Essex Gateway to Arabic Linguistic Resources


Essex Arabic Bibliography

Below you can find a searcheable version of the most recent version of the Essex Arabic Bibliography. A .bib version of the whole bibliography, is available for download as a .txt file.

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    AuthorTitleYearJournal/ProceedingsReftypeDOI/URL
    Şeng aPr, C. a.A.M. Charting an Arabic course 2006 Nature
    Vol. 441(7094), pp. 696-697 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Sengar2006Charting,
      author = {ŞengãPr, CelãÇ'¶½l A. M.},
      title = {Charting an Arabic course},
      journal = {Nature},
      publisher = {Nature Publishing Group},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {441},
      number = {7094},
      pages = {696--697},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/441696a},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/441696a}
    }
    
    Abaalkhail, F.M.A.-M. Syllabification and metrification in urban Hijazi Arabic : between rules and constraints 1998 School: Dept. of Language and Linguistics, University of Essex  phdthesis URL 
    BibTeX:
    @phdthesis{Abaalkhail1998,
      author = {Faisal M. Al-Mohanna Abaalkhail},
      title = {Syllabification and metrification in urban Hijazi Arabic : between rules and constraints},
      school = {Dept. of Language and Linguistics, University of Essex},
      year = {1998},
      url = {http://serlib0.essex.ac.uk/record=b1387499~S5}
    }
    
    Abbès, R., Dichy, J. & Hassoun, M. The architecture of a standard Arabic lexical database: some figures, ratios and categories from the DIINAR.1 source program 2004 Semitic '04: Proceedings of the Workshop on Computational Approaches to Arabic Script-based Languages, pp. 15-22  inproceedings  
    Abstract: This paper is a contribution to the issue -- which has, in the course of the last decade, become critical -- of the basic requirements and validation criteria for lexical language resources in Standard Arabic. The work is based on a critical analysis of the architecture of the DIINAR.1 lexical database, the entries of which are associated with grammar-lexis relations operating at word-form level (i.e. in morphological analysis). Investigation shows a crucial difference, in the concept of 'lexical database', between source program and generated lexica. The source program underlying DIINAR.1 is analysed, and some figures and ratios are presented. The original categorisations are, in the course of scrutiny, partly revisited. Results and ratios given here for basic entries on the one hand, and for generated lexica of inflected word-forms on the other. They aim at giving a first answer to the question of the ratios between the number of lemma-entries and inflected word-forms that can be expected to be included in, or generated by, a Standard Arabic lexical dB. These ratios can be considered as one overall language-specific criterion for the analysis, evaluation and validation of lexical dB-s in Arabic.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Abb`es2004,
      author = {Abbès, Ramzi and Dichy, Joseph and Hassoun, Mohamed},
      title = {The architecture of a standard Arabic lexical database: some figures, ratios and categories from the DIINAR.1 source program},
      booktitle = {Semitic '04: Proceedings of the Workshop on Computational Approaches to Arabic Script-based Languages},
      publisher = {Association for Computational Linguistics},
      year = {2004},
      pages = {15--22}
    }
    
    Abbas, K.H.A. Topics in the phonology of Jordanian Arabic : an optimality theory perspective 2005 School: Dept. of Language and Linguistics, University of Essex  phdthesis URL 
    BibTeX:
    @phdthesis{Abbas2005,
      author = {Khaled Hasan Abu Abbas},
      title = {Topics in the phonology of Jordanian Arabic : an optimality theory perspective},
      school = {Dept. of Language and Linguistics, University of Essex},
      year = {2005},
      url = {http://serlib0.essex.ac.uk/record=b1605579~S5}
    }
    
    Abbott & Marilyn, L. ESL Reading Strategies: Differences in Arabic and Mandarin Speaker Test Performance 2006 Language Learning
    Vol. 56(4), pp. 633-670 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that reading comprehension items, which elicit specific bottom-up and top-down strategies, favor certain linguistic/cultural groups. Verbal report data were collected from Arabic- and Mandarin-speaking English as a second language (ESL) learners to identify the reading strategies involved in carrying out 32 reading questions. Then a confirmatory approach to differential item functioning was used to determine whether bottom-up and top-down items functioned differentially for equal-ability Arabic and Mandarin ESL learners. Results revealed systematic group performance differences in four bottom-up and three top-down strategy categories. Items involving breaking a word into smaller parts, scanning, paraphrasing, and matching were found to favor Mandarin speakers, whereas items involving skimming, connecting, and inferring were found to favor Arabic speakers.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Abbott2006ESL,
      author = {Abbott and Marilyn, L.},
      title = {ESL Reading Strategies: Differences in Arabic and Mandarin Speaker Test Performance},
      journal = {Language Learning},
      publisher = {Blackwell Publishing},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {56},
      number = {4},
      pages = {633--670},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2006.00391.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2006.00391.x}
    }
    
    Abdalla, Crago, Bishop & Leonard Verb Morphology Deficits In Arabic-speaking Children 2000 Speech and language impairments in children: Causes, characteristics, intervention and outcome  incollection  
    BibTeX:
    @incollection{Abdalla2000,
      author = {Abdalla and Crago and Bishop and Leonard},
      title = {Verb Morphology Deficits In Arabic-speaking Children},
      booktitle = {Speech and language impairments in children: Causes, characteristics, intervention and outcome},
      publisher = { Hove: Psychology Press},
      year = {2000}
    }
    
    Abdalla, F. & Crago, M. Verb morphology deficits in Arabic-speaking children with specific language impairment 2008 Applied Psycholinguistics
    Vol. 29(02), pp. 315 - 340 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Abdalla08,
      author = {F. Abdalla and M. Crago},
      title = {Verb morphology deficits in Arabic-speaking children with specific language impairment},
      journal = {Applied Psycholinguistics},
      publisher = {Cambridge University Press},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {29},
      number = {02},
      pages = {315 - 340}
    }
    
    Abdalla, F. & Crago, M. Verb morphology deficits in Arabic-speaking children with specific language impairment 2008 Applied Psycholinguistics
    Vol. 29(02), pp. 315 - 340 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Abdalla08p315,
      author = {F. Abdalla and M. Crago},
      title = {Verb morphology deficits in Arabic-speaking children with specific language impairment},
      journal = {Applied Psycholinguistics},
      publisher = {Cambridge University Press},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {29},
      number = {02},
      pages = {315 - 340}
    }
    
    Abdalla, F., Robb, M.P. & Al-Shatti, T. Stuttering and lexical category in adult Arabic speakers. 2010 Clin Linguist Phon
    Vol. 24(1), pp. 70-81 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to test whether the content and function word dichotomy of speech disfluency found in English-speaking adults who stutter (AWS) was evident in a language other than English. A group of adult Arabic-speaking AWS were sampled across spontaneous speaking, oral reading, and single-word naming tasks. Moments of disfluency were identified and examined in regard to lexical category. Results indicated no significant differences in the amount of disfluency occurring on content and function words. The production of combined content-function words, a unique feature of the Arabic language, was associated with a high level of disfluency. The linguistic bases of stuttering are discussed in regard to language-specific influences.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Abdalla2010,
      author = {Fauzia Abdalla and Michael P Robb and Tareq Al-Shatti},
      title = {Stuttering and lexical category in adult Arabic speakers.},
      journal = {Clin Linguist Phon},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {24},
      number = {1},
      pages = {70--81},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/02699200903420316},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/02699200903420316}
    }
    
    Abdel Monem, A., Shaalan, K., Rafea, A. & Baraka, H. Generating Arabic text in multilingual speech-to-speech machine translation framework Machine Translation  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Abstract  The interlingual approach to machine translation (MT) is used successfully in multilingual translation. It aims to achieve the translation task in two independent steps. First, meanings of the source-language sentences are represented in an intermediate language-independent (Interlingua) representation. Then, sentences of the target language are generated from those meaning representations. Arabic natural language processing in general is still underdeveloped and Arabic natural language generation (NLG) is even less developed. In particular, Arabic NLG from Interlinguas was only investigated using template-based approaches. Moreover, tools used for other languages are not easily adaptable to Arabic due to the language complexity at both the morphological and syntactic levels. In this paper, we describe a rule-based generation approach for task-oriented Interlingua-based spoken dialogue that transforms a relatively shallow semantic interlingual representation, called interchange format (IF), into Arabic text that corresponds to the intentions underlying the speaker's utterances. This approach addresses the handling of the problems of Arabic syntactic structure determination, and Arabic morphological and syntactic generation within the Interlingual MT approach. The generation approach is developed primarily within the framework of the NESPOLE! (NEgotiating through SPOken Language in E-commerce) multilingual speech-to-speech MT project. The IF-to-Arabic generator is implemented in SICStus Prolog. We conducted evaluation experiments using the input and output from the English analyzer that was developed by the NESPOLE! team at Carnegie Mellon University. The results of these experiments were promising and confirmed the ability of the rule-based approach in generating Arabic translation from the Interlingua taken from the travel and tourism domain.
    BibTeX:
    @article{AbdelMonemGenerating,
      author = {Abdel Monem, Azza and Shaalan, Khaled and Rafea, Ahmed and Baraka, Hoda},
      title = {Generating Arabic text in multilingual speech-to-speech machine translation framework},
      journal = {Machine Translation},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10590-009-9054-9},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10590-009-9054-9}
    }
    
    Abdel-Fattah, M.A. Arabic sign language: a perspective. 2005 J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ
    Vol. 10(2), pp. 212-221 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Sign language in the Arab World has been recently recognized and documented. Many efforts have been made to establish the sign language used in individual countries, including Jordan, Egypt, Libya, and the Gulf States, by trying to standardize the language and spread it among members of the Deaf community and those concerned. Such efforts produced many sign languages, almost as many as Arabic-speaking countries, yet with the same sign alphabets. This article gives a tentative account of some sign languages in Arabic through reference to their possible evolution, which is believed to be affected by the diglossic situation in Arabic, and by comparing some aspects of certain sign languages (Jordanian, Palestinian, Egyptian, Kuwaiti, and Libyan) for which issues such as primes, configuration, and movement in addition to other linguistic features are discussed. A contrastive account that depicts the principal differences among Arabic sign languages in general and the spoken language is given.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Abdel-Fattah2005,
      author = {M. A. Abdel-Fattah},
      title = {Arabic sign language: a perspective.},
      journal = {J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {10},
      number = {2},
      pages = {212--221},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/deafed/eni007},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/deafed/eni007}
    }
    
    Abdel-Fattah, M.A. Arabic Sign Language: A Perspective 2005 Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
    Vol. 10(2), pp. 212-221 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{AbdelFattah2005Arabic,
      author = {Abdel-Fattah, M. A.},
      title = {Arabic Sign Language: A Perspective},
      journal = {Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education},
      publisher = {Oxford University Press},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {10},
      number = {2},
      pages = {212--221},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/deafed/eni007},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/deafed/eni007}
    }
    
    Abdel-Fattah, M.M. On the Translation of Modals from English into Arabic and Vice Versa: The Case of Deontic Modality 2005 Babel
    Vol. 51(1), pp. 31-48 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{AbdelFattah2005Translation,
      author = {Abdel-Fattah, Mahmoud M.},
      title = {On the Translation of Modals from English into Arabic and Vice Versa: The Case of Deontic Modality},
      journal = {Babel},
      publisher = {John Benjamins Publishing Company},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {51},
      number = {1},
      pages = {31--48},
      url = {http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/jbp/bab/2005/00000051/00000001/art00003}
    }
    
    Abdel-Khalek, A.M. Convergent validity of the Templer, Collett-Lester, and Arabic Death Anxiety Scales: rejoinder. 2004 Psychol Rep
    Vol. 94(3 Pt 2), pp. 1171-1172 
    article  
    Abstract: The Templer Death Anxiety Scale, the Arabic Scale of Death Anxiety by Abdel-Khalek, and the Collett-Lester Fear of Death Scale were administered to a convenient sample of 81 male and female Kuwaiti undergraduates enrolled in social science courses (M age=22.0 yr., SD=2.3). Pearson correlations between the total scores were significant and positive. Only one high-loaded factor was extracted and labeled General Death Anxiety, indicating good convergent and factorial validity of these scales.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Abdel-Khalek2004,
      author = {Ahmed M Abdel-Khalek},
      title = {Convergent validity of the Templer, Collett-Lester, and Arabic Death Anxiety Scales: rejoinder.},
      journal = {Psychol Rep},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {94},
      number = {3 Pt 2},
      pages = {1171--1172}
    }
    
    Abdleazeem, S. & El-Sherif, E. Arabic handwritten digit recognition International Journal on Document Analysis and Recognition  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Abstract  In this paper, we fill a gap in the literature by studying the problem of Arabic handwritten digit recognition. The performances of different classification and feature extraction techniques on recognizing Arabic digits are going to be reported to serve as a benchmark for future work on the problem. The performance of well known classifiers and feature extraction techniques will be reported in addition to a novel feature extraction technique we present in this paper that gives a high accuracy and competes with the state-of-the-art techniques. A total of 54 different classifier/features combinations will be evaluated on Arabic digits in terms of accuracy and classification time. The results are analyzed and the problem of the digit '0' is identified with a proposed method to solve it. Moreover, we propose a strategy to select and design an optimal two-stage system out of our study and, hence, we suggest a fast two-stage classification system for Arabic digits which achieves as high accuracy as the highest classifier/features combination but with much less recognition time.
    BibTeX:
    @article{AbdleazeemArabic,
      author = {Abdleazeem, Sherif and El-Sherif, Ezzat},
      title = {Arabic handwritten digit recognition},
      journal = {International Journal on Document Analysis and Recognition},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10032-008-0073-5},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10032-008-0073-5}
    }
    
    Abduljaleel, N. & Larkey, L.S. Statistical transliteration for english-arabic cross language information retrieval 2003 CIKM '03: Proceedings of the twelfth international conference on Information and knowledge management, pp. 139-146  inproceedings DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Abduljaleel2003Statistical,
      author = {Abduljaleel, Nasreen and Larkey, Leah S.},
      title = {Statistical transliteration for english-arabic cross language information retrieval},
      booktitle = {CIKM '03: Proceedings of the twelfth international conference on Information and knowledge management},
      publisher = {ACM Press},
      year = {2003},
      pages = {139--146},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/956863.956890},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/956863.956890}
    }
    
    Abdulrahim, S. & Baker, W. Differences in self-rated health by immigrant status and language preference among Arab Americans in the Detroit Metropolitan Area. 2009 Soc Sci Med
    Vol. 68(12), pp. 2097-2103 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Arab Americans are a growing minority in the U.S., yet only a few studies have examined their health utilizing representative samples. Using data from the 2003 Detroit Arab American Study, which is based on a probability sample, we examined the self-rated health (SRH) of Arab Americans by two measures of acculturation--immigrant status and language preference. We specified logistic regression models to test whether immigrants report better or poorer health status compared to U.S.-born Arab Americans and whether language preference among the immigrant generation accounts for the association between immigrant status and SRH. Our findings reveal that the health status of Arab Americans improves with acculturation. Arab immigrants are more likely to report poorer SRH compared to U.S.-born Arab Americans. When language preference is taken into account, Arabic-speaking immigrants are more likely to report poorer SRH compared to both U.S.-born Arab Americans and to English-speaking immigrants. We discuss these findings in light of similar ones obtained in the literature on SRH among other immigrant groups in the U.S. We conclude by arguing that language is an important measure to include in SRH studies among Arab Americans as well as other non-English speaking ethnic groups.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Abdulrahim2009,
      author = {Sawsan Abdulrahim and Wayne Baker},
      title = {Differences in self-rated health by immigrant status and language preference among Arab Americans in the Detroit Metropolitan Area.},
      journal = {Soc Sci Med},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {68},
      number = {12},
      pages = {2097--2103},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2009.04.017},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2009.04.017}
    }
    
    Abolfotouh, M.A. & Telmesani, A. A study of some psycho-social characteristics of blind and deaf male students in Abha City, Asir region, Saudi Arabia. 1993 Public Health
    Vol. 107(4), pp. 261-269 
    article  
    Abstract: Psychosocial characteristics including depression, attitude towards their handicap, hobbies and problems of living situations have been studied among 152 male students in the Institute for the Blind (n = 44) and in the Institute for the Deaf (n = 108) in Abha City. All students were subjected to a constructed Arabic version of the rating scale 'Children Depression Inventory (CDI)'. They were categorised according to their scores on this CDI, into depressed and non-depressed. Also, an interview questionnaire was administered to collect data related to the handicap, such as age of onset, and its cause and family history of the same handicap. The effect of the handicap upon the attitudes of students in relation to their social tendencies, hobbies and problems in living situations was studied. The mean ages for blind and deaf students were 15.70 and 13.04 years respectively. About 91.% and 75.% of blind and deaf students respectively were born with their handicap. Depression was more prevalent among the blind (14 than among the deaf (6.5 students. Difficulty in mobility was the main problem among blind students (44 while difficulty in communication with people was the main problem among the deaf (52. Reading was the commonest hobby for the blind (51, while playing football was the commonest among the deaf (62. This information should be considered when planning for rehabilitative services for these groups.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Abolfotouh1993,
      author = {M. A. Abolfotouh and A. Telmesani},
      title = {A study of some psycho-social characteristics of blind and deaf male students in Abha City, Asir region, Saudi Arabia.},
      journal = {Public Health},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {107},
      number = {4},
      pages = {261--269}
    }
    
    Abou-Elsaad, T., Baz, H. & El-Banna, M. Developing an articulation test for Arabic-speaking school-age children. 2009 Folia Phoniatr Logop
    Vol. 61(5), pp. 275-282 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop an Arabic articulation test using familiar and visually transparent words in order to be used as a criterion for comparing phonemes of both normal and phonologically disordered Arabic-speaking children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A picture-naming test was designed for the Mansoura Arabic Articulation Test (MAAT) to elicit spontaneous single-word responses representing all possible consonant positions and vowels of Colloquial Egyptian Arabic. Three expert phoniatricians were asked to review MAAT and complete a questionnaire. The MAAT was presented to 100 normal Arabic-speaking Egyptian children randomly selected from the first- and second-grade kindergarten. They were 52 males and 48 females with ages ranging between 42 and 70 months. Children's responses were converted to a percent correct score for sound utterances and picture identification. RESULTS: Statistically non-significant differences were found among experts' opinions reflecting approval for the MAAT items. A statistically highly significant adequate correlation was found between correct word utterances and picture identification which proved the content validity of MAAT. Test-retest reliability proved the consistency of MAAT. CONCLUSION: MAAT is a valid and reliable test that can be applied to collect the phonetic inventory of Arabic-speaking young children.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Abou-Elsaad2009,
      author = {Tamer Abou-Elsaad and Hemmat Baz and Manal El-Banna},
      title = {Developing an articulation test for Arabic-speaking school-age children.},
      journal = {Folia Phoniatr Logop},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {61},
      number = {5},
      pages = {275--282},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000235650},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000235650}
    }
    
