuracy of the Leap Motion controller for measurements of grip aperture. In: 12th European Conference on Visual Media Production, 24th-25th November 2015, London, doi:, fulltext

Hunter, D.W. & Hibbard, P.B. (2015) Distribution of independent components of binocular natural images, Journal of Vision, 15(13):6, 1-31, doi:10.1167/15.13.6, fulltext

Jonas, C.N. & Hibbard, P.B. (2015) Migraine in synesthetes and nonsynesthetes: a prevalence study, Perception, 44, 1179-1202, fulltext

Hibbard, P.B. & O'Hare, L. (2015) Uncomfortable images produce non-sparse responses in a model of primary visual cortex, Royal Society Open Science, 2: 140535. fulltext


T Zhang T., O’Hare, L., Hibbard, P.B., Nefs, H.T. & Heynderickx, I. (2014) Depth of Field Affects Perceived Depth in Stereographs,  ACM Transactions on Applied Perception (TAP) 11(4), 18 doi:10.1145/2667227

Hibbard, P.B., Scott-Brown, K.C., Haigh, E.C. & Adrain, M. (2014) Depth perception not found in human observers for static or dynamic anti-correlated random dot stereograms, PLOS ONE, 9(1): e84087. doi: 10.1471/journal.pone/0084087

Goutcher, R. & Hibbard, P.B. (2014) Mechanisms for similarity matching in disparity measurement, Frontiers in Psychology, doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2013.01014.


Vishwanath, D. & Hibbard, P.B. (2013) Seeing in 3D with just one eye: stereopsis without binocular vision, Psychological Science, 24(9), 1673-1685.

Scarfe, P. & Hibbard, P.B. (2013) Reverse correlation reveals how observers sample visual information when estimating three-dimensional shape, Vision Research, 86, 115-127.

O’Hare L. Zhang T. Nefs H.T. & Hibbard P.B. (2013) Visual discomfort and depth-of-field, i-Perception, 4(3), 156–169.

O'Hare, L. & Hibbard, P.B. (2013) Visual Discomfort and blur, Journal of Vision, 13(5):7, 1-12.

O'Hare, L., Clarke, A.D. & Hibbard, P.B. (2013) Visual search and visual discomfort, Perception, 42, 1-15.


Bannerman, R.L, Hibbard, P.B., Chalmers, K. and Sahraie, A. (2012) Saccadic latency is modulated by emotional content of spatially filtered face stimuli, Emotion, 12(6), 1384-1392

Hibbard, P.B., Goutcher, R., O’Kane, L.M. and Scarfe, P. (2012) Misperception of aspect ratio in binocularly viewed surfaces, Vision Research, 70, 34-43

May, K.A., Zhaoping, L. & Hibbard, P.B. (2012) Perceived Direction of Motion Determined by Adaptation to Static Binocular Images,Current Biology, 22(1), 28-32.

Harris, J.M., Chopin, A. Zeiner, K. & Hibbard, P.B. (2012) Perception of relative depth interval: systematic biases in perceived depth,The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 65(1), 73-91


O’Hare, L. & Hibbard, P.B. (2011). Spatial frequency and visual discomfort. Vision Research, 51, 1767-1777

Scarfe, P. & Hibbard, P.B.. (2011). Statistically optimal integration of biased sensory estimates. Journal of Vision 11(7), 12, 1-17

Keefe, B.D., Hibbard, P.B. & Watt S.J. (2011). Depth-cue integration in grasp programming: No evidence for a binocular specialism.Neuropsychologia 49 (5), 1246-1257


Sahraie, A., Hibbard, P.B., Trevethan, C.T., Ritchie, K.L. & Weiskrantz, L. (2010) Consciousness of the first-order in blindsight.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Unites States of America, 49, 21217-21222

Goutcher, R. & Hibbard, P.B. (2010). Evidence for relative disparity matching in the perception of an ambiguous stereogram. Journal of Vision 10 (12): 35, 1-15

O’Kane L.M. & Hibbard, P.B. (2010) Contextual effects on perceived three-dimensional shape,Vision Research, 50, 1095-1100


Hibbard, P. B. (2008). Binocular energy responses to natural images.Vision Research, 48: 1427-1439