    Abouzeid, W.M., Mokhtar, S.A., Mahdy, N.H. & Kwsky, F.S.E. Quality of life of patients with oral and pharyngeal malignancies. 2009 J Egypt Public Health Assoc
    Vol. 84(3-4), pp. 299-329 
    article  
    Abstract: The target population was cases of oral and pharyngeal cancer in Alexandria and El Behira regions. Data were collected through all accessible archives. Data about quality of life (QoL) were collected through interviewing 171 subjects using the Arabic version of "Functional Living Interview Questionnaire for Cancer" (FLIC). It consists of 22 items translated into Arabic language, and was checked for reliability and validity. Only 12 questions were found suitable for use after testing the questionnaire. Responses are coded on a 7 point Likert scale. Questions included pain, psychic stress, and ability to work and do household activities. The initial scale's structure identified a two-factor model: functional including 6 questions, and psychological including 6 questions. The grand total score was calculated as the sum of responses to the 12 items. The total score of the scale range is 12 to 84 points. The median was used for demarcation between what was considered as "good" response, and what was considered as "poor" QoL. Quality of life displayed higher "good" frequencies among those 30-60 years old. Males, and rural cases expressed better QoL than females and urban. Married were of better QoL compared to single patients. The educated showed higher frequency of "good" compared to un-educated. Employees and professionals reported better QoL. Stage categories showed significant indirect correlation with QoL scores. The best QoL according to total or psychological mean scores was recorded for pharyngeal-otherwise (pharyngeal of a mysterious origin) or lip cases, while the worst were for the floor of the mouth. Lip cases showed the best QoL scores through the functional domain. According to treatment; surgery showed the best QoL, while chemotherapy showed the worst. When it came to chronic irradiation complications; those without complications expressed the best QoL. All those treatment complications showed significant associations with dichotomous leveling of QoL. Logistic regression showed that stage, late surgical complications, and response to treatment were the most important predictors of QoL.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Abouzeid2009,
      author = {Waguih M Abouzeid and Samiha A Mokhtar and Nehad H Mahdy and Fayek S El Kwsky},
      title = {Quality of life of patients with oral and pharyngeal malignancies.},
      journal = {J Egypt Public Health Assoc},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {84},
      number = {3-4},
      pages = {299--329}
    }
    
    Abu Rabia, S. Verbal and working-memory skills of bilingual Hebrew-English speaking children 1997 International Journal of Psycholinguistics  article  
    Abstract: Investigated whether similar difficulties appear in learning languages with different orthographic systems, and studied the relationship between reading, syntactic, orthographic and working-memory skills in 60 bilingual Hebrew-English speaking 10th graders in Israel. Ss were tested individually on working memory, oral cloze, visual condition, phonological condition, orthographic, word attack, word identification, and arithmetic tests. All participants were tested on the above skills in both Hebrew and English, except for the arithmetic test, which was presented in 1 version as numerals are the same in both languages. The results generally indicated a positive significant correlation between Hebrew and English skills, except for the phonological and the orthographic tasks. The conclusion of this study is that transfer of linguistic skill is likely to happen, but there are some language-dependent characteristics to be considered.
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Abu Rabia, Salim},
      title = {Verbal and working-memory skills of bilingual Hebrew-English speaking children},
      journal = {International Journal of Psycholinguistics},
      year = {1997}
    }
    
    Abu-Akel, A. A study of cohesive patterns and dynamic choices utilized by two schizophrenic patients in dialog, pre- and post-medication. 1997 Lang Speech
    Vol. 40 ( Pt 4), pp. 331-351 
    article  
    Abstract: The present study evaluated the communicative deficits in the linguistic performance of two Arabic speaking schizophrenics having a first episode of disorganized schizophrenia. Two facets of the conversational performance of each patient prior to and following antipsychotic medication treatment were considered and compared to normals' performance of these two measures. These were the dynamic development of the interviews and selected cohesive devices. A description of the patients' aberrant conversational behavior and deficits in terms of systemic grammar is offered for profiling schizophrenics' discourse and measuring the effects of stimulant treatment. The neuroleptic clozapine led to both positive and negative changes in the socially appropriate use of language in the schizophrenics' conversations.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Abu-Akel1997,
      author = {A. Abu-Akel},
      title = {A study of cohesive patterns and dynamic choices utilized by two schizophrenic patients in dialog, pre- and post-medication.},
      journal = {Lang Speech},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {40 ( Pt 4)},
      pages = {331--351}
    }
    
    Abu-Rabia & Salim The Role of Morphology and Short Vowelization in Reading Arabic among Normal and Dyslexic Readers in Grades 3, 6, 9, and 12 2007 Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
    Vol. 36(2), pp. 89-106 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{AbuRabia2007Role,
      author = {Abu-Rabia and Salim},
      title = {The Role of Morphology and Short Vowelization in Reading Arabic among Normal and Dyslexic Readers in Grades 3, 6, 9, and 12},
      journal = {Journal of Psycholinguistic Research},
      publisher = {Springer},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {36},
      number = {2},
      pages = {89--106},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10936-006-9035-6},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10936-006-9035-6}
    }
    
    Abu-Rabia, Salim, Taha & Haitham Phonological Errors Predominate in Arabic Spelling Across Grades 19 2006 Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
    Vol. 35(2), pp. 167-188 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{AbuRabia2006Phonological,
      author = {Abu-Rabia and Salim and Taha and Haitham},
      title = {Phonological Errors Predominate in Arabic Spelling Across Grades 19},
      journal = {Journal of Psycholinguistic Research},
      publisher = {Springer},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {35},
      number = {2},
      pages = {167--188},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10936-005-9010-7},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10936-005-9010-7}
    }
    
    Abu-Rabia, S. The role of morphology and short vowelization in reading Arabic among normal and dyslexic readers in grades 3, 6, 9, and 12. 2007 J Psycholinguist Res
    Vol. 36(2), pp. 89-106 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: This study was an investigation of several Arabic reading measures among dyslexics and normal Arabic readers across different ages (grades 3, 6, 9, and 12): the role of morphology, short vowelization (phonological and syntactic skills), spelling, reading isolated words, and reading comprehension. The results of the one-way ANOVAs indicated clear differences between the dyslexic readers and the normal readers on all reading measures. However, the stepwise regression analysis revealed consistent orthographic results: morphology (identification and/or production) and spelling were generally the most powerful predictors of both reading accuracy and reading comprehension among dyslexic and normal readers across these different age groups. The results are discussed in terms of the characteristics of the Arabic orthography and the heavy reliance of readers at all levels and ages on orthographic factors in reading.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Abu-Rabia2007,
      author = {Salim Abu-Rabia},
      title = {The role of morphology and short vowelization in reading Arabic among normal and dyslexic readers in grades 3, 6, 9, and 12.},
      journal = {J Psycholinguist Res},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {36},
      number = {2},
      pages = {89--106},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10936-006-9035-6},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10936-006-9035-6}
    }
    
    Abu-Rabia, S. The effect of Arabic vowels on the reading comprehension of second- and sixth-grade native Arab children. 1999 J Psycholinguist Res
    Vol. 28(1), pp. 93-101 
    article  
    Abstract: This study investigated the effect of Arabic vowels on the reading comprehension of native Arabic speakers. This issue has not been addressed yet. Two groups of native Arabic speakers were randomly sampled, one from two elementary schools in the Haifa area, and the other from two elementary schools in Nazareth. Both groups in both experiments read Arabic texts in two reading conditions, vowelized and unvowelized; the older group (n = 74) answered 10 multiple-choice comprehension questions about each story, and the younger group (n = 71) answered seven multiple-choice comprehension questions. The results revealed that vowels were a significant facilitator of reading comprehension in both age groups. Considering these results, reading in Arabic orthography is not an autonomous word recognition process. An alternative approach is suggested for reading Arabic.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Abu-Rabia1999,
      author = {S. Abu-Rabia},
      title = {The effect of Arabic vowels on the reading comprehension of second- and sixth-grade native Arab children.},
      journal = {J Psycholinguist Res},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {28},
      number = {1},
      pages = {93--101}
    }
    
    Abu-Rabia, S. Reading in Arabic orthography: the effect of vowels and context on reading accuracy of poor and skilled native Arabic readers in reading paragraphs, sentences, and isolated words. 1997 J Psycholinguist Res
    Vol. 26(4), pp. 465-482 
    article  
    Abstract: This study investigated the effect of vowels and context on the reading accuracy of poor and skilled native Arabic readers in reading paragraphs, sentences, and words. Central to this study is the belief that reading theory today should consider additional variables, especially when explaining the reading process in Arabic orthography among poor and normal/skilled readers. This orthography has not been studied. Reading theory today is the sum of conclusions from studies conducted in Latin orthography. The subjects were 77 native Arabic speakers, 34 of them poor readers and 44 normal/skilled readers. The subjects had to read in Arabic 15 paragraphs, 60 sentences, and 210 words. There were three reading conditions: fully vowelized, partially vowelized, and unvowelized texts. The results showed that vowels and contexts were important variables to facilitate word recognition in poor and normal/skilled readers in Arabic orthography.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Abu-Rabia1997,
      author = {S. Abu-Rabia},
      title = {Reading in Arabic orthography: the effect of vowels and context on reading accuracy of poor and skilled native Arabic readers in reading paragraphs, sentences, and isolated words.},
      journal = {J Psycholinguist Res},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {26},
      number = {4},
      pages = {465--482}
    }
    
    Abu-Rabia, S. & Siegel, L.S. Reading, syntactic, orthographic, and working memory skills of bilingual Arabic-English speaking Canadian children. 2002 J Psycholinguist Res
    Vol. 31(6), pp. 661-678 
    article  
    Abstract: This study assessed the reading, language, and memory skills of 56 bilingual Arab-Canadian children age's 9-14. English was their main instructional language, and Arabic was the language spoken at home. All children attended a Heritage Language Program in Toronto where they were taught to read and write Arabic. The children were administered word and pseudo-word reading, language, and working memory tests in English and Arabic. The majority of the children showed at least adequate proficiency in both languages. There was a significant relationship between the acquisition of word and pseudo-word reading working memory, and syntactic awareness skills in the two languages. The poor readers in Arabic had lower scores on all linguistic tasks, except the visual task. There were no significant differences between bilingual English Arabic children and monolingual English-speaking children on the reading, language, and memory tasks. However, bilingual English Arabic children who had reading problems in English had higher scores on English pseudo-word reading and spelling tasks than monolingual English-speaking children with reading disabilities, probably because of positive transfer from the regular nature of Arabic orthography. In this case, bilingualism does not appear to have negative consequences for the development of language reading skills in both languages--Arabic and English--despite the different nature of the two orthographies.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Abu-Rabia2002,
      author = {Salim Abu-Rabia and Linda S Siegel},
      title = {Reading, syntactic, orthographic, and working memory skills of bilingual Arabic-English speaking Canadian children.},
      journal = {J Psycholinguist Res},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {31},
      number = {6},
      pages = {661--678}
    }
    
    Abu-Rabia, S. & Taha, H. Phonological errors predominate in Arabic spelling across grades 1-9. 2006 J Psycholinguist Res
    Vol. 35(2), pp. 167-188 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Most of the spelling error analysis has been conducted in Latin orthographies and rarely conducted in other orthographies like Arabic. Two hundred and eighty-eight students in grades 1-9 participated in the study. They were presented nine lists of words to test their spelling skills. Their spelling errors were analyzed by error categories. The most frequent errors were phonological. The results did not indicate any significant differences in the percentages of phonological errors across grades one to nine.Thus, phonology probably presents the greatest challenge to students developing spelling skills in Arabic.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Abu-Rabia2006,
      author = {Salim Abu-Rabia and Haitham Taha},
      title = {Phonological errors predominate in Arabic spelling across grades 1-9.},
      journal = {J Psycholinguist Res},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {35},
      number = {2},
      pages = {167--188},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10936-005-9010-7},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10936-005-9010-7}
    }
    
    Aburuz, S., Bulatova, N., Twalbeh, M. & Gazawi, M. The validity and reliability of the Arabic version of the EQ-5D: a study from Jordan. 2009 Ann Saudi Med
    Vol. 29(4), pp. 304-308 
    article  
    Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: EQ-5D is a generic measure that permits comparisons in quality of life across disease states, and which may provide useful data for health policy and resource allocation decision-making. There are no published reports on the acceptability and psychometric properties of the EQ-5D in the Arabic language. We therefore investigated the validity and reliability of the Arabic translation of the EQ-5D in Jordan. METHODS: The study was conducted on a convenience sample consisting of consecutive adult Arabic-speaking outpatients or visitors attending a university teaching hospital. Subjects were interviewed twice using a standardized questionnaire containing the EQ-5D, Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36). To assess the validity of the Arabic version of the EQ-5D, ten hypotheses relating responses to EQ-5D dimensions or the visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS) to SF-36 scores or other variables were examined and test-retest reliability was assessed. RESULTS: The study included 186 subjects who had a mean age of 45.3 years and included 87 (47 females. The major problem reported in more than 102 (55 of the subjects was anxiety/depression. All of the ten apriori hypothesis relating EQ-5D responses to external variables were fulfilled. Cohenǽs k for test-retest reliability (n=52) ranged from 0.48 to 1.0. CONCLUSION: The Arabic translation of EQ-5D appears to be valid and reliable in measuring quality of life in Jordanian people.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Aburuz2009,
      author = {Salah Aburuz and Naela Bulatova and Mohammed Twalbeh and Moatasem Gazawi},
      title = {The validity and reliability of the Arabic version of the EQ-5D: a study from Jordan.},
      journal = {Ann Saudi Med},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {29},
      number = {4},
      pages = {304--308}
    }
    
    Achrati & Ahmed Arabic, Qur'anic Speech and Postmodern Language. What the Qur'an Simply Says 2008 Arabica
    Vol. 55(2), pp. 161-203 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Achrati2008Arabic,
      author = {Achrati and Ahmed},
      title = {Arabic, Qur'anic Speech and Postmodern Language. What the Qur'an Simply Says},
      journal = {Arabica},
      publisher = {BRILL},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {55},
      number = {2},
      pages = {161--203},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/157005808X310624},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/157005808X310624}
    }
    
    Adamson, M.M. & Hellige, J.B. Hemispheric differences for identification of words and nonwords in Urdu-English bilinguals. 2006 Neuropsychology
    Vol. 20(2), pp. 232-248 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Hemispheric asymmetry was examined for Urdu-English bilinguals identifying printed Urdu words and nonwords, separated Urdu letter strings, digits, and English nonwords. In all cases, fewer errors occurred when stimuli were presented to the right visual field/left hemisphere (RVF/LH) than to the left visual field/right hemisphere (LVF/RH). Qualitative error patterns suggested that separated Urdu letter strings were processed more serially than Urdu letter strings joined to form words or pronounceable nonwords and more serially on RVF/LH than on LVF/RH trials. This qualitative laterality effect is similar to that found for Hebrew and Arabic but opposite that found for English and suggests that the qualitative manner of processing printed verbal material is influenced by language-specific factors such as scanning direction, orthographic-to-phonological mapping rules, and morphology.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Adamson2006,
      author = {Maheen Mausoof Adamson and Joseph B Hellige},
      title = {Hemispheric differences for identification of words and nonwords in Urdu-English bilinguals.},
      journal = {Neuropsychology},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {20},
      number = {2},
      pages = {232--248},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0894-4105.20.2.232},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0894-4105.20.2.232}
    }
    
    Adiv, E. Towards an integrated model of second language learning: Some evidence from French and Hebrew 1985 Progression in Second Language Acquisition  incollection  
    BibTeX:
    @incollection{,
      author = {Adiv, Ellen},
      title = {Towards an integrated model of second language learning: Some evidence from French and Hebrew},
      booktitle = {Progression in Second Language Acquisition},
      publisher = {Bahri Publications},
      year = {1985}
    }
    
    Adler, M. & Elhadad, M. An Unsupervised Morpheme-Based HMM for Hebrew Morphological Disambiguation 2006 Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Computational Linguistics and 44th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, pp. 665-672  inproceedings URL 
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{adler-elhadad:2006:COLACL,
      author = {Adler, Meni and Elhadad, Michael},
      title = {An Unsupervised Morpheme-Based HMM for Hebrew Morphological Disambiguation},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Computational Linguistics and 44th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics},
      publisher = {Association for Computational Linguistics},
      year = {2006},
      pages = {665--672},
      url = {http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/P/P06/P06-1084}
    }
    
    Adler, M. & Elhadad, M. An Unsupervised Morpheme-Based HMM for Hebrew Morphological Disambiguation 2006 Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Computational Linguistics and 44th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, pp. 665-672  inproceedings URL 
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{adler-elhadad:2006:COLACL,
      author = {Adler, Meni and Elhadad, Michael},
      title = {An Unsupervised Morpheme-Based HMM for Hebrew Morphological Disambiguation},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Computational Linguistics and 44th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics},
      publisher = {Association for Computational Linguistics},
      year = {2006},
      pages = {665--672},
      url = {http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/P/P06/P06-1084}
    }
    
    Adli, A. Constraint cumulativity and gradience: Wh-scrambling in Persian 2010 Lingua
    Vol. 120(9), pp. 2259 - 2294 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: This paper presents an analysis of wh-scrambling in Persian based on gradient judgment data. The experimental approach allows a more precise and reliable analysis of syntactic phenomena, in order to highlight nuanced differences in markedness. Data on simple, complex, and multiple wh-questions as well as long NP-scrambling is presented that were collected during fieldwork in Tehran, and using a gradient acceptability judgment test. The analysis provides a view on wh-scrambling where focus properties play an important role. The nuanced yet systematic differences within the range of well-formed constructions are captured with the concept of preference constraint. Their effects cumulate (in terms of violations costs). Finally, it is shown that the notion of gradience does not blur the qualitative distinction of grammatical vs. ungrammatical. Only grammatical and marginal, though not ungrammatical constructions are sensitive to preference constraints.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Adli2010,
      author = {Aria Adli},
      title = {Constraint cumulativity and gradience: Wh-scrambling in Persian},
      journal = {Lingua},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {120},
      number = {9},
      pages = {2259 - 2294},
      url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6V6H-4YK2RK7-1/2/e959b0918ce25b067f9500ea0ce4ae90},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2010.01.003}
    }
    
    Aftat, M. The acquisition of negation and Wh-questions in a Moroccan Arabic speaking four-year-old child 1982   phdthesis  
    BibTeX:
    @phdthesis{,
      author = {Aftat, Mokhtar},
      title = {The acquisition of negation and Wh-questions in a Moroccan Arabic speaking four-year-old child},
      year = {1982}
    }
    
    Aissiou, M. & Guerti, M. Genetic supervised classification of Standard Arabic fricative sounds International Journal of Speech Technology  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Abstract  The purpose of this paper is the application of the Genetic Algorithms (GAs) to the supervised classification level, in order to recognize Standard Arabic (SA) fricative consonants of continuous, naturally spoken, speech. We have used GAs because of their advantages in resolving complicated optimization problems where analytic methods fail. For that, we have analyzed a corpus that contains several sentences composed of the thirteen types of fricative consonants in the initial, medium and final positions, recorded by several male Jordanian speakers. Nearly all the world's languages contain at least one fricative sound. The SA language occupies a rather exceptional position in that nearly half of its consonants are fricatives and nearly half of fricative inventory is situated far back in the uvular, pharyngeal and glottal areas. We have used Mel-Frequency Cepstral analysis method to extract vocal tract coefficients from the speech signal. Among a set of classifiers like Bayesian, likelihood and distance classifier, we have used the distance one. It is based on the classification measure criterion. So, we formulate the supervised classification as a function optimization problem and we have used the decision rule Mahalanobis distance as the fitness function for the GA evaluation. We report promising results with a classification recognition accuracy of 82
    BibTeX:
    @article{AissiouGenetic,
      author = {Aissiou, M. and Guerti, M.},
      title = {Genetic supervised classification of Standard Arabic fricative sounds},
      journal = {International Journal of Speech Technology},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10772-009-9061-5},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10772-009-9061-5}
    }
    
    Al Aghbari, Z. & Brook, S. Word stretching for effective segmentation and classification of historical Arabic handwritten documents 2009 Proc. Third Int. Conf. Research Challenges in Information Science RCIS 2009, pp. 217-224  inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{AlAghbari2009,
      author = {Al Aghbari, Z. and Brook, S. },
      title = {Word stretching for effective segmentation and classification of historical Arabic handwritten documents},
      booktitle = {Proc. Third Int. Conf. Research Challenges in Information Science RCIS 2009},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {217--224},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/RCIS.2009.5089285}
    }
    
    Al Amayreh, M.M. d. A normative study of the acquisition of consonant sounds in Arabic 1996   phdthesis  
    BibTeX:
    @phdthesis{,
      author = {Al Amayreh, Mousa Moh d},
      title = {A normative study of the acquisition of consonant sounds in Arabic},
      year = {1996}
    }
    
    Al Dakkak, O. & Zein, A. Towards Arabic Electronic Dictionary 2008 Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. Information and Communication Technologies: From Theory to Applications ICTTA 2008, pp. 1-6  inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{AlDakkak2008,
      author = {Al Dakkak, O. and Zein, A. },
      title = {Towards Arabic Electronic Dictionary},
      booktitle = {Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. Information and Communication Technologies: From Theory to Applications ICTTA 2008},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {1--6},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICTTA.2008.4530327}
    }
    
    Al Hamad, H.A. & Abu Zitar, R. Development of an efficient neural-based segmentation technique for Arabic handwriting recognition 2010 Pattern Recognition  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Off-line Arabic handwriting recognition and segmentation has been a popular field of research for many years. It still remains an open problem. The challenging nature of handwriting recognition and segmentation has attracted the attention of researchers from industry and academic circles. Recognition and segmentation of Arabic handwritten script is a difficult task because the Arabic handwritten characters are naturally both cursive and unconstrained. The analysis of Arabic script is more complicated in comparison with English script. It is believed, good segmentation is one reason for high accuracy character recognition. This paper proposes and investigates four main segmentation techniques. First, a new feature-based Arabic heuristic segmentation AHS technique is proposed for the purpose of partitioning Arabic handwritten words into primitives (over-segmentations) that may then be processed further to provide the best segmentation. Second, a new feature extraction technique (Modified Direction Features ǽÓŃ_T MDF) with modifications in accordant with the characteristics of Arabic scripts is also investigated for the purpose of segmented character classification. Third, a novel neural-based technique for validating prospective segmentation points of Arabic handwriting is proposed and investigated based on direction features. In particular, the vital process of handwriting segmentation is examined in great detail. The classifier chosen for segmentation point validation is a feed-forward neural network trained with the back-propagation algorithm. Many experiments were performed, and their elapsed CPU times and accuracies were reported. Fourth, new fusion equations are proposed and investigation to examine and evaluate a prospective segmentation points by obtaining a fused value from three neural confidence values obtained from right and centre character recognition outputs in addition to the segmentation point validation (SPV) output. Confidence values are assigned to each segmentation point located through feature detection. All techniques components are tested on a local benchmark database. High segmentation accuracy is reported in this research along with comparable results for character recognition and segmentation.
    BibTeX:
    @article{AlHamadZ10,
      author = {Al Hamad, Husam A. and Abu Zitar, Raed},
      title = {Development of an efficient neural-based segmentation technique for Arabic handwriting recognition},
      journal = {Pattern Recognition},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.patcog.2010.03.005},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.patcog.2010.03.005}
    }
    
    Al Kharashi, I.A. & Al Sughaiyer, I.A. Rule merging in a rule-based Arabic stemmer 2002 Proceedings of the 19th international conference on Computational linguistics, pp. 1-7  inproceedings DOI  
    Abstract: Semitic languages require more complicated systems for processing their morphology. Arabic language, for example, exhibits a very complex but very regular morphological structure. Many approaches were proposed to analyze Arabic language at the morphological level. Proposed approaches can be classified into table lookup, linguistic, combinatorial and rule-based techniques.This paper proposes a new approach to enhance a rule-based Arabic stemmer. The enhancement is based on rule merging process to reduce number of rules, increase language coverage and maintain the same level of performance.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{AlKharashi2002,
      author = {Al Kharashi, Ibrahim A. and Al Sughaiyer, Imad A.},
      title = {Rule merging in a rule-based Arabic stemmer},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 19th international conference on Computational linguistics},
      publisher = {Association for Computational Linguistics},
      year = {2002},
      pages = {1--7},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3115/1072228.1072265}
    }
    
    Al-Ageli, H.M. Syllabic and metrical structure in Tripolitanian Arabic : a comparative study in standard and optimality theory 1995 School: Dept. of Language and Linguistics, University of Essex  phdthesis URL 
    BibTeX:
    @phdthesis{Al-Ageli1995,
      author = {Hussein M. Al-Ageli},
      title = {Syllabic and metrical structure in Tripolitanian Arabic : a comparative study in standard and optimality theory},
      school = {Dept. of Language and Linguistics, University of Essex},
      year = {1995},
      url = {http://serlib0.essex.ac.uk/record=b1256598~S5}
    }
    
    Al-Ajlan, A.A., Al-Khalifa, H.S. & Al-Salman, A.-M.S. Towards the development of an automatic readability measurements for arabic language 2008 Proc. Third Int. Conf. Digital Information Management ICDIM 2008, pp. 506-511  inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Al-Ajlan2008,
      author = {Al-Ajlan, A. A. and Al-Khalifa, H. S. and Al-Salman, A.-M. S. },
      title = {Towards the development of an automatic readability measurements for arabic language},
      booktitle = {Proc. Third Int. Conf. Digital Information Management ICDIM 2008},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {506--511},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICDIM.2008.4746711}
    }
    
    Al-Dahri, S.S., Al-Jassar, Y.H., Alotaibi, Y.A., Alsulaiman, M.M. & Abdullah-Al-Mamun, K. A Word-Dependent Automatic Arabic Speaker Identification System 2008 Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Signal Processing and Information Technology ISSPIT 2008, pp. 198-202  inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Al-Dahri2008,
      author = {Al-Dahri, S. S. and Al-Jassar, Y. H. and Alotaibi, Y. A. and Alsulaiman, M. M. and Abdullah-Al-Mamun, K. },
      title = {A Word-Dependent Automatic Arabic Speaker Identification System},
      booktitle = {Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Signal Processing and Information Technology ISSPIT 2008},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {198--202},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ISSPIT.2008.4775669}
    }
    
    Al-Dmour, Ayman, Zitar & Abu, R. Arabic writer identification based on hybrid spectral-statistical measures 2007 Journal of Experimental &38; Theoretical Artificial Intelligence
    Vol. 19(4), pp. 307-332 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{AlDmour2007Arabic,
      author = {Al-Dmour and Ayman and Zitar and Abu, Raed},
      title = {Arabic writer identification based on hybrid spectral-statistical measures},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental &38; Theoretical Artificial Intelligence},
      publisher = {Taylor and Francis Ltd},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {19},
      number = {4},
      pages = {307--332},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09528130701228800},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09528130701228800}
    }
    
    Al-Ghadeer & Moneera Arabic Poetry: Trajectories of Modernity and Tradition 2007 Journal of Arabic Literature
    Vol. 38(2), pp. 227-233 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{AlGhadeer2007Arabic,
      author = {Al-Ghadeer and Moneera},
      title = {Arabic Poetry: Trajectories of Modernity and Tradition},
      journal = {Journal of Arabic Literature},
      publisher = {BRILL},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {38},
      number = {2},
      pages = {227--233},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/157006407783182308},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/157006407783182308}
    }
    
    Al-Hajj Mohamad, R., Likforman-Sulem, L. & Mokbel, C. Combining Slanted-Frame Classifiers for Improved HMM-Based Arabic Handwriting Recognition 2009 #IEEE_J_PAMI#
    Vol. 31(7), pp. 1165-1177 
    article DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Al-HajjMohamad2009,
      author = {Al-Hajj Mohamad, R. and Likforman-Sulem, L. and Mokbel, C. },
      title = {Combining Slanted-Frame Classifiers for Improved HMM-Based Arabic Handwriting Recognition},
      journal = {#IEEE_J_PAMI#},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {31},
      number = {7},
      pages = {1165--1177},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPAMI.2008.136}
    }
    
    Al-Hamad, M. Morphological and syntactic properties in the acquisition of Arabic as a second language : implications for the theory of SLA and for language teaching 2003 School: Dept. of Language and Linguistics, University of Essex  phdthesis URL 
    BibTeX:
    @phdthesis{Al-Hamad2003,
      author = {M.M Al-Hamad},
      title = {Morphological and syntactic properties in the acquisition of Arabic as a second language : implications for the theory of SLA and for language teaching},
      school = {Dept. of Language and Linguistics, University of Essex},
      year = {2003},
      url = {http://serlib0.essex.ac.uk/record=b1548314~S5}
    }
    
    Al-Hamouri, F., Maestǧ, F., RÇðo, D.D., FernÇ­ndez, S., Campo, P., Capilla, A., GarcÇða, E., GonzÇ­lez-MarquǸs, J. & Ortiz, T. Brain dynamics of Arabic reading: a magnetoencephalographic study. 2005 Neuroreport
    Vol. 16(16), pp. 1861-1864 
    article  
    Abstract: Arabic writing differs greatly from western scripts. To evaluate the influence of written Arabic on the pattern of language-related brain activation, a group of native Arab speakers and a control group of native Spanish speakers were scanned with magnetoencephalography during a reading task. In both groups, brain activity was strongly left lateralized during the time window between 200 and 500 ms after stimulus onset. During late latencies (beyond 500 ms), however, the right and the left hemispheres reached a similar activation level in the Arabic but not in the Spanish group. This suggests a time-dependent role of both hemispheres during Arabic language reading.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Al-Hamouri2005,
      author = {Firas Al-Hamouri and Fernando Maestǧ and David Del RÇðo and Santiago FernÇ­ndez and Pablo Campo and Almudena Capilla and Emilio GarcÇða and Javier GonzÇ­lez-MarquǸs and TomÇ­s Ortiz},
      title = {Brain dynamics of Arabic reading: a magnetoencephalographic study.},
      journal = {Neuroreport},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {16},
      number = {16},
      pages = {1861--1864}
    }
    
    Al-Jabr & Abdul-Fattah Effect of Syntactic Complexity on Translating from/into English/Arabic 2006 Babel
    Vol. 52(3), pp. 203-221 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{AlJabr2006Effect,
      author = {Al-Jabr and Abdul-Fattah},
      title = {Effect of Syntactic Complexity on Translating from/into English/Arabic},
      journal = {Babel},
      publisher = {John Benjamins Publishing Company},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {52},
      number = {3},
      pages = {203--221},
      url = {http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/jbp/bab/2006/00000052/00000003/art00001}
    }
    
    Al-Khafaji & Rasoul In search of translational norms: The case of shifts in lexical repetition in Arabic? 2006 Babel
    Vol. 52(1), pp. 39-65 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{AlKhafaji2006In,
      author = {Al-Khafaji and Rasoul},
      title = {In search of translational norms: The case of shifts in lexical repetition in Arabic?},
      journal = {Babel},
      publisher = {John Benjamins Publishing Company},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {52},
      number = {1},
      pages = {39--65},
      url = {http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/jbp/bab/2006/00000052/00000001/art00003}
    }
    
    Al-Khaledi, M., Lincoln, M., McCabe, P., Packman, A. & Alshatti, T. The attitudes, knowledge and beliefs of Arab parents in Kuwait about stuttering. 2009 J Fluency Disord
    Vol. 34(1), pp. 44-59 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: An Arabic version of the Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes Inventory [POSHA-E; St Louis, K. O. (2005), a global instrument to measure public attitudes about stuttering. (The ASHA Leader, 22, 2-13)] was administered to 424 Arab parents of preschool and school age children in 18 government schools across all six governorates in Kuwait. The survey questions pertained to and investigated attitudes, knowledge and beliefs towards stuttering as well as comparative attitudes toward several other conditions. The aim was to identify whether potential barriers existed that might hinder the establishment and conduct of treatment programs for stuttering within Kuwait. These potential barriers might be negative stereotypes, misconceptions about stuttering, cultural beliefs as well as lack of awareness of the disorder within Kuwaiti society. The instrument successfully sampled a variety of beliefs, reactions and emotions that identified cultural beliefs, societal ignorance and confusion about the disorder. It was found that although stuttering appears to be a disorder that most people in Kuwait are aware of and familiar with, their level of knowledge about stuttering in general and about some specific aspects of the disorder was limited. This indicates a need to disseminate scientific information about stuttering in Kuwait and possibly other Arabic speaking countries. EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES: Readers will be able: (1) to evaluate the status of speech-language pathology in Kuwait and the Middle East and compare it to that in other countries, such as Australia and the United States; (2) to list similarities in the stereotypes and attitudes towards stuttering cross-culturally. Readers will also be able to: (3) discuss the differences in knowledge and attitudes according to age, gender and educational level in Kuwait; (4) discuss public awareness and knowledge of stuttering among Arabs in Kuwait specifically.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Al-Khaledi2009,
      author = {Maram Al-Khaledi and Michelle Lincoln and Patricia McCabe and Ann Packman and Tariq Alshatti},
      title = {The attitudes, knowledge and beliefs of Arab parents in Kuwait about stuttering.},
      journal = {J Fluency Disord},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {34},
      number = {1},
      pages = {44--59},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfludis.2009.02.003},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfludis.2009.02.003}
    }
    
    Al-Khalifa, H.S. Building an Arabic learning object repository with an ad hoc recommendation engine 2008 iiWAS '08: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Information Integration and Web-based Applications & Services, pp. 390-394  inproceedings DOI URL 
    Abstract: There are many Arabic educational resources on the web scattered in personal websites and forums, and created by members of the community. Searching for such resources using regular search engines is not an easy task. In this paper we describe "Marifah", an Arabic Learning Object Repository with recommendation capabilities, created for hosting Arabic learning objects and serving the needs of the Arabic educational community. The repository has integrated advanced features that cannot be fulfilled using well-know search engines.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{AlKhalifa2008Building,
      author = {Al-Khalifa, Hend S.},
      title = {Building an Arabic learning object repository with an ad hoc recommendation engine},
      booktitle = {iiWAS '08: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Information Integration and Web-based Applications & Services},
      publisher = {ACM},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {390--394},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1497308.1497378},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1497308.1497378}
    }
    
    Al-Khawalda, M.I. Tense, aspect, and time reference with reference to Arabic 1997 School: Dept. of Language and Linguistics, University of Essex  phdthesis URL 
    BibTeX:
    @phdthesis{Al-Khawalda1997,
      author = {Mohammad Irshaid Al-Khawalda},
      title = {Tense, aspect, and time reference with reference to Arabic},
      school = {Dept. of Language and Linguistics, University of Essex},
      year = {1997},
      url = {http://serlib0.essex.ac.uk/record=b1324748~S5}
    }
    
    Al-Kufaishi, A. The signalling potential of Arabic conjunctive waHow it could be handled in translation 2008 Babel
    Vol. 54(3), pp. 234-250 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{AlKufaishi2008Signalling,
      author = {Al-Kufaishi, Adil},
      title = {The signalling potential of Arabic conjunctive waHow it could be handled in translation},
      journal = {Babel},
      publisher = {John Benjamins Publishing Company},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {54},
      number = {3},
      pages = {234--250},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/babel.54.3.02kuf},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/babel.54.3.02kuf}
    }
    
    Al-Ma'adeed, S., Al-Kurbi, A.-A., Al-Muslih, A., Al-Qahtani, R. & Al Kubisi, H. Writer identification of Arabic handwriting documents using grapheme features 2008 Proc. IEEE/ACS Int. Conf. Computer Systems and Applications AICCSA 2008, pp. 923-924  inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Al-Ma'adeed2008a,
      author = {Al-Ma'adeed, S. and Al-Kurbi, A.-A. and Al-Muslih, A. and Al-Qahtani, R. and Al Kubisi, H. },
      title = {Writer identification of Arabic handwriting documents using grapheme features},
      booktitle = {Proc. IEEE/ACS Int. Conf. Computer Systems and Applications AICCSA 2008},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {923--924},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/AICCSA.2008.4493646}
    }
    
    Al-Ma'adeed, S., Mohammed, E. & Al Kassis, D. Writer identification using edge-based directional probability distribution features for arabic words 2008 Proc. IEEE/ACS Int. Conf. Computer Systems and Applications AICCSA 2008, pp. 582-590  inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Al-Ma'adeed2008,
      author = {Al-Ma'adeed, S. and Mohammed, E. and Al Kassis, D. },
      title = {Writer identification using edge-based directional probability distribution features for arabic words},
      booktitle = {Proc. IEEE/ACS Int. Conf. Computer Systems and Applications AICCSA 2008},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {582--590},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/AICCSA.2008.4493590}
    }
    
    Al-Musawi, M.J. Scheherazade's Nonverbal Narratives 2005 Journal of Arabic Literature
    Vol. 36(3), pp. 338-362 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{AlMusawi2005Scheherazades,
      author = {Al-Musawi, Muhsin J.},
      title = {Scheherazade's Nonverbal Narratives},
      journal = {Journal of Arabic Literature},
      publisher = {Brill Academic Publishers},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {36},
      number = {3},
      pages = {338--362},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/157006405774909862},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/157006405774909862}
    }
    
    Al-Najem, S.R.J. An exploration of computational Arabic morphology 1998 School: Dept of Language and Linguistics, University of Essex  phdthesis URL 
    BibTeX:
    @phdthesis{Al-Najem1998,
      author = {Salah R. J. Al-Najem},
      title = {An exploration of computational Arabic morphology},
      school = {Dept of Language and Linguistics, University of Essex},
      year = {1998},
      url = {http://serlib0.essex.ac.uk/record=b1382866~S5}
    }
    