Hibbard, P. B. (2008). Can appearance be so deceptive? Representationalism and binocular vision. Spatial Vision 21 (6): 549-559


O’Kane L. & Hibbard, P.B. (2007) Vertical disparity affects shape and size judgments across surfaces separated in depth, Perception, 46, 696-702

Curran, W., Hibbard, P.B. & Johnston, A. (2007) The visual processing of motion-defined transparency, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 274, 1049-1056

Hibbard, P.B. (2007) A statistical model of binocular disparity, Visual Cognition, 15, 149-165


Hibbard, P.B. & Bradshaw,  M.F. (2006) 2-D tilt and 3-D slant illusions in perception and action tasks, Perception, 35, 1297-1305

Bradshaw, M.F., Hibbard, P.B., Parton, A.D., Rose, D. & Langley, K (2006) Surface orientation, modulation frequency and the detection and perception of depth defined by binocular disparity and motion parallax, Vision Research, 46, 2626-2644

Scarfe, P. & Hibbard, P.B. (2006) Disparity-defined objects moving in depth do not elicit three-dimensional shape constancy, Vision Research, 46, 1599-1610


Hibbard, P.B. (2005) The orientation bandwidth of cyclopean channels, Vision Research, 45, 2780-2785

Hibbard, P.B. & Bouzit, S. (2005) Stereoscopic correspondence for ambiguous targets is affected by elevation and fixation distance,Spatial Vision, 18, 399-412


Bradshaw, M.F., Elliot, K.M., Watt, S.J., Hibbard, P.B., Davies, I.R.L. and Simpson, P.J. (2004) Binocular cues and the control of prehension, Spatial Vision, 17, 95-110


Rose, D., Bradshaw, M.F. & Hibbard, P.B. (2003) Attention modulates the stereoscopic depth aftereffect, Perception, 35, 635-640

Hibbard P.B. & Bradshaw M.F. (2003) Reaching for virtual objects: binocular disparity and the control of prehension, Experimental Brain Research, 148:196-201


Hibbard, P.B., Bradshaw, M.F., Langley, K. & Rogers, B.J. (2002) The stereoscopic anisotropy — individual differences and underlying mechanisms. Journal of Experimental Psychology, Human Perception and Performance, 28, 469-476

Hibbard, P.B. & Bradshaw, M.F. (2002) Isotropic integration of binocular disparity and retinal motion in the perception of three-dimensional shape. Spatial Vision, 15, 205-218

Bradshaw, M, Hibbard, P, Van Der Willigen, R, Watt, S & Simpson, P (2002). The stereoscopic anisotropy affects manual pointing.Spatial Vision, 15, 443-58

Bradshaw, M.F., Hibbard, P.B. & Gillam, B. (2002) Perceptual latencies to discriminate surface orientation in stereopsis. Perception and Psychophysics, 62, 32-40


Hibbard, P.B., Bradshaw, M.F. & Eagle, R.A. (2000) Cue-combination in the motion correspondence problem. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 267, 1369-1374


Hibbard, P.B., Bradshaw, M.F. & DeBruyn, B. (1999) Global motion processing is not tuned for binocular disparity. Vision Research, 39, 961-974

Hibbard, P.B. & Bradshaw, M.F. (1999) Does binocular disparity facilitate the detection of transparent motion? Perception, 28, 183-192

Everatt, J., Bradshaw, M.F., & Hibbard, P.B. (1999) Visual processing and dyslexia. Perception, 28, 243-254

Langley, K., Fleet, D.J. and Hibbard, P.B. (1999) Stereopsis from contrast envelopes. Vision Research, 39, 2313-2324


Everatt, J., Bradshaw. M.F. & Hibbard, P.B. (1998) Individual differences in reading and eye movement control, in Eye Guidance in Reading, Driving and Scene Perception (ed. G. Underwood), p223-242, Oxford: Elsevier

Hibbard, P.B. & Langley.K. (1998) Plaid slant thresholds can be predicted from components. Vision Research, 38, 1073-1084

Langley, K., Fleet, D.J. and Hibbard, P.B. (1998) Linear and nonlinear transparencies in stereopsis. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 265, 1837-1845


Langley, K., Fleet, D.J., & Hibbard, P.B. (1996) Linear filtering precedes nonlinear processing in early vision. Current Biology, 6, 891-896

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