    Al-Onaizan, Y. & Knight, K. Machine Transliteration of Names in Arabic Text 2002 ACL Workshop on Computational Approaches to Semitic Languages  misc URL 
    Abstract: this paper, we describe Arabic-to-English name transliteration system using probabilistic finite state machines
    BibTeX:
    @misc{AlOnaizan2002Machine,
      author = {Al-Onaizan, Yaser and Knight, Kevin},
      title = {Machine Transliteration of Names in Arabic Text},
      booktitle = {ACL Workshop on Computational Approaches to Semitic Languages},
      year = {2002},
      url = {http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.18.2871}
    }
    
    Al-Radaideh, Q.A. & Masri, K.H. Improving Mobile Multi-Tap Text Entry for Arabic Language 2010 Computer Standards & Interfaces  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Classical mobile phone keypads which consist of 12 buttons are commonly used to write short text messages through two common methods, the multi-tap and the predictive text entry. For the Arabic language mobile keypads, all Arabic letters are distributed over the 8 buttons of the keypad where three or more letters share the same button. In this paper, a new text entry environment is proposed. The environment includes two proposed improved approaches for Arabic language messages to make the multi-tap text entry method faster and easier. The first approach is based on the idea of remapping the distribution of Arabic letters on the keypad according to the frequency of letters. In the second approach, a bi-Gram based method is used to predict the next letter to be typed automatically. The proposed approaches are evaluated using a corpus of 1514 real Arabic text messages. Several experiments were conducted to evaluate the proposed text entry environment. The results of the experiments have showed that using the proposed remapped keypad is faster and consumes less effort in comparison to the classical keypad.
    BibTeX:
    @article{AlRadaideh2010Improving,
      author = {Al-Radaideh, Qasem A. and Masri, Kamal H.},
      title = {Improving Mobile Multi-Tap Text Entry for Arabic Language},
      journal = {Computer Standards & Interfaces},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.csi.2010.04.003},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.csi.2010.04.003}
    }
    
    Al-Rousan, M., Assaleh, K. & Tala'a, A. Video-based signer-independent Arabic sign language recognition using hidden Markov models 2009 Applied Soft Computing
    Vol. 9(3), pp. 990-999 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Sign language in Arab World has been recently recognized and documented. There have been no serious attempts to develop a recognition system that can be used as a communication means between hearing-impaired and other people. This paper introduces the first automatic Arabic sign language (ArSL) recognition system based on hidden Markov models (HMMs). A large set of samples has been used to recognize 30 isolated words from the Standard Arabic sign language. The system operates in different modes including offline, online, signer-dependent, and signer-independent modes. Experimental results on using real ArSL data collected from deaf people demonstrate that the proposed system has high recognition rate for all modes. For signer-dependent case, the system obtains a word recognition rate of 98.13 96.74 and 93.8 on the training data in offline mode, on the test data in offline mode, and on the test data in online mode respectively. On the other hand, for signer-independent case the system obtains a word recognition rate of 94.2% and 90.6% for offline and online modes respectively. The system does not rely on the use of data gloves or other means as input devices, and it allows the deaf signers to perform gestures freely and naturally.
    BibTeX:
    @article{AlRousan2009Videobased,
      author = {Al-Rousan, M. and Assaleh, K. and Tala'a, A.},
      title = {Video-based signer-independent Arabic sign language recognition using hidden Markov models},
      journal = {Applied Soft Computing},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {9},
      number = {3},
      pages = {990--999},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asoc.2009.01.002},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asoc.2009.01.002}
    }
    
    Al-Rubaii, A. & Al-Ani, A. The Translation of English Dialectal Dramatic Dialogue into Arabic Across Languages and Cultures
    Vol. 5(2), pp. 233+ 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{AlRubaiiTranslation,
      author = {Al-Rubaii, Alya and Al-Ani, Aseel},
      title = {The Translation of English Dialectal Dramatic Dialogue into Arabic},
      journal = {Across Languages and Cultures},
      publisher = {Akademiai Kiado},
      volume = {5},
      number = {2},
      pages = {233+},
      url = {http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/akiado/alc/2004/00000005/00000002/art00005}
    }
    
    Al-Salem, M. Arabic reading types. 1986 Br J Ophthalmol
    Vol. 70(4), pp. 314-316 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Al-Salem1986,
      author = {M. Al-Salem},
      title = {Arabic reading types.},
      journal = {Br J Ophthalmol},
      year = {1986},
      volume = {70},
      number = {4},
      pages = {314--316}
    }
    
    Al-Salman, A.S. An Arabic programming environment 1996 SIGICE Bull.
    Vol. 22(2), pp. 19-25 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: This work presents the interface design of an Arabic Programming Environment (APE). The environment is an attempt to Arabize the user interface for programming languages under MS-Windows. It consists of two interrelated parts. The first part is the Arabic environment that enables users to create and edit programs in Arabic. The second part is the Arabic compiler. This paper describes only the first part of this project. It also states the main characteristics of the Arabic language that affects this work.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Al-Salman1996,
      author = {Al-Salman, AbdulMalik S.},
      title = {An Arabic programming environment},
      journal = {SIGICE Bull.},
      publisher = {ACM},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {22},
      number = {2},
      pages = {19--25},
      doi = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/242971.242981}
    }
    
    Al-Salman, A.S. An Arabic programming environment 1996 SAC '96: Proceedings of the 1996 ACM symposium on Applied Computing, pp. 480-486  inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Al-Salman1996a,
      author = {Al-Salman, AbdulMalik S.},
      title = {An Arabic programming environment},
      booktitle = {SAC '96: Proceedings of the 1996 ACM symposium on Applied Computing},
      publisher = {ACM},
      year = {1996},
      pages = {480--486},
      doi = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/331119.331428}
    }
    
    Al-Seghayar, M.S.M. The syntax of exclamatives : a study of Arabic 1997 School: Dept. of Language and Linguistics, University of Essex  phdthesis URL 
    BibTeX:
    @phdthesis{Al-Seghayar1997,
      author = {Mohamed Saad M. Al-Seghayar},
      title = {The syntax of exclamatives : a study of Arabic},
      school = {Dept. of Language and Linguistics, University of Essex},
      year = {1997},
      url = {http://serlib0.essex.ac.uk/record=b1317536~S5}
    }
    
    Al-Serhan, H. & Ayesh, A. A Triliteral Word Roots Extraction Using Neural Network For Arabic 2006 Proc. Int Computer Engineering and Systems Conf, pp. 436-440  inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Al-Serhan2006,
      author = {Al-Serhan, H. and Ayesh, A. },
      title = {A Triliteral Word Roots Extraction Using Neural Network For Arabic},
      booktitle = {Proc. Int Computer Engineering and Systems Conf},
      year = {2006},
      pages = {436--440},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICCES.2006.320487}
    }
    
    Al-Shammari, E. & Lin, J. A novel Arabic lemmatization algorithm 2008 AND '08: Proceedings of the second workshop on Analytics for noisy unstructured text data, pp. 113-118  inproceedings DOI  
    Abstract: Tokenization is a fundamental step in processing textual data preceding the tasks of information retrieval, text mining, and natural language processing. Tokenization is a language-dependent approach, including normalization, stop words removal, lemmatization and stemming. Both stemming and lemmatization share a common goal of reducing a word to its base. However, lemmatization is more robust than stemming as it often involves usage of vocabulary and morphological analysis, as opposed to simply removing the suffix of the word. In this work, we introduce a novel lemmatization algorithm for the Arabic Language. The new lemmatizer proposed here is a part of a comprehensive Arabic tokenization system, with a stop words list exceeding 2200 Arabic words. Currently, there are two Arabic leading stemmers: the root-based stemmer and the light stemmer. We hypothesize that lemmatization would be more effective than stemming in mining Arabic text. We investigate the impact of our new lemmatizer on unsupervised data mining techniques in comparison to the leading Arabic stemmers. We conclude that lemmatization is a better word normalization method than stemming for Arabic text.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Al-Shammari2008a,
      author = {Al-Shammari, Eiman and Lin, Jessica},
      title = {A novel Arabic lemmatization algorithm},
      booktitle = {AND '08: Proceedings of the second workshop on Analytics for noisy unstructured text data},
      publisher = {ACM},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {113--118},
      doi = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1390749.1390767}
    }
    
    Al-Shammari, E.T. A Novel Algorithm for Normalizing Noisy Arabic Text 2009
    Vol. 4Proc. WRI World Congress Computer Science and Information Engineering, pp. 477-482 
    inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Al-Shammari2009,
      author = {Al-Shammari, E. T. },
      title = {A Novel Algorithm for Normalizing Noisy Arabic Text},
      booktitle = {Proc. WRI World Congress Computer Science and Information Engineering},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {4},
      pages = {477--482},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/CSIE.2009.952}
    }
    
    Al-Shammari, E.T. & Lin, J. Towards an error-free Arabic stemming 2008 iNEWS '08: Proceeding of the 2nd ACM workshop on Improving non english web searching, pp. 9-16  inproceedings DOI  
    Abstract: Stemming is a computational process for reducing words to their roots (or stems). It can be classified as a recall-enhancing or precision-enhancing component. Existing Arabic stemmers suffer from high stemming error-rates. Arabic stemmers blindly stem all the words and perform poorly especially with compound words, nouns and foreign Arabized words. The Educated Text Stemmer (ETS) is presented in this paper. ETS is a dictionary free, simple, and highly effective Arabic stemming algorithm that can reduce stemming errors in addition to decreasing computational time and data storage. The novelty of the work arises from the use of neglected Arabic stop-words. These stop-words can be highly important and can provide a significant improvement to processing Arabic documents. The ETS stemmer is evaluated by comparison with output from human generated stemming and the stemming weight technique.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Al-Shammari2008,
      author = {Al-Shammari, Eiman Tamah and Lin, Jessica},
      title = {Towards an error-free Arabic stemming},
      booktitle = {iNEWS '08: Proceeding of the 2nd ACM workshop on Improving non english web searching},
      publisher = {ACM},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {9--16},
      doi = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1460027.1460030}
    }
    
    AL-Shatnawi, A. & Omar, K. A comparative study between methods of Arabic baseline detection 2009
    Vol. 01Proc. Int. Conf. Electrical Engineering and Informatics ICEEI '09, pp. 73-77 
    inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{AL-Shatnawi2009,
      author = {AL-Shatnawi, A. and Omar, K. },
      title = {A comparative study between methods of Arabic baseline detection},
      booktitle = {Proc. Int. Conf. Electrical Engineering and Informatics ICEEI '09},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {01},
      pages = {73--77},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICEEI.2009.5254814}
    }
    
    Al-Shatnawi, A. & Omar, K. Detecting Arabic handwritten word baseline using Voronoi Diagram 2009
    Vol. 01Proc. Int. Conf. Electrical Engineering and Informatics ICEEI '09, pp. 18-22 
    inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Al-Shatnawi2009,
      author = {Al-Shatnawi, A. and Omar, K. },
      title = {Detecting Arabic handwritten word baseline using Voronoi Diagram},
      booktitle = {Proc. Int. Conf. Electrical Engineering and Informatics ICEEI '09},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {01},
      pages = {18--22},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICEEI.2009.5254823}
    }
    
    Al-Sulaiti, Latifa, Atwell & Steven, E. The design of a corpus of Contemporary Arabic 2006 International Journal of Corpus Linguistics
    Vol. 11(2), pp. 135-171 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Corpora are an important resource for both teaching and research. Arabic lacks sufficient resources in this field, so a research project has been designed to compile a corpus, which represents the state of the Arabic language at the present time and the needs of end-users. This report presents the result of a survey of the needs of teachers of Arabic as a foreign language (TAFL) and language engineers. The survey shows that a wide range of text types should be included in the corpus. Overall, our survey confirms our view that existing corpora are too narrowly limited in source-type and genre, and that there is a need for a freely-accessible corpus of contemporary Arabic covering a broad range of text-types. We have collected and published an initial version of the Corpus of Contemporary Arabic (CCA) to meet these design issues. The CCA is freely downloadable via WWW from http://www.comp.leeds.ac.uk/arabic.
    BibTeX:
    @article{AlSulaiti2006Design,
      author = {Al-Sulaiti and Latifa and Atwell and Steven, Eric},
      title = {The design of a corpus of Contemporary Arabic},
      journal = {International Journal of Corpus Linguistics},
      publisher = {John Benjamins Publishing Company},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {11},
      number = {2},
      pages = {135--171},
      url = {http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/jbp/ijcl/2006/00000011/00000002/art00001}
    }
    
    Al-Tamimi, F., Alzoubi, F. & Tarawnah, R. A videofluoroscopic study of the emphatic consonants in Jordanian Arabic. 2009 Folia Phoniatr Logop
    Vol. 61(4), pp. 247-253 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: In order to identify the nature of the emphatic consonants and the articulatory features accompanying their production, 384 videofluoroscopic images of 2 male and 2 female Jordanian speakers were analyzed. Analysis focused on the differences between nonemphatic and emphatic consonants in the pharyngeal length and width, the hyoid bone elevation and larynx raising. Results show that males and females produce emphatics as pharyngealized sounds with the tongue root retracting into the oropharynx and the hyoid bone elevating and the larynx raising as a result.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Al-Tamimi2009,
      author = {Feda Al-Tamimi and Firas Alzoubi and Rama Tarawnah},
      title = {A videofluoroscopic study of the emphatic consonants in Jordanian Arabic.},
      journal = {Folia Phoniatr Logop},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {61},
      number = {4},
      pages = {247--253},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000235644},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000235644}
    }
    
    Al-Wabil, A., Zaphiris, P. & Wilson, S. Web design for dyslexics: Accessibility of Arabic content Lect. Notes Comput. Sci.
    Vol. 4061 LNCS, pp. 817-822 
    proceedings URL 
    Abstract: This paper reports results of a workshop on the design of electronic content for users with Specific Learning Difficulties (SpLD), particularly Arabic dyslexies. First we shed some light on the nature of the Arabic language and discuss features that account for the unique needs of Arabic users with reading disorders. Then we present recommendations for accessible web design for Arabic content in light of existing guidelines on web design for dyslexic users. pyright Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006. Conference code: 68097
    BibTeX:
    @proceedings{AlWabilWeb,
      author = {Al-Wabil, A. and Zaphiris, P. and Wilson, S.},
      title = {Web design for dyslexics: Accessibility of Arabic content},
      journal = {Lect. Notes Comput. Sci.},
      volume = {4061 LNCS},
      pages = {817--822},
      url = {http://www.scopus.com/record/display.url?view=extended&origin=resultslist&eid=2-s2.0-33748572975}
    }
    
    Al-Wabil, A., Zaphiris, P. & Wilson, S. Web Design for Dyslexics: Accessibility of Arabic Content 2006 Computers Helping People with Special Needs, pp. 817-822  incollection DOI URL 
    Abstract: This paper reports results of a workshop on the design of electronic content for users with Specific Learning Difficulties (SpLD), particularly Arabic dyslexics. First we shed some light on the nature of the Arabic language and discuss features that account for the unique needs of Arabic users with reading disorders. Then we present recommendations for accessible web design for Arabic content in light of existing guidelines on web design for dyslexic users.
    BibTeX:
    @incollection{AlWabil2006Web,
      author = {Al-Wabil, Areej and Zaphiris, Panayiotis and Wilson, Stephanie},
      title = {Web Design for Dyslexics: Accessibility of Arabic Content},
      journal = {Computers Helping People with Special Needs},
      year = {2006},
      pages = {817--822},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/11788713119},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/11788713\_119}
    }
    
    Al-Wahy, A.S.S. Idiomatic false friends in English and Modern Standard Arabic Babel
    Vol. 55(2), pp. 101-123 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{AlWahyIdiomatic,
      author = {Al-Wahy, Ahmed Seddik S.},
      title = {Idiomatic false friends in English and Modern Standard Arabic},
      journal = {Babel},
      publisher = {John Benjamins Publishing Company},
      volume = {55},
      number = {2},
      pages = {101--123},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/babel.55.2.01wah},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/babel.55.2.01wah}
    }
    
    Al-Yousefi, H. & Udpa, S.S. Recognition of Arabic characters 1992 Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, IEEE Transactions on
    Vol. 14(8), pp. 853-857 
    article URL 
    Abstract: A statistical approach for the recognition of Arabic characters is introduced. As a first step, the character is segmented into primary and secondary parts (dots and zigzags). The secondary parts of the character are then isolated and identified separately, thereby reducing the number of classes from 28 to 18. The moments of the horizontal and vertical projections of the remaining primary characters are then calculated and normalized with respect to the zero-order moment. Simple measures of the shape are obtained from the normalized moments. A 9-D feature vector is obtained for each character. Classification is accomplished using quadratic discriminant functions. The approach was evaluated using isolated, handwritten, and printed characters from a database established for this purpose. The results indicate that the technique offers better classification rates in comparison with existing methods
    BibTeX:
    @article{AlYousefi1992Recognition,
      author = {Al-Yousefi, H. and Udpa, S. S.},
      title = {Recognition of Arabic characters},
      journal = {Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, IEEE Transactions on},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {14},
      number = {8},
      pages = {853--857},
      url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/absall.jsp?arnumber=149585}
    }
    
    Alameda, J.R., Cuetos, F. & Brysbaert, M. The number 747 is named faster after seeing Boeing than after seeing Levi's: Associative priming in the processing of multidigit Arabic numerals. 2003 Q J Exp Psychol A
    Vol. 56(6), pp. 1009-1019 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Two experiments are reported in which naming multidigit Arabic numerals was shown to depend on the context in which the numbers were presented. Number naming and number decisions were faster after an associative prime (e.g., 747 preceded by the word Boeing) than after an unrelated prime, both in unmasked and masked priming conditions. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that number naming is not always based on a quantity-based semantically mediated pathway.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Alameda2003,
      author = {Jose Ramon Alameda and Fernando Cuetos and Marc Brysbaert},
      title = {The number 747 is named faster after seeing Boeing than after seeing Levi's: Associative priming in the processing of multidigit Arabic numerals.},
      journal = {Q J Exp Psychol A},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {56},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1009--1019},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02724980244000783},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02724980244000783}
    }
    
    el Alaoui-Faris, M., Benbelaid, F., Alaoui, C., Tahiri, L., Jiddane, M., Amarti, A. & Chkili, T. [Alexia without agraphia in the Arabic language. Neurolinguistic and and MRI study] 1994 Rev Neurol (Paris)
    Vol. 150(11), pp. 771-775 
    article  
    Abstract: A 33 year-old woman developed an alexia without agraphia, a color anomia, a right hemianopia, an aphasic amnesia and a verbal amnesia. The brain MRI showed the lesions in the left splenium of corpus callosum, forceps major, optic radiations and anterieur temporal lobe. The fact that she measured writing comprehension and had complete recovery of reading impairment despite the persistence of anatomic lesions plead in favour of an active participation of the right hemisphere (RH) on reading; this capacity of the RH may be due to the linguistic particularities of arabic writing.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Alaoui-Faris1994,
      author = {M. el Alaoui-Faris and F. Benbelaid and C. Alaoui and L. Tahiri and M. Jiddane and A. Amarti and T. Chkili},
      title = {[Alexia without agraphia in the Arabic language. Neurolinguistic and and MRI study]},
      journal = {Rev Neurol (Paris)},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {150},
      number = {11},
      pages = {771--775}
    }
    
    Albakoor, M., Saeed, K. & Sukkar, F. Intelligent system for Arabic character recognition 2009 Proc. World Congress Nature & Biologically Inspired Computing NaBIC 2009, pp. 982-987  inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Albakoor2009,
      author = {Albakoor, M. and Saeed, K. and Sukkar, F. },
      title = {Intelligent system for Arabic character recognition},
      booktitle = {Proc. World Congress Nature & Biologically Inspired Computing NaBIC 2009},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {982--987},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/NABIC.2009.5395597}
    }
    
    Albatal, M. Arabic and National Language Educational Policy 2007 The Modern Language Journal
    Vol. 91(2), pp. 268-271 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Albatal2007Arabic,
      author = {Albatal, Mahmoud},
      title = {Arabic and National Language Educational Policy},
      journal = {The Modern Language Journal},
      publisher = {Blackwell Publishing},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {91},
      number = {2},
      pages = {268--271},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2007.0054310.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2007.00543\_10.x}
    }
    
    Alegre, M., Gurtubay, I.G., Iriarte, J., Ciordia, E., Manrique, M. & Artieda, J. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) in the cynomolgus macaque monkey. Equivalence with human BAEPs and proposal of a new nomenclature. 2001 Hear Res
    Vol. 151(1-2), pp. 115-120 
    article  
    Abstract: Several groups have studied brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) in non-human primates. However, the nomenclature of the waves elicited and their correspondence with human waves I-V differ among authors. BAEPs were recorded from six anaesthetised young cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), using different sound stimuli parameters. A constant pattern of four main waveforms was present in all the animals with stimulus intensities over 60 dB SPL, although up to four smaller waveforms were observed in some of the individuals. Latency values increased with decreasing stimulus intensities and with increasing repetition rates. These results were similar to the BAEPs observed in other species of macaques. Although an approximate equivalence between human and monkey BAEPs is possible, some discrepancies suggest that there may be generators which contribute to different waves in both species. This is the reason for our proposal of a new nomenclature for BAEP waveforms in monkeys, following a descriptive order with Arabic numerals preceded by the letter M.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Alegre2001,
      author = {M. Alegre and I. G. Gurtubay and J. Iriarte and E. Ciordia and M. Manrique and J. Artieda},
      title = {Brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) in the cynomolgus macaque monkey. Equivalence with human BAEPs and proposal of a new nomenclature.},
      journal = {Hear Res},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {151},
      number = {1-2},
      pages = {115--120}
    }
    
    Aleid, S.H. Acquisition of English question formation by native speakers of Arabic 2009 School: Department of Language and Linguistics, University of Essex  phdthesis URL 
    BibTeX:
    @phdthesis{Aleid2009,
      author = {Saleh H. Aleid},
      title = {Acquisition of English question formation by native speakers of Arabic},
      school = {Department of Language and Linguistics, University of Essex},
      year = {2009},
      url = {http://serlib0.essex.ac.uk/record=b1695441~S5}
    }
    
    Alfi-Shabtay, I. Passive and alternatives in different text types in Hebrew 1999
    Vol. 1Developing Literacy Across Genres, Modalities, and Language, pp. 58-67 
    incollection  
    BibTeX:
    @incollection{,
      author = {Alfi-Shabtay, I},
      title = {Passive and alternatives in different text types in Hebrew},
      booktitle = {Developing Literacy Across Genres, Modalities, and Language},
      publisher = {Tel Aviv University Press},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {1},
      pages = {58-67}
    }
    
    Alfonso-Goldfarb, A.M. & Jubran, S.A.C. Listening to the whispers of matter through Arabic hermeticism: new studies on The Book of the Treasure of Alexander. 2008 Ambix
    Vol. 55(2), pp. 99-121 
    article  
    Abstract: The Jabirian Corpus refers to the K. Thahirat Al-'Iskandar, "The Book of the Treasure of Alexander" (hereafter BTA), as one of several forgeries suggesting that alchemical secrets were hidden in inscriptions in various places. The book was neglected until 1926, when Julius Ruska discussed it in his work on the Emerald Tablet, placing the BTA within the literature related to the development of Arabic alchemy. His preliminary study became an essential reference and encouraged many scholars to work on the BTA in the following decades. Some years ago, we completed the first translation of the BTA into a Western language. The work was based on the acephalous Escorial manuscript, which we identified as a fourteenth-century copy of the BTA. This manuscript is peculiar, as part of it is encoded. After finishing our translation, we started to establish the text of the BTA. At present, the text is in process of fixation--to be followed by textual criticism--and has been the main focus of a thorough study of ours on medieval hermeticism and alchemy. A sample of the work currently in progress is presented in this paper: an analysis of the variations between different manuscripts along with a study and English translation of its alchemical chapter.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Alfonso-Goldfarb2008,
      author = {Ana Maria Alfonso-Goldfarb and Safa Abou Chahla Jubran},
      title = {Listening to the whispers of matter through Arabic hermeticism: new studies on The Book of the Treasure of Alexander.},
      journal = {Ambix},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {55},
      number = {2},
      pages = {99--121}
    }
    
    Alghamdi, M., El Hadj, Y.O.M. & Alkanhal, M. A Manual System to Segment and Transcribe Arabic Speech 2007 Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Signal Processing and Communications ICSPC 2007, pp. 233-236  inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Alghamdi2007,
      author = {Alghamdi, M. and El Hadj, Y. O. M. and Alkanhal, M. },
      title = {A Manual System to Segment and Transcribe Arabic Speech},
      booktitle = {Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Signal Processing and Communications ICSPC 2007},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {233--236},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICSPC.2007.4728298}
    }
    
    Alghamdi, M., Elshafei, M. & Al-Muhtaseb, H. Arabic broadcast news transcription system International Journal of Speech Technology  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Abstract  This paper describes the development of an Arabic broadcast news transcription system. The presented system is a speaker-independent large vocabulary natural Arabic speech recognition system, and it is intended to be a test bed for further research into the open ended problem of achieving natural language man-machine conversation. The system addresses a number of challenging issues pertaining to the Arabic language, e.g. generation of fully vocalized transcription, and rule-based spelling dictionary. The developed Arabic speech recognition system is based on the Carnegie Mellon university Sphinx tools. The Cambridge HTK tools were also utilized at various testing stages. The system was trained on 7.0 hours of a 7.5 hours of Arabic broadcast news corpus and tested on the remaining half an hour. The corpus was made to focus on economics and sport news. At this experimental stage, the Arabic news transcription system uses five-state HMM for triphone acoustic models, with 8 and 16 Gaussian mixture distributions. The state distributions were tied to about 1680 senons. The language model uses both bi-grams and tri-grams. The test set consisted of 400 utterances containing 3585 words. The Word Error Rate (WER) came initially to 10.14 percent. After extensive testing and tuning of the recognition parameters the WER was reduced to about 8.61% for non-vocalized text transcription.
    BibTeX:
    @article{AlghamdiArabic,
      author = {Alghamdi, Mansour and Elshafei, Moustafa and Al-Muhtaseb, Husni},
      title = {Arabic broadcast news transcription system},
      journal = {International Journal of Speech Technology},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10772-009-9026-8},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10772-009-9026-8}
    }
    
    Alharbi, A. A syntactic approach to Arabic verbal morphology 1990 School: Dept. of Language and Linguistics, University of Essex  phdthesis URL 
    BibTeX:
    @phdthesis{Alharbi1990,
      author = {Abdallah Alharbi},
      title = {A syntactic approach to Arabic verbal morphology},
      school = {Dept. of Language and Linguistics, University of Essex},
      year = {1990},
      url = {http://serlib0.essex.ac.uk/record=b1042988~S5}
    }
    
    Alhaysony, M.H. Saudi female English major students' writing strategies in L1 (Arabic) and L2 (English) 2008 School: Dept. of Language and Linguistics  phdthesis URL 
    BibTeX:
    @phdthesis{Alhaysony2008,
      author = {Maha Hilal Alhaysony},
      title = {Saudi female English major students' writing strategies in L1 (Arabic) and L2 (English)},
      school = {Dept. of Language and Linguistics},
      year = {2008},
      url = {http://serlib0.essex.ac.uk/record=b1681562~S5}
    }
    
    Alherbish, J., Ammar, R.A. & Abdalla, M. Arabic character recognition in a multi-processing environment 1997 Proc. Second IEEE Symp Computers and Communications, pp. 286-291  inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Alherbish1997,
      author = {Alherbish, J. and Ammar, R. A. and Abdalla, M. },
      title = {Arabic character recognition in a multi-processing environment},
      booktitle = {Proc. Second IEEE Symp Computers and Communications},
      year = {1997},
      pages = {286--291},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ISCC.1997.616013}
    }
    
    Alherbish, J., Ammar, R.A. & Abdalla, M. Arabic character recognition in a multi-processing environment 1997 Computers and Communications, 1997. Proceedings., Second IEEE Symposium on, pp. 286-291  proceedings URL 
    Abstract: Many Arabic character recognition systems have been proposed since the early eighties. Most systems reported high recognition rates, however, they overlooked a very important factor in the process; the speed factor. A parallel Arabic character recognition system is introduced. The goal of the system is to achieve both full accuracy and high speed. This has been accomplished by integrating the character recognition process with parallel processing and distributed computing concepts. Experimental results showed that the multi-processing environment is very promising in enhancing a sequential Arabic character recognition system performance
    BibTeX:
    @proceedings{Alherbish1997Arabic,
      author = {Alherbish, J. and Ammar, R. A. and Abdalla, M.},
      title = {Arabic character recognition in a multi-processing environment},
      journal = {Computers and Communications, 1997. Proceedings., Second IEEE Symposium on},
      year = {1997},
      pages = {286--291},
      url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/absall.jsp?arnumber=616013}
    }
    
    Ali, M., Elshafei, M., Al-Ghamdi, M., Al-Muhtaseb, H. & Al-Najjar, A. Generation of arabic phonetic dictionaries for speech recognition 2008 Proc. Int. Conf. Innovations in Information Technology IIT 2008, pp. 59-63  inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Ali2008,
      author = {Ali, M. and Elshafei, M. and Al-Ghamdi, M. and Al-Muhtaseb, H. and Al-Najjar, A. },
      title = {Generation of arabic phonetic dictionaries for speech recognition},
      booktitle = {Proc. Int. Conf. Innovations in Information Technology IIT 2008},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {59--63},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/INNOVATIONS.2008.4781716}
    }
    
    Aljenaie, K. Verbal inflection in the acquisition of Kuwaiti Arabic. 2009 Journal of Child Language, pp. 1 - 23  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: This paper investigates the distribution of imperfective and perfective verb inflections in Kuwaiti Arabic. Spontaneous speech of three children (1 ; 8-3 ; 1) was analyzed for accuracy and error types. The results showed that the verbal inflections appeared correct almost all the time (89-97% of the time). Agreement errors appeared 3-11% of the time. The children did not inflect the verb in obligatory contexts in describing ongoing action 2-12% of the time. It is predicted that children acquiring Arabic would select a default form in place of fully inflected forms. The children used a non-finite form which is identical to the imperfective verbal bare stem to describe ongoing action, which is consistent with Benmamoun's argument (1999, 2000) that the imperfective bare verb is the default form in Arabic. The findings of the study are discussed in the light of the Optional Infinitive (OI) stage argued by Wexler (1994, 1996, 1998). The fact that the non-finite is non-tensed makes this type of behavior consistent with the OI.
    BibTeX:
    @article{KhawlaAljenaie09p1,
      author = {Khawla Aljenaie},
      title = {Verbal inflection in the acquisition of Kuwaiti Arabic.},
      journal = {Journal of Child Language},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {1 - 23},
      url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19912671},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0305000909990031}
    }
    
    Aljenaie, K. The emergence of tense and agreement in Kuwaiti Arabic children 2001 School: Reading University  phdthesis  
    BibTeX:
    @phdthesis{Aljenaie2001,
      author = {Aljenaie, K},
      title = {The emergence of tense and agreement in Kuwaiti Arabic children},
      school = {Reading University},
      year = {2001}
    }
    
    Aljenaie, K. & Farghal, M. Comprehension of three word orders in Kuwaiti Arabic child languageǽÓoƒ_ÿ 2009 Language Sciences
    Vol. 31(4), pp. 494-506 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: The present project is a case study of 68 Kuwaiti children (aged between 4 and 8) who acted out their interpretation of verbal stimuli involving three word orders in Kuwaiti Arabic Subject Verb Object (SVO), Verb Subject Object (VSO) and Topic-Comment (T-C) by using a set of props. The purpose is to investigate the way Kuwaiti children comprehend various word orders, and empirically check the acquisitional order of SVO, VSO, and T-C sentences. The general assumption is that Kuwaiti children will manifest higher comprehension of the unmarked word order SVO than the marked VSO, and even more so than the supposedly more marked T-C sentences, where the comment must include a resumptive pronoun that is co-referential with the topic , which is the patient in the T-C sentence. In both marked word orders, children must ignore the word order cue and recover thematic roles from agreement and, possibly, from other semantic, pragmatic and prosodic cues. The results show that younger children show a preference for the SVO order while older ones exhibit a strong preference for both SVO and VSO orders. The increasing discrepancy in performance on the three word orders by all subjects reflects improvement on T-C, which implies the acquisition of SVO and VSO before T-C. Further, older subjects rely on gender agreement to interpret reversible sentences, which suggests that it is a cue in the assignment of the actor role.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Aljenaie2009Comprehension,
      author = {Aljenaie, Khawla and Farghal, Mohammad},
      title = {Comprehension of three word orders in Kuwaiti Arabic child languageǽÓoƒ_ÿ},
      journal = {Language Sciences},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {31},
      number = {4},
      pages = {494--506},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.langsci.2007.10.003},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.langsci.2007.10.003}
    }
    
    Aljlayl, M. & Frieder, O. Effective arabic-english cross-language information retrieval via machine-readable dictionaries and machine translation 2001 CIKM '01: Proceedings of the tenth international conference on Information and knowledge management, pp. 295-302  inproceedings DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Aljlayl2001Effective,
      author = {Aljlayl, Mohammed and Frieder, Ophir},
      title = {Effective arabic-english cross-language information retrieval via machine-readable dictionaries and machine translation},
      booktitle = {CIKM '01: Proceedings of the tenth international conference on Information and knowledge management},
      publisher = {ACM},
      year = {2001},
      pages = {295--302},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/502585.502635},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/502585.502635}
    }
    
    Alkhalil, T. Discourse markers in Syrian Arabic : a study of halla?, yacnŽ", ?œayyeb, and lakan 2005 School: Dept. of Language and Linguistics, University of Essex  phdthesis URL 
    BibTeX:
    @phdthesis{Alkhalil2005,
      author = {Talal Alkhalil},
      title = {Discourse markers in Syrian Arabic : a study of halla?, yacnŽ", ?œayyeb, and lakan},
      school = {Dept. of Language and Linguistics, University of Essex},
      year = {2005},
      url = {http://serlib0.essex.ac.uk/record=b1591279~S5}
    }
    
    Alkhateeb, H.M. Internal consistency reliability and validity of the Arabic translation of the Mathematics Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Instrument. 2004 Psychol Rep
    Vol. 94(3 Pt 1), pp. 833-838 
    article  
    Abstract: The Arabic translation of the Mathematics Teaching Efficacy Beliefs was completed by 144 undergraduate students (M age=20.6) in Jordan. The findings support the internal reliability of the Arabic translation of the Mathematics Teaching Efficacy Beliefs as well as its construct validity.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Alkhateeb2004,
      author = {Haitham M Alkhateeb},
      title = {Internal consistency reliability and validity of the Arabic translation of the Mathematics Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Instrument.},
      journal = {Psychol Rep},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {94},
      number = {3 Pt 1},
      pages = {833--838}
    }
    
    Alkhateeb, H.M. & Abed, A.S. Factor structure of an Arabic translation of the scale, preference for numerical information. 2002 Percept Mot Skills
    Vol. 94(1), pp. 185-188 
    article  
    Abstract: An Arabic translation of Viswanathan's 1993 scale, Preference for Numerical Information, was administered to 157 tenth-grade students (M age = 16.1 yr.) in the United Arab Emirates. Analysis showed that the scale was homogeneous as the factor solution was comparable to that reported in the original study and item scores were moderately correlated with total scores when used in a different cultural setting.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Alkhateeb2002,
      author = {Haittham M Alkhateeb and Adnan S Abed},
      title = {Factor structure of an Arabic translation of the scale, preference for numerical information.},
      journal = {Percept Mot Skills},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {94},
      number = {1},
      pages = {185--188}
    }
    
    Alkhateeb, H.M. & Abushihab, E.F. Reading self-concept and Arab-American students: a three-year study. 2008 Percept Mot Skills
    Vol. 106(1), pp. 270-274 
    article  
    Abstract: Data were collected over a 3-yr. period from 110 Arab-American students, 38 boys and 72 girls, whose ages ranged between 9 and 12 years (M = 10.6 yr., SD = 1.1) and who were living in the USA and attending a private Arabic/Islamic weekend Sunday school. A self-report questionnaire, the Reading Self-concept scale of the Self-description Questionnaire, measuring students' perceptions of their reading self-concept was translated from English to Arabic and administered on the present sample in both languages. Although these students scored high on both versions, analysis showed that they scored significantly higher on the English reading self-concept than the Arabic reading self-concept. The English and Arabic reading self-concepts were highly correlated. Results were discussed in terms of providing appropriate reading programs for especially the boys, parents' education and expectations, and the Quran.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Alkhateeb2008,
      author = {Haitham M Alkhateeb and Eiman F Abushihab},
      title = {Reading self-concept and Arab-American students: a three-year study.},
      journal = {Percept Mot Skills},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {106},
      number = {1},
      pages = {270--274}
    }
    
    Allam, H., ElDine, N.G. & Helmy, G. Scalp acupuncture effect on language development in children with autism: a pilot study. 2008 J Altern Complement Med
    Vol. 14(2), pp. 109-114 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that manifests in delays in social interaction, language used in social communication, and symbolic or imaginative play, with an onset prior to age 3 years. Language therapy (LT) for children with autism is the main form of rehabilitation, because it emphasizes its major presenting symptom (i.e., language impairment). Scalp acupuncture (scalp AP) is a modality based on the physiologic function of different brain areas, where different scalp zones are stimulated with needles so as to stimulate the reflexively related nervous tissue. This study aimed to evaluate the role of scalp AP as a complementary modality to LT in rehabilitation of children with autism. SUBJECTS AND DESIGN: The study involved 20 children (divided into 2 equal groups: A and B), diagnosed as autistic according to DSM IV classification. Their ages ranged between 4 and 7 years old. All subjects underwent LT twice weekly, aiming at stimulation of cognitive and verbal abilities. Group B only was subjected to scalp AP sessions--twice weekly--as a rehabilitation complementary tool during the 9-month period of the study. The acupoints used were: Du 20, 26, GV17; three temple needles; and Yamamoto's New Scalp Acupuncture cerebrum and aphasia points (acupuncture needles 0.3 x 30 mm). A language test was performed before and after therapy to monitor cognition and expression (an Arabic test was included). RESULTS: Both groups, whose mean age range was 5.5 years+/-1.22 years, showed a significant improvement in cognitive and expressive language skills pre- and post-therapy, which was highly significant among group B children treated with scalp AP (attention 2.8+/-0.8 in group A versus 3.5+/-0.8 in group B; receptive semantics were 7+/-3.8 in group A versus 9.4+/-3.1 in group B). Expressive semantics significantly improved in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Scalp AP is a safe complementary modality when combined with LT and has a significantly positive effect on language development in children with autism.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Allam2008,
      author = {Hemat Allam and Nirvana Gamal ElDine and Ghada Helmy},
      title = {Scalp acupuncture effect on language development in children with autism: a pilot study.},
      journal = {J Altern Complement Med},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {14},
      number = {2},
      pages = {109--114},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/acm.2007.0508},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/acm.2007.0508}
    }
    
    Allen, R. Review: [untitled] 1988 The Modern Language Journal
    Vol. 72(1), pp. 78-79 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Allen1988,
      author = {Allen, Roger},
      title = {Review: [untitled]},
      journal = {The Modern Language Journal},
      publisher = {Blackwell Publishing on behalf of the National Federation of Modern Language Teachers Associations},
      year = {1988},
      volume = {72},
      number = {1},
      pages = {78--79},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/327582}
    }
    
    Allen, R. Arabic Teaching in the United States 1976 Bulletin (British Society for Middle Eastern Studies)
    Vol. 3(2), pp. 92-99 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Allen1976,
      author = {Allen, Roger},
      title = {Arabic Teaching in the United States},
      journal = {Bulletin (British Society for Middle Eastern Studies)},
      publisher = {Taylor & Francis, Ltd.},
      year = {1976},
      volume = {3},
      number = {2},
      pages = {92--99},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/194583}
    }
    
    Aller, W.K., Aller, S.K. & Malouf-Saad, L. The acquisition of ASK and TELL structures by Arabic speaking children 1979 Studies in first and second language acquisition  incollection  
    BibTeX:
    @incollection{,
      author = {Aller, Wayne K. and Aller, Sonia K. and Malouf-Saad, Lina},
      title = {The acquisition of ASK and TELL structures by Arabic speaking children},
      booktitle = {Studies in first and second language acquisition},
      publisher = {Newbury House Publishers, Inc.},
      year = {1979}
    }
    
    Aller, Y.S.K. The acquisition of relative clause constructions in Arabic 1978   phdthesis  
    BibTeX:
    @phdthesis{,
      author = {Aller, Y. Sonia Konialian},
      title = {The acquisition of relative clause constructions in Arabic},
      year = {1978}
    }
    
    Alma'adeed, S. Recognition of Off-Line Handwritten Arabic Words Using Neural Network 2006 Geometric Modeling and Imaging--New Trends, 2006Geometric Modeling and Imaging--New Trends, 2006, pp. 141-144  proceedings URL 
    Abstract: Neural network (NN) have been used with some success in recognizing printed Arabic words. In this paper, a complete scheme for unconstrained Arabic handwritten word recognition based on a Neural network is proposed and discussed. The overall engine of this combination of a global feature scheme with a NN, is a system able to classify Arabic-Handwritten words of one hundred different writers. The system first attempts to remove some of the variation in the images that do not affect the identity of the handwritten word. Next, the system codes the skeleton and edge of the word so that feature information about the strokes in the skeleton is extracted. Then, a classification process based on the artificial NN classifier is used as global recognition engine, to classify the Arabic words. The output is a word in the dictionary. A detailed experiment is carried out, and successful recognition results are reported.
    BibTeX:
    @proceedings{Almaadeed2006Recognition,
      author = {Alma'adeed, S.},
      title = {Recognition of Off-Line Handwritten Arabic Words Using Neural Network},
      booktitle = {Geometric Modeling and Imaging--New Trends, 2006},
      journal = {Geometric Modeling and Imaging--New Trends, 2006},
      year = {2006},
      pages = {141--144},
      url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/absall.jsp?arnumber=1648757}
    }
    
    Alma'adeed, S., Higgens, C. & Elliman, D. Recognition of off-line handwritten Arabic words using hidden Markov model approach 2002 Pattern Recognition, 2002. Proceedings. 16th International Conference on
    Vol. 3Pattern Recognition, 2002. Proceedings. 16th International Conference on, pp. 481-484 vol.3 
    proceedings URL 
    Abstract: Hidden Markov models (HMM) have been used with some success in recognizing printed Arabic words. In this paper, a complete scheme for totally unconstrained Arabic handwritten word recognition based on a model discriminant HMM is presented. A complete system able to classify Arabic handwritten words of one hundred different writers is proposed and discussed. The system first attempts to remove some of variation in the images that do not affect the identity of the handwritten word. Next, the system codes the skeleton and edge of the word so that feature information about the lines in the skeleton is extracted. Then a classification process based on the HMM approach is used. The output is a word in the dictionary. A detailed experiment is carried out and successful recognition results are reported.
    BibTeX:
    @proceedings{Almaadeed2002Recognition,
      author = {Alma'adeed, S. and Higgens, C. and Elliman, D.},
      title = {Recognition of off-line handwritten Arabic words using hidden Markov model approach},
      booktitle = {Pattern Recognition, 2002. Proceedings. 16th International Conference on},
      journal = {Pattern Recognition, 2002. Proceedings. 16th International Conference on},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {3},
      pages = {481--484 vol.3},
      url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/absall.jsp?arnumber=1047981}
    }
    
    Almahboob, I. The L2 acqusition of English articles by L1 speakers of Saudi Arabic 2009 School: Dept. of Language and Linguistics  phdthesis URL 
    BibTeX:
    @phdthesis{Almahboob2009,
      author = {Ibrahim Almahboob},
      title = {The L2 acqusition of English articles by L1 speakers of Saudi Arabic},
      school = {Dept. of Language and Linguistics},
      year = {2009},
      url = {http://serlib0.essex.ac.uk/record=b1714238~S5}
    }
    
    AlMakarem, A.A. & Petrosino, L. Reading and spontaneous speaking fundamental frequency of young Arabic men for Arabic and English languages: a comparative study. 2007 Percept Mot Skills
    Vol. 105(2), pp. 572-580 
    article  
    Abstract: Speaking fundamental frequency (SFF), the average fundamental frequency (lowest frequency of a complex periodic sound) measured over the speaking time of a vocal or speech task, is a basic acoustic measure in clinical evaluation and treatment of voice disorders. Currently, there are few data on acoustic characteristics of different sociolinguistic groups, and no published data on the fundamental frequency characteristics of Arabic speech. The purpose of this study was to obtain preliminary data on the SFF characteristics of a group of normal speaking, young Arabic men. 15 native Arabic men (M age = 23.5 yr., SD=2.5) as participants received identical experimental treatment. Four speech samples were collected from each one, Arabic reading, Arabic spontaneous speech, English reading, and English spontaneous speech. Speaking samples, analyzed using the Computerized Speech Lab, showed no significant difference for mean SFF between language and type of speech and none for mean SFF between languages. A significant difference in the mean SFF was found between the types of speech. The SFF used during reading was significantly higher than that for spontaneous speech. Also Arabic men had higher SFF values than those previously reported for young men in other linguistic groups. SFF then might differ among linguistic, dialectical, and social groups and such data may provide clinicians information useful in evaluation and management of voice.
    BibTeX:
    @article{2007,
      author = {Ali Abu AlMakarem and Linda Petrosino},
      title = {Reading and spontaneous speaking fundamental frequency of young Arabic men for Arabic and English languages: a comparative study.},
      journal = {Percept Mot Skills},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {105},
      number = {2},
      pages = {572--580}
    }
    
    Alotaibi, A.Z. The effect of font size and type on reading performance with Arabic words in normally sighted and simulated cataract subjects. 2007 Clin Exp Optom
    Vol. 90(3), pp. 203-206 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Previous investigations have shown that reading is the most common functional problem reported by patients at a low vision practice. While there have been studies investigating effect of fonts in normal and low vision patients in English, no study has been carried out in Arabic. Additionally, there has been no investigation into the use of optimum print sizes or fonts that should be used in Arabic books and leaflets for low vision patients. METHODS: Arabic sentences were read by 100 normally sighted volunteers with and without simulated cataract. Subjects read two font types (Times New Roman and Courier) in three different sizes (N8, N10 and N12). The subjects were asked to read the sentences aloud. The reading speed was calculated as number of words read divided by the time taken, while reading rate was calculated as the number of words read correctly divided by the time taken. RESULTS: There was an improvement in reading performance of normally sighted and simulated visually impaired subjects when the print size increased. There was no significant difference in reading performance between the two types of font used at small print size, however the reading rate improved as print size increased with Times New Roman. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the use of N12 print in Times New Roman enhanced reading performance in normally sighted and simulated cataract subjects.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Alotaibi2007,
      author = {Abdullah Z Alotaibi},
      title = {The effect of font size and type on reading performance with Arabic words in normally sighted and simulated cataract subjects.},
      journal = {Clin Exp Optom},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {90},
      number = {3},
      pages = {203--206},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1444-0938.2007.00123.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1444-0938.2007.00123.x}
    }
    
    Alotaibi, Y.A. & Muhammad, G. Study on pharyngeal and uvular consonants in foreign accented Arabic for ASR 2010 Computer Speech & Language
    Vol. 24(2), pp. 219-231 
    article URL 
    Abstract: This paper investigates the unique pharyngeal and uvular consonants of Arabic from the point of view of automatic speech recognition (ASR). Comparisons of the recognition error rates for these phonemes are analyzed in five experiments that involve different combinations of native and non-native Arabic speakers. The most three confusing consonants for every investigated consonant are discussed. All experiments use the Hidden Markov Model Toolkit (HTK) and the Language Data Consortium (LDC) WestPoint Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) database. Results confirm that these Arabic distinct consonants are a major source of difficulty for Arabic ASR. While the recognition rate for certain of these unique consonants such as /@?/ can drop below 35% when uttered by non-native speakers, there is advantage to include non-native speakers in ASR. Besides, regional differences in pronunciation of MSA by native Arabic speakers require the attention of Arabic ASR research.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Alotaibi2010Study,
      author = {Alotaibi, Y. A. and Muhammad, G.},
      title = {Study on pharyngeal and uvular consonants in foreign accented Arabic for ASR},
      journal = {Computer Speech & Language},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {24},
      number = {2},
      pages = {219--231},
      url = {http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/444423077}
    }
    
    Alotaibi, Y.A. & Muhammad, G. Study on pharyngeal and uvular consonants in foreign accented Arabic for ASR 2009 Computer Speech & Language  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: This paper investigates the unique pharyngeal and uvular consonants of Arabic from the point of view of automatic speech recognition (ASR). Comparisons of the recognition error rates for these phonemes are analyzed in five experiments that involve different combinations of native and non-native Arabic speakers. The most three confusing consonants for every investigated consonant are discussed. All experiments use the Hidden Markov Model Toolkit (HTK) and the Language Data Consortium (LDC) WestPoint Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) database. Results confirm that these Arabic distinct consonants are a major source of difficulty for Arabic ASR. While the recognition rate for certain of these unique consonants such as / / can drop below 35% when uttered by non-native speakers, there is advantage to include non-native speakers in ASR. Besides, regional differences in pronunciation of MSA by native Arabic speakers require the attention of Arabic ASR research.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Alotaibi2009Study,
      author = {Alotaibi, Yousef A. and Muhammad, Ghulam},
      title = {Study on pharyngeal and uvular consonants in foreign accented Arabic for ASR},
      journal = {Computer Speech & Language},
      year = {2009},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.csl.2009.04.005},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.csl.2009.04.005}
    }
    
    AlQahtany, M.O., Alotaibi, Y.A. & Selouani, S.-A. Analyzing the seventh vowel of classical Arabic 2009 Proc. Int. Conf. Natural Language Processing and Knowledge Engineering NLP-KE 2009, pp. 1-7  inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{AlQahtany2009,
      author = {AlQahtany, M. O. and Alotaibi, Y. A. and Selouani, S.-A. },
      title = {Analyzing the seventh vowel of classical Arabic},
      booktitle = {Proc. Int. Conf. Natural Language Processing and Knowledge Engineering NLP-KE 2009},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {1--7},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/NLPKE.2009.5313729}
    }
    
    Alsayed, A. A government and binding approach to restrictive relatives, with particular reference to restrictive relatives in standard Arabic 1998 School: Dept. of Language and Linguistics, University of Essex  phdthesis URL 
    BibTeX:
    @phdthesis{Alsayed1998,
      author = {Adnan Alsayed},
      title = {A government and binding approach to restrictive relatives, with particular reference to restrictive relatives in standard Arabic},
      school = {Dept. of Language and Linguistics, University of Essex},
      year = {1998},
      url = {http://serlib0.essex.ac.uk/record=b1362645~S5}
    }
    
    Alshuhri, S. Arabic Manuscripts in a Digital Library Context 2008 Digital Libraries: Universal and Ubiquitous Access to Information, pp. 387-393  incollection DOI URL 
    Abstract: This paper aims to present related issues of indexing and retrieving Arabic manuscripts in digital libraries. Composed Arabic manuscripts have been taken as samples of presentation in this paper. Comments are commonly found in AMSs, with varying purposes and forms of comments. A digital library should deal with composed AMSs according to their characteristics and users' requirements.
    BibTeX:
    @incollection{Alshuhri2008Arabic,
      author = {Alshuhri, Sulieman},
      title = {Arabic Manuscripts in a Digital Library Context},
      journal = {Digital Libraries: Universal and Ubiquitous Access to Information},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {387--393},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-89533-650},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-89533-6\_50}
    }
    
    Altmann, L.J.P., Saleem, A., Kendall, D., Heilman, K.M. & Rothi, L.J.G. Orthographic directionality and thematic role illustration in English and Arabic. 2006 Brain Lang
    Vol. 97(3), pp. 306-316 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: This study tested the hypotheses that people had a bias for drawing agents on the left of a picture when given a verb stimulus targeting an active or passive event (e.g., "kicked" or "is kicked") and that orthographic directionality would influence the way events were illustrated. Monolingual English speakers, who read and write left-to-right, and Arabic speakers, who read and write right-to-left, drew agents and patients in response to verb stimuli. We found no significant orthographic directionality effects and no preference for positioning agents on the left of pictures in either group or sentence type. Instead, participants drew agents on the right regardless of language or sentence type, and this was exaggerated in English speakers illustrating passive verbs. These findings support the existence of a preference for placing agents in the right hemispace that may result from asymmetrical hemispheric (i.e., left>right) activation induced by language processing. Our results are consistent with findings that people prefer pictures in which focus is on the right, a preference strongest in pictures with no implicit directionality of movement. This suggests that the methodology of the current study encouraged a static rather than dynamic interpretation of the verb in most participants.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Altmann2006,
      author = {Lori J P Altmann and Ahmad Saleem and Diane Kendall and Kenneth M Heilman and Leslie J Gonzalez Rothi},
      title = {Orthographic directionality and thematic role illustration in English and Arabic.},
      journal = {Brain Lang},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {97},
      number = {3},
      pages = {306--316},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandl.2005.12.003},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandl.2005.12.003}
    }
    
    Altoma, S.J. Language education in Arab countries and the role of Academies 1974 Advances in language planning  incollection  
    BibTeX:
    @incollection{,
      author = {Altoma, Salih J.},
      title = {Language education in Arab countries and the role of Academies},
      booktitle = {Advances in language planning},
      publisher = {Mouton},
      year = {1974}
    }
    
    Altuwaijri, M.M. & Bayoumi, M.A. Arabic text recognition using neural networks 1994
    Vol. 6Proc. IEEE Int Circuits and Systems ISCAS '94. Symp, pp. 415-418 
    inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Altuwaijri1994,
      author = {Altuwaijri, M. M. and Bayoumi, M. A. },
      title = {Arabic text recognition using neural networks},
      booktitle = {Proc. IEEE Int Circuits and Systems ISCAS '94. Symp},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {6},
      pages = {415--418},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ISCAS.1994.409614}
    }
    
    Alusi, H.A., Hinchcliffe, R., Ingham, B., Knight, J.J. & North, C. Arabic speech audiometry. 1974 Audiology
    Vol. 13(3), pp. 212-230 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Alusi1974,
      author = {H. A. Alusi and R. Hinchcliffe and B. Ingham and J. J. Knight and C. North},
      title = {Arabic speech audiometry.},
      journal = {Audiology},
      year = {1974},
      volume = {13},
      number = {3},
      pages = {212--230}
    }
    
    Aly, A.M. [The use of Arabic in the World Health Organization. Part Two] 2008 East Mediterr Health J
    Vol. 14 Suppl, pp. S182-S191 
    article  
    Abstract: In part one of this paper we discussed the use of Arabic as an official and working language in the Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office and WHO Headquarters. We reviewed the arrangements made to rationalize the Arabic activities in WHO, the development of an authentic Arabic version of the WHO constitution, the impact of WHO restructuring on the Arabic programme and the establishment of the Arab Centre for Medical Literature in Kuwait. In this part we address the developments in Arabic medical terminology, the establishment of the Regional Arabic Programme and the unified WHO Programme of Arabic publications, and last but not least, the production of the Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal in English, French and Arabic.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Aly2008,
      author = {A. M. Aly},
      title = {[The use of Arabic in the World Health Organization. Part Two]},
      journal = {East Mediterr Health J},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {14 Suppl},
      pages = {S182--S191}
    }
    
    Aly, A.M. [The use of Arabic in the World Health Organization. Part One] 2008 East Mediterr Health J
    Vol. 14 Suppl, pp. S174-S181 
    article  
    Abstract: The course of Arabic in WHO began in September 1954 when the Regional Subcommittee "A" requested the Regional Director to study the possibility of using Arabic as a working language for WHO in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. At WHO Headquarters, Arabic was used as an official language in the World Health Assembly in May 1972, and became a working language for the Organization in May 1975. This article reviews the progression of the use of Arabic in WHO since then.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Aly2008a,
      author = {A. M. Aly},
      title = {[The use of Arabic in the World Health Organization. Part One]},
      journal = {East Mediterr Health J},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {14 Suppl},
      pages = {S174--S181}
    }
    
    Alyahri, A. & Goodman, R. Validation of the Arabic Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Development and Well-Being Assessment. 2006 East Mediterr Health J
    Vol. 12 Suppl 2, pp. S138-S146 
    article  
    Abstract: We examined the validity of the Arabic versions of 2 main measures of child psychopathology: the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA). They were administered to the parents and teachers of 2 samples of 5-12-year-old Yemeni children, one from psychiatric clinics (n=87) and the other from the community (n=100). The SDQ scores distinguished well between the 2 samples and also between children with different psychiatric diagnoses. The DAWBA showed substantial agreement with independent clinic diagnosis. The brevity of the SDQ and the respondent-based nature of the DAWBA interview make these tools feasible for use in countries where there is a severe shortage of skilled manpower.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Alyahri2006,
      author = {A. Alyahri and R. Goodman},
      title = {Validation of the Arabic Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Development and Well-Being Assessment.},
      journal = {East Mediterr Health J},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {12 Suppl 2},
      pages = {S138--S146}
    }
    
    Alzahrani, S.M. & Salim, N. On the use of fuzzy information retrieval for gauging similarity of Arabic documents 2009 Proc. Second Int. Conf. the Applications of Digital Information and Web Technologies ICADIWT '09, pp. 539-544  inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Alzahrani2009,
      author = {Alzahrani, S. M. and Salim, N. },
      title = {On the use of fuzzy information retrieval for gauging similarity of Arabic documents},
      booktitle = {Proc. Second Int. Conf. the Applications of Digital Information and Web Technologies ICADIWT '09},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {539--544},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICADIWT.2009.5273835}
    }
    
    Amara, M. Reem Bassiouney: Arabic Sociolinguistics 2010 Language Policy  article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Amara2010Reem,
      author = {Amara, Muhammad},
      title = {Reem Bassiouney: Arabic Sociolinguistics},
      journal = {Language Policy},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10993-010-9169-0},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10993-010-9169-0}
    }
    
    Amayreh, M.M. Completion of the consonant inventory of Arabic. 2003 J Speech Lang Hear Res
    Vol. 46(3), pp. 517-529 
    article  
    Abstract: This study is a follow-up of previous research on the acquisition of Arabic consonants in normally developing children between the ages of 2 and 6 years. The purpose of this study was to provide normative data on the acquisition of late consonants that had not been acquired by the age of 6;4 (years;months). Speech samples from 60 Arabic-speaking children between ages 6;6 and 8;4, in Amman, Jordan, were analyzed to determine the age at which 10 late consonants had been acquired and to determine the error patterns and sound changes used. Five of these consonants had still not been acquired in their standard form (Educated Spoken Arabic) by even the oldest children. However, 8 of the late consonants were produced in their acceptable colloquial forms by age 7;4 and all 10 by age 8;4. The late acquisition of these consonants was discussed from the point of view of functional load and markedness. Implications for diagnosis of articulation disorders and reading problems were considered.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Amayreh2003,
      author = {Mousa M Amayreh},
      title = {Completion of the consonant inventory of Arabic.},
      journal = {J Speech Lang Hear Res},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {46},
      number = {3},
      pages = {517--529}
    }
    
    Amayreh, M.M. & Dyson, A.T. The acquisition of Arabic consonants. 1998 J Speech Lang Hear Res
    Vol. 41(3), pp. 642-653 
    article  
    Abstract: This normative study of the acquisition of consonants of Arabic as spoken in Jordan answered 4 questions: (1) What percentage of children at each of 9 age levels produced each consonant correctly? (2) What are the ages of customary production, mastery, and acquisition for each phoneme? (3) Does accuracy of consonants within sound classes vary by position in the word? (4) What are the differences in ages of acquisition between Arabic and English? Samples were collected from 180 normally developing children between the ages of 2:0 and 6:4. The percentages of accuracy of both standard and acceptable consonants were plotted and showed clear developmental trends. Medial consonants were significantly more accurate than initial and final consonants. The ages of customary production, acquisition, and mastery of Arabic consonants were similar to those for English but with notable exceptions that have implications for description of phonological acquisition. Support for previously proposed universal sound acquisition sequences was found, but some language-specific effects were also seen.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Amayreh1998,
      author = {M. M. Amayreh and A. T. Dyson},
      title = {The acquisition of Arabic consonants.},
      journal = {J Speech Lang Hear Res},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {41},
      number = {3},
      pages = {642--653}
    }
    
    Amayreh, M.M. & Dyson, A.T. The acquisition of Arabic consonants 1998 Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research
    Vol. 41(3), pp. 642-53 
    article  
    Abstract: This normative study of the acquisition of consonants of Arabic as spoken in Jordan answered 4 questions: (1) What percentage of children at each of 9 age levels produced each consonant correctly? (2) What are the ages of customary production, mastery, and acquisition for each phoneme? (3) Does accuracy of consonants within sound classes vary by position in the word? (4) What are the differences in ages of acquisition between Arabic and English? A word picture-naming test was designed to elicit spontaneous single-word responses representing all possible initial, medial, and final consonants of Standard Spoken Arabic. Responses were collected from 180 normally developing children aged 2-6.3 yrs. The percentages of accuracy of both standard and acceptable consonants were plotted and showed clear developmental trends. Medial consonants were significantly more accurate than initial and final consonants. The ages of customary production, acquisition, and mastery of Arabic consonants were similar to those for English but with notable exceptions that have implications for description of phonological acquisition.
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Amayreh, Mousa M. and Dyson, Alice T.},
      title = {The acquisition of Arabic consonants},
      journal = {Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {41},
      number = {3},
      pages = {642-53}
    }
    
    Ambros & Arne, A. Review: Investigating Arabic: Current Parameters in Analysis and Learning 2006 Journal of Semitic Studies
    Vol. 51(1), pp. 225-229 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ambros2006Review,
      author = {Ambros and Arne, A.},
      title = {Review: Investigating Arabic: Current Parameters in Analysis and Learning},
      journal = {Journal of Semitic Studies},
      publisher = {Oxford University Press},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {51},
      number = {1},
      pages = {225--229},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jss/fgi110},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jss/fgi110}
    }
    
    Amer, W.M.A. On double object and dative constructions in English and Arabic 1996 School: Dept. of Language and Linguistics, University of Essex  phdthesis URL 
    BibTeX:
    @phdthesis{Amer1996,
      author = {Walid Mohammad Abdelghaffar Amer},
      title = {On double object and dative constructions in English and Arabic},
      school = {Dept. of Language and Linguistics, University of Essex},
      year = {1996},
      url = {http://serlib0.essex.ac.uk/record=b1293569~S5}
    }
    
    Amin, A. Off line Arabic character recognition: a survey 1997 Document Analysis and Recognition, 1997., Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on
    Vol. 2Document Analysis and Recognition, 1997., Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on, pp. 596-599 vol.2 
    proceedings URL 
    Abstract: Machine simulation of human reading has been the subject of intensive research for almost three decades. A large number of research papers and reports have already been published on Latin, Chinese and Japanese characters. However, little work has been conducted on the automatic recognition of Arabic characters because of the complexity of printed and handwritten text, and this problem is still an open research field. The main objective of this paper is to present the state of Arabic character recognition research throughout the last two decades
    BibTeX:
    @proceedings{Amin1997Off,
      author = {Amin, A.},
      title = {Off line Arabic character recognition: a survey},
      booktitle = {Document Analysis and Recognition, 1997., Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on},
      journal = {Document Analysis and Recognition, 1997., Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {2},
      pages = {596--599 vol.2},
      url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/absall.jsp?arnumber=620572}
    }
    
    Amin, A. & Al-Sadoun, H.B. A new segmentation technique of Arabic text 1992 Pattern Recognition, 1992. Vol.II. Conference B: Pattern Recognition Methodology and Systems, Proceedings., 11th IAPR International Conference onPattern Recognition, 1992. Vol.II. Conference B: Pattern Recognition Methodology and Systems, Proceedings., 11th IAPR International Conference on, pp. 441-445  proceedings URL 
    Abstract: Character recognition has attracted an immense research interest. Hand printed Latin text and printed Arabic text are cursive script. One of the difficulties involved in processing such text is the segmentation of the text into distinct characters. Thereafter, the recognition of these characters. The paper proposes a new segmentation technique for Arabic text
    BibTeX:
    @proceedings{Amin1992New,
      author = {Amin, A. and Al-Sadoun, H. B.},
      title = {A new segmentation technique of Arabic text},
      booktitle = {Pattern Recognition, 1992. Vol.II. Conference B: Pattern Recognition Methodology and Systems, Proceedings., 11th IAPR International Conference on},
      journal = {Pattern Recognition, 1992. Vol.II. Conference B: Pattern Recognition Methodology and Systems, Proceedings., 11th IAPR International Conference on},
      year = {1992},
      pages = {441--445},
      url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/absall.jsp?arnumber=201813}
    }
    
    Amor, N.B. & Amara, N.E.B. Multifont Arabic character recognition using Hough transform and hidden Markov models 2005 Image and Signal Processing and Analysis, 2005. ISPA 2005. Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium onImage and Signal Processing and Analysis, 2005. ISPA 2005. Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on, pp. 285-288  proceedings URL 
    Abstract: Optical characters recognition (OCR) has been an active subject of research since the early days of Computers. Despite the age of the subject, it remains one of the most challenging and exciting areas of research in computer science. In recent years it has grown into a mature discipline, producing a huge body of work. Arabic character recognition has been one of the last major languages to receive attention. This is due, in part, to the cursive nature of the task since even printed Arabic characters are in cursive form. This paper describes the performance of combining Hough transform and hidden Markov models in a multifont Arabic OCR system. Experimental tests have been carried out on a set of 85,000 samples of characters corresponding to 5 different fonts from the most commonly used in Arabic writing. Some promising experimental results are reported.
    BibTeX:
    @proceedings{Amor2005Multifont,
      author = {Amor, N. B. and Amara, N. E. B.},
      title = {Multifont Arabic character recognition using Hough transform and hidden Markov models},
      booktitle = {Image and Signal Processing and Analysis, 2005. ISPA 2005. Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on},
      journal = {Image and Signal Processing and Analysis, 2005. ISPA 2005. Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on},
      year = {2005},
      pages = {285--288},
      url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/absall.jsp?arnumber=1521303}
    }
    
    Amor, N.B. & Najoua Combining a hybrid Approach for Features Selection and Hidden Markov Models in Multifont Arabic Characters Recognition 2006 DIAL '06: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Document Image Analysis for Libraries (DIAL'06), pp. 103-107  inproceedings DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Amor2006Combining,
      author = {Amor, Nadia B. and Najoua},
      title = {Combining a hybrid Approach for Features Selection and Hidden Markov Models in Multifont Arabic Characters Recognition},
      booktitle = {DIAL '06: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Document Image Analysis for Libraries (DIAL'06)},
      publisher = {IEEE Computer Society},
      year = {2006},
      pages = {103--107},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/DIAL.2006.7},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/DIAL.2006.7}
    }
    
    Anderson, P. & Suleiman, Y. Arabic on Campus and Beyond 2009 British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies
    Vol. 36(1), pp. 125-144 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Anderson2009Arabic,
      author = {Anderson, Paul and Suleiman, Yasir},
      title = {Arabic on Campus and Beyond},
      journal = {British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies},
      publisher = {Routledge},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {36},
      number = {1},
      pages = {125--144},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13530190902749655},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13530190902749655}
    }
    
    Angeletti, L.R. Transmission of classical medical texts through languages of the Middle-East. 1990 Med Secoli
    Vol. 2(3), pp. 293-329 
    article  
    Abstract: Classical texts, i.e. Greek treatises on medicine, reached Western Europe during the Middle-Ages by few ways, mainly either directly from the Hellenistic world, or indirectly through versions in the languages of the Middle-East, especially [Syriac]-Arabic. The comparison between Greek manuscripts and translations may be useful for both correction and interpretation of texts. An extraordinary case may arise when the original Greek treatise is lost and only the Arabic version is available. This is the case of a Commentarium of Galen on the Hippocratic De aere aquis et locis: the treatise has recently been found in a manuscript (Tal'at, tibb 550) at the National Library, Cairo, and is the work of translators of the school of Hunayn ibn Ishǽq (9th century), the Nestorian physician who had a skilled philological method of reconstruction of original Greek texts. Other relevant ways of transmission (Byzantine area-Spain mainly at the time of the Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenete, Arabian Africa-Salernum with Constantine the African) played an important role in the recovery of Classical Medicine in the Western World, through both Arabic-Muslim and Arabic-Hebrew physicians.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Angeletti1990,
      author = {L. R. Angeletti},
      title = {Transmission of classical medical texts through languages of the Middle-East.},
      journal = {Med Secoli},
      year = {1990},
      volume = {2},
      number = {3},
      pages = {293--329}
    }
    
    Anshen, F. & Schreiber, P.A. A Focus Transformation of Modern Standard Arabic 1968 Language
    Vol. 44(4), pp. 792-797 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Arabic verbs are traditionally considered to be inflected for number when they follow the subject, but not when they precede the subject. The resultant 'nominal' sentences of the former case can be related to the 'verbal' sentences of the latter case by a focus transformation which duplicates a noun before the verb and leaves the initial instance of the noun after the verb to be pronominalized. This pronominalization, in the case of subject nouns, is realized as the so-called number inflection of the verb. Such a treatment also simplifies the analysis of relative clauses, ostensibly subjectless sentences, and sentences containing copula pronouns.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Anshen1968,
      author = {Anshen, Frank and Schreiber, Peter A.},
      title = {A Focus Transformation of Modern Standard Arabic},
      journal = {Language},
      publisher = {Linguistic Society of America},
      year = {1968},
      volume = {44},
      number = {4},
      pages = {792--797},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/411898}
    }
    
    Arberry, A.J. The Nicomachean Ethics in Arabic 1955 Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London
    Vol. 17(1), pp. 1-9 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Arberry1955,
      author = {Arberry, A. J.},
      title = {The Nicomachean Ethics in Arabic},
      journal = {Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London},
      publisher = {Cambridge University Press on behalf of School of Oriental and African Studies},
      year = {1955},
      volume = {17},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1--9},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/609226}
    }
    
    Ard, J. & Homburg, T. Verification of language transfer 1992 Language transfer in language learning, pp. 47-70  incollection  
    BibTeX:
    @incollection{,
      author = {Ard, Josh and Homburg, Taco},
      title = {Verification of language transfer},
      booktitle = {Language transfer in language learning},
      publisher = {Benjamins},
      year = {1992},
      pages = {47-70}
    }
    
    Aroian, K.J., Kulwicki, A., Kaskiri, E.A., Templin, T.N. & Wells, C.L. Psychometric evaluation of the Arabic language version of the Profile of Mood States. 2007 Res Nurs Health
    Vol. 30(5), pp. 531-541 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: We estimated the psychometrics of the parent and a short form of the Arabic language version of the Profile of Mood States (POMS). A sample of 537 Arab immigrants completed the POMS and a battery of other measures. Data analyses included confirmatory factor analyses and tests of reliability and concurrent validity. The fit of the proposed factor structure was acceptable if 14 pairs of error terms were allowed to correlate, but a better fit was obtained by creating a short form. The short form demonstrated good reliability and concurrent validity, but some factors were highly correlated. High factor correlations were not explainable by group differences in education or level of distress.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Aroian2007,
      author = {Karen J Aroian and Anahid Kulwicki and Eleni A Kaskiri and Thomas N Templin and Charles L Wells},
      title = {Psychometric evaluation of the Arabic language version of the Profile of Mood States.},
      journal = {Res Nurs Health},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {30},
      number = {5},
      pages = {531--541},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nur.20211},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nur.20211}
    }
    
    Ashkenazi, O. & Ravid, D. Children's understanding of linguistic humour: An aspect of metalinguistic awareness 1998 Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitive/Current Psychology of Cognition
    Vol. 17(2), pp. 367-387 
    article  
    Abstract: Examined the understanding and appreciation of linguistic humor in Hebrew, a language rich in morphological structures. 121 native speakers of Hebrew in 6 age groups (6.1-34.1 yr olds) were asked to explain jokes and riddles requiring phonological, morphological, orthographic, and syntactic awareness. Ss' responses were analyzed in terms of (1) linguistic understanding and (2) non-linguistic humor appreciation. A clear developmental trend was found in the Ss' ability to understand and explain the linguistic sources of the jokes and riddles, reflecting a change in metalinguistic abilities and insight with increasing age, in which linguistic knowledge becomes progressively more explicit. The Test of Linguistic Humor is appended. (An erratum concerning this article appears in Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitive/Current Psychology of Cognition, 1998[Jun], Vol 17[3], 666).
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Ashkenazi, Orit and Ravid, Dorit},
      title = {Children's understanding of linguistic humour: An aspect of metalinguistic awareness},
      journal = {Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitive/Current Psychology of Cognition},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {17},
      number = {2},
      pages = {367-387}
    }
    
    Ashoor, A.A. & Prochazka, T. Saudi Arabic speech audiometry for children. 1985 Br J Audiol
    Vol. 19(3), pp. 229-238 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ashoor1985,
      author = {A. A. Ashoor and T. Prochazka},
      title = {Saudi Arabic speech audiometry for children.},
      journal = {Br J Audiol},
      year = {1985},
      volume = {19},
      number = {3},
      pages = {229--238}
    }
    
    Ashoor, A.A. & Prochazka, T. Saudi Arabic speech audiometry. 1982 Audiology
    Vol. 21(6), pp. 493-508 
    article  
    Abstract: Phonetically balanced monosyllabic classical Arabic word lists were chosen to construct a Saudi Arabic speech test. These words were taken from primary school books, daily newspapers and children's stories. They were first evaluated by our students for their familiarity and homogeneity and then divided into six sub-groups of 20 words each. The normal speech-audiometric curves obtained from our students (normally hearing subjects) with this material are similar to normal curves obtained with most European and American monosyllabic word lists. The threshold of intelligibility for our test material was also found to be similar to that of most foreign languages using monosyllabic word lists under the same conditions.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ashoor1982,
      author = {A. A. Ashoor and T. Prochazka},
      title = {Saudi Arabic speech audiometry.},
      journal = {Audiology},
      year = {1982},
      volume = {21},
      number = {6},
      pages = {493--508}
    }
    
    Assma, O.H., Khalifa, O.O. & Hassan, A. Handwritten Arabic word recognition: A review of common approaches 2008 Proc. Int. Conf. Computer and Communication Engineering ICCCE 2008, pp. 801-805  inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Assma2008,
      author = {Assma, O. H. and Khalifa, O. O. and Hassan, A. },
      title = {Handwritten Arabic word recognition: A review of common approaches},
      booktitle = {Proc. Int. Conf. Computer and Communication Engineering ICCCE 2008},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {801--805},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICCCE.2008.4580716}
    }
    
    von Aster, M.G. & Shalev, R.S. Number development and developmental dyscalculia. 2007 Dev Med Child Neurol
    Vol. 49(11), pp. 868-873 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: There is a growing consensus that the neuropsychological underpinnings of developmental dyscalculia (DD) are a genetically determined disorder of 'number sense', a term denoting the ability to represent and manipulate numerical magnitude nonverbally on an internal number line. However, this spatially-oriented number line develops during elementary school and requires additional cognitive components including working memory and number symbolization (language). Thus, there may be children with familial-genetic DD with deficits limited to number sense and others with DD and comorbidities such as language delay, dyslexia, or attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder. This duality is supported by epidemiological data indicating that two-thirds of children with DD have comorbid conditions while one-third have pure DD. Clinically, they differ according to their profile of arithmetic difficulties. fMRI studies indicate that parietal areas (important for number functions), and frontal regions (dominant for executive working memory and attention functions), are under-activated in children with DD. A four-step developmental model that allows prediction of different pathways for DD is presented. The core-system representation of numerical magnitude (cardinality; step 1) provides the meaning of 'number', a precondition to acquiring linguistic (step 2), and Arabic (step 3) number symbols, while a growing working memory enables neuroplastic development of an expanding mental number line during school years (step 4). Therapeutic and educational interventions can be drawn from this model.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Aster2007,
      author = {Michael G von Aster and Ruth S Shalev},
      title = {Number development and developmental dyscalculia.},
      journal = {Dev Med Child Neurol},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {49},
      number = {11},
      pages = {868--873},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8749.2007.00868.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8749.2007.00868.x}
    }
    
    Ataer, E. & Duygulu, P. Matching ottoman words: an image retrieval approach to historical document indexing 2007 CIVR '07: Proceedings of the 6th ACM international conference on Image and video retrieval, pp. 341-347  inproceedings DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Ataer2007Matching,
      author = {Ataer, Esra and Duygulu, Pinar},
      title = {Matching ottoman words: an image retrieval approach to historical document indexing},
      booktitle = {CIVR '07: Proceedings of the 6th ACM international conference on Image and video retrieval},
      publisher = {ACM Press},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {341--347},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1282280.1282332},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1282280.1282332}
    }
    
    Atallah, B. Translating medical journals into Arabic. JAMA Middle East as an example. 2004 Saudi Med J
    Vol. 25(1 Suppl), pp. S26-S28 
    article  
    Abstract: JAMA Middle East has distributed monthly 25,000 issues into 14 Arab countries since 1991. Translating the original articles into Arabic was considered as the license permits translation. The number of Arab physicians exceeds 250,000, but those who studied medicine in Arabic are very few. Adequate translators and other publishing staff are lacking. Advertisers will not invest in journals without readership. The other 13 international editions of JAMA publish in their national languages, so do their medical schools. Teaching medicine in a foreign language did not bring leadership to Arab medicine. It is just another indicator of Arab underdevelopment. There is growing support to shift the language of medical teaching into Arabic, but the only practical step has been the Unified Medical Dictionary.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Atallah2004,
      author = {Bassel Atallah},
      title = {Translating medical journals into Arabic. JAMA Middle East as an example.},
      journal = {Saudi Med J},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {25},
      number = {1 Suppl},
      pages = {S26--S28}
    }
    
    Attia, M. Arabic Tokenization System 2007 Proceedings of the 2007 Workshop on Computational Approaches to Semitic Languages: Common Issues and Resources, pp. 65-72  inproceedings URL 
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{attia:2007:CASL2007,
      author = {Attia, Mohammed},
      title = {Arabic Tokenization System},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2007 Workshop on Computational Approaches to Semitic Languages: Common Issues and Resources},
      publisher = {Association for Computational Linguistics},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {65--72},
      url = {http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/W/W07/W07-0809}
    }
    
    Attia, M.A. Handling Arabic Morphological and Syntactic Ambiguity within the LFG Framework with a View to Machine Translation 2008 School: School of Languages, Linguistics and Cultures, University of Manchester  phdthesis  
    BibTeX:
    @phdthesis{Attia2008a,
      author = {Mohammed A. Attia},
      title = {Handling Arabic Morphological and Syntactic Ambiguity within the LFG Framework with a View to Machine Translation},
      school = {School of Languages, Linguistics and Cultures, University of Manchester},
      year = {2008}
    }
    
    Attia, M.A. Arabic tokenization system 2007 Semitic '07: Proceedings of the 2007 Workshop on Computational Approaches to Semitic Languages, pp. 65-72  inproceedings  
    Abstract: Tokenization is a necessary and non-trivial step in natural language processing. In the case of Arabic, where a single word can comprise up to four independent tokens, morphological knowledge needs to be incorporated into the tokenizer. In this paper we describe a rule-based tokenizer that handles tokenization as a full-rounded process with a preprocessing stage (white space normalizer), and a post-processing stage (token filter). We also show how it handles multiword expressions, and how ambiguity is resolved.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Attia2007,
      author = {Attia, Mohammed A.},
      title = {Arabic tokenization system},
      booktitle = {Semitic '07: Proceedings of the 2007 Workshop on Computational Approaches to Semitic Languages},
      publisher = {Association for Computational Linguistics},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {65--72}
    }
    
    Attia, M., Rashwan, M. & Al-Badrashiny, M. Fassieh, a Semi-Automatic Visual Interactive Tool for Morphological, PoS-Tags, Phonetic, and Semantic Annotation of Arabic Text Corpora 2009 IEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing
    Vol. 17(5), pp. 916-925 
    article DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Attia2009,
      author = {Attia, M. and Rashwan, M. and Al-Badrashiny, M. },
      title = {Fassieh, a Semi-Automatic Visual Interactive Tool for Morphological, PoS-Tags, Phonetic, and Semantic Annotation of Arabic Text Corpora},
      journal = {IEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {17},
      number = {5},
      pages = {916--925},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TASL.2009.2019298}
    }
    
    Awadalla, M., Abou Chadi, F.E.Z. & Soliman, H.H. Development of an Arabic speech database 2005 Proc. Enabling Technologies for the New Knowledge Society: ITI 3rd Int Information and Communications Technology Conf, pp. 89-100  inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Awadalla2005,
      author = {Awadalla, M. and Abou Chadi, F. E. Z. and Soliman, H. H. },
      title = {Development of an Arabic speech database},
      booktitle = {Proc. Enabling Technologies for the New Knowledge Society: ITI 3rd Int Information and Communications Technology Conf},
      year = {2005},
      pages = {89--100},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ITICT.2005.1609617}
    }
    
    Awais, M.M., Masud, S., Ahktar, J. & Shamail, S. Arabic phoneme identification using conventional and concurrent neural networks in non native speakers 2007 ICIC'07: Proceedings of the intelligent computing 3rd international conference on Advanced intelligent computing theories and applications, pp. 897-905  inproceedings  
    Abstract: Traditional speech recognition systems have relied on power spectral densities, Mel-frequency cepstral, linear prediction coding and formant analysis. This paper introduces two novel input feature sets and their extraction methods for intelligent phoneme identification. These input sets are based on intrinsic phonetic characteristics of Arabic speech comprising of the dimensionally reduced Power Spectral Densities (DPSD) and Location, Trend, Gradient (LTG) values of the captured speech signal spectrum. These characteristics have been subsequently utilized as inputs to four different neural network based recognition classifiers. The classifiers have been tested for twenty-eight Arabic phonemes utterances from over one hundred nonnative speakers. The results obtained using the proposed feature sets have been compared and it has been observed that LTG based input feature set provides an average phoneme identification accuracy of 86% as compared to 70% obtained through applying DPSD based inputs for similar classifiers. It is worthwhile to note that the methods proposed in this paper are generic and are equally applicable to other regional languages such as Persian and Urdu.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Awais2007,
      author = {Awais, Mian M. and Masud, Shahid and Ahktar, Junaid and Shamail, Shafay},
      title = {Arabic phoneme identification using conventional and concurrent neural networks in non native speakers},
      booktitle = {ICIC'07: Proceedings of the intelligent computing 3rd international conference on Advanced intelligent computing theories and applications},
      publisher = {Springer-Verlag},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {897--905}
    }
    
    Ayob, M.Z. & Ismail, A.F. Design of prototype expert system for transliterating Arabic-to-Roman words 2006 Proc. 4th Student Conf. Research and Development SCOReD 2006, pp. 112-114  inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Ayob2006,
      author = {Ayob, M. Z. and Ismail, A. F. },
      title = {Design of prototype expert system for transliterating Arabic-to-Roman words},
      booktitle = {Proc. 4th Student Conf. Research and Development SCOReD 2006},
      year = {2006},
      pages = {112--114},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/SCORED.2006.4339320}
    }
    
    Ayyad, H. & Bernhardt, B.M. Phonological development of Kuwaiti Arabic: preliminary data. 2009 Clin Linguist Phon
    Vol. 23(11), pp. 794-807 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: An overview of Kuwaiti Arabic is presented, with very preliminary data from two typically developing brothers (ages 2;4 and 5;2) and a 6-year-old with a severe sensorineural hearing impairment. The siblings show early mastery of many aspects of the complex Arabic phonological system, with universally expected later mastery of coronal fricatives and /r/. The 6-year-old shows patterns typical of children with hearing impairments, e.g. hypernasality, a prevalence of 'visible' segments, particularly labials, and simplified syllable structure. Her accurate use of /l/, /r/, and some gutturals, however, raise questions about the enhanced perceptibility and functionality of these segments in Arabic.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ayyad2009,
      author = {Hadeel Ayyad and B. May Bernhardt},
      title = {Phonological development of Kuwaiti Arabic: preliminary data.},
      journal = {Clin Linguist Phon},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {23},
      number = {11},
      pages = {794--807},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/02699200903236493},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/02699200903236493}
    }
    
    Aziz, A.A., Shohdi, S., Osman, D.M. & Habib, E.I. Childhood apraxia of speech and multiple phonological disorders in Cairo-Egyptian Arabic speaking children: language, speech, and oro-motor differences. 2010 Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol
    Vol. 74(6), pp. 578-585 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Childhood apraxia of speech is a neurological childhood speech-sound disorder in which the precision and consistency of movements underlying speech are impaired in the absence of neuromuscular deficits. Children with childhood apraxia of speech and those with multiple phonological disorder share some common phonological errors that can be misleading in diagnosis. This study posed a question about a possible significant difference in language, speech and non-speech oral performances between children with childhood apraxia of speech, multiple phonological disorder and normal children that can be used for a differential diagnostic purpose. 30 pre-school children between the ages of 4 and 6 years served as participants. Each of these children represented one of 3 possible subject-groups: Group 1: multiple phonological disorder; Group 2: suspected cases of childhood apraxia of speech; Group 3: control group with no communication disorder. Assessment procedures included: parent interviews; testing of non-speech oral motor skills and testing of speech skills. Data showed that children with suspected childhood apraxia of speech showed significantly lower language score only in their expressive abilities. Non-speech tasks did not identify significant differences between childhood apraxia of speech and multiple phonological disorder groups except for those which required two sequential motor performances. In speech tasks, both consonant and vowel accuracy were significantly lower and inconsistent in childhood apraxia of speech group than in the multiple phonological disorder group. Syllable number, shape and sequence accuracy differed significantly in the childhood apraxia of speech group than the other two groups. In addition, children with childhood apraxia of speech showed greater difficulty in processing prosodic features indicating a clear need to address these variables for differential diagnosis and treatment of children with childhood apraxia of speech.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Aziz2010,
      author = {Azza Adel Aziz and Sahar Shohdi and Dalia Mostafa Osman and Emad Iskander Habib},
      title = {Childhood apraxia of speech and multiple phonological disorders in Cairo-Egyptian Arabic speaking children: language, speech, and oro-motor differences.},
      journal = {Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {74},
      number = {6},
      pages = {578--585},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijporl.2010.02.003},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijporl.2010.02.003}
    }
    
    Aziz, A.A., Shohdi, S., Osman, D.M. & Habib, E.I. Childhood apraxia of speech and multiple phonological disorders in Cairo-Egyptian Arabic speaking children: Language, speech, and oro-motor differences 2010 International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
    Vol. 74(6), pp. 578 - 585 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Childhood apraxia of speech is a neurological childhood speech-sound disorder in which the precision and consistency of movements underlying speech are impaired in the absence of neuromuscular deficits. Children with childhood apraxia of speech and those with multiple phonological disorder share some common phonological errors that can be misleading in diagnosis. This study posed a question about a possible significant difference in language, speech and non-speech oral performances between children with childhood apraxia of speech, multiple phonological disorder and normal children that can be used for a differential diagnostic purpose. 30 pre-school children between the ages of 4 and 6 years served as participants. Each of these children represented one of 3 possible subject-groups: Group 1: multiple phonological disorder; Group 2: suspected cases of childhood apraxia of speech; Group 3: control group with no communication disorder. Assessment procedures included: parent interviews; testing of non-speech oral motor skills and testing of speech skills. Data showed that children with suspected childhood apraxia of speech showed significantly lower language score only in their expressive abilities. Non-speech tasks did not identify significant differences between childhood apraxia of speech and multiple phonological disorder groups except for those which required two sequential motor performances. In speech tasks, both consonant and vowel accuracy were significantly lower and inconsistent in childhood apraxia of speech group than in the multiple phonological disorder group. Syllable number, shape and sequence accuracy differed significantly in the childhood apraxia of speech group than the other two groups. In addition, children with childhood apraxia of speech showed greater difficulty in processing prosodic features indicating a clear need to address these variables for differential diagnosis and treatment of children with childhood apraxia of speech.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Aziz2010a,
      author = {Azza Adel Aziz and Sahar Shohdi and Dalia Mostafa Osman and Emad Iskander Habib},
      title = {Childhood apraxia of speech and multiple phonological disorders in Cairo-Egyptian Arabic speaking children: Language, speech, and oro-motor differences},
      journal = {International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {74},
      number = {6},
      pages = {578 - 585},
      url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6T7V-4YHP78P-2/2/cb74ab9b5841788339b1ce65385a1ba7},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijporl.2010.02.003}
    }
    
    Aziz, M.A. The Arabic origin of ophthalmology words. 1975 Bull Ophthalmol Soc Egypt
    Vol. 68, pp. 741-751 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Aziz1975,
      author = {M. A. Aziz},
      title = {The Arabic origin of ophthalmology words.},
      journal = {Bull Ophthalmol Soc Egypt},
      year = {1975},
      volume = {68},
      pages = {741--751}
    }
    
    Azmi, A. & Al-thanyyan, S. Ikhtasir --- A user selected compression ratio Arabic text summarization system 2009 Proc. Int. Conf. Natural Language Processing and Knowledge Engineering NLP-KE 2009, pp. 1-7  inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Azmi2009,
      author = {Azmi, A. and Al-thanyyan, S. },
      title = {Ikhtasir --- A user selected compression ratio Arabic text summarization system},
      booktitle = {Proc. Int. Conf. Natural Language Processing and Knowledge Engineering NLP-KE 2009},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {1--7},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/NLPKE.2009.5313732}
    }
    
    Badarneh, M.A. The pragmatics of diminutives in colloquial Jordanian Arabic 2009 Journal of Pragmatics  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: This paper investigates the pragmatic functions of diminutives in colloquial Jordanian Arabic (CJA) in the light of Brown and Levinson's model of linguistic politeness. Analysis of naturally occurring data of diminutive use shows that, as an extension of their central use with children, diminutives in CJA have taken on the pragmatic functions of expressing a pejorative attitude, showing affection and endearment, intensifying the speaker's emotions, hedging an utterance, minimizing imposition, showing modesty and avoiding bragging, and asserting intimacy in joking contexts. A peculiar use of the diminutive in CJA is for mild insulting realized through marking the diminutive on a proper name in antagonistic contexts. It is noted that the diminutive is mainly hearer-supportive, boosting the force of the utterance in positive politeness contexts while mitigating the force of the utterance in negative politeness contexts. The diminutive in CJA is thus used both as a positive politeness strategy, oriented toward expressing affection and endearment and establishing a friendly context for the interaction, and as a negative politeness strategy aimed at minimizing imposition and softening negative statements. These pragmatic functions reflect the role of diminutives in colloquial discourse as a device utilized to mark, establish, or assert social relationships.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Badarneh2009Pragmatics,
      author = {Badarneh, Muhammad A.},
      title = {The pragmatics of diminutives in colloquial Jordanian Arabic},
      journal = {Journal of Pragmatics},
      year = {2009},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2009.05.004},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2009.05.004}
    }
    
    Baddeley, A. & SalamǸ, P. The unattended speech effect: perception or memory? 1986 J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn
    Vol. 12(4), pp. 525-529 
    article  
    Abstract: Broadbent (1983) has suggested that the influence of unattended speech on immediate serial recall is a perceptual phenomenon rather than a memory phenomenon. In order to test this, subjects were required to classify visually presented pairs of consonants on the basis of either case or rhyme. They were tested both in silence and against a background of continuous spoken Arabic presented at 75 dB(A). No effect of unattended speech was observed on either the speed or accuracy of processing. A further study required subjects to decide whether visually presented nonwords were homophonous with real words. Again, performance was not impaired by unattended speech, although a clear effect was observed on an immediate serial memory task. Our results give no support to the perceptual interpretation of the unattended speech effect.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Baddeley1986,
      author = {A. Baddeley and P. SalamǸ},
      title = {The unattended speech effect: perception or memory?},
      journal = {J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn},
      year = {1986},
      volume = {12},
      number = {4},
      pages = {525--529}
    }
    
    Badets, A. & Pesenti, M. Creating number semantics through finger movement perception. 2010 Cognition
    Vol. 115(1), pp. 46-53 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Communication, language and conceptual knowledge related to concrete objects may rely on the sensory-motor systems from which they emerge. How abstract concepts can emerge from these systems is however still unknown. Here we report a functional interaction between a specific meaningful finger movement, such as a finger grip closing, and a concept as abstract as numerical magnitude. Participants were presented with Arabic digits to recall before or after they perceived a biological or non-biological hand movement. The results show that perceiving a grip closing slows down the processing of large magnitude numbers. Importantly, we show that this motor-to-semantic interaction differs from the reverse semantic-to-motor interaction, and that it does not result from a general movement amplitude processing as it is only observed for biological hand movements. These results demonstrate the functional link between number meaning and goal-directed finger movements, and show how abstract concept semantics can emerge from the sensory-motor circuits of the brain.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Badets2010,
      author = {Arnaud Badets and Mauro Pesenti},
      title = {Creating number semantics through finger movement perception.},
      journal = {Cognition},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {115},
      number = {1},
      pages = {46--53},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2009.11.007},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2009.11.007}
    }
    
    Badry, F. The centrality of the root in semitic lexical derivation: Evidence from children's acquisition of Moroccan Arabic 1982 Papers and Reports on Child Language Development
    Vol. 21, pp. 9-15 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Badry, Fatima},
      title = {The centrality of the root in semitic lexical derivation: Evidence from children's acquisition of Moroccan Arabic},
      journal = {Papers and Reports on Child Language Development},
      year = {1982},
      volume = {21},
      pages = {9-15}
    }
    
    Baharudin, S., Ismail, M., Ismail, I. & Nasir, S.M. STAr : Story telling for Arabic language 2010 Proc. Int Information Retrieval & Knowledge Management, (CAMP) Conf, pp. 143-146  inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Baharudin2010,
      author = {Baharudin, S. and Ismail, M. and Ismail, I. and Nasir, S. M. },
      title = {STAr : Story telling for Arabic language},
      booktitle = {Proc. Int Information Retrieval & Knowledge Management, (CAMP) Conf},
      year = {2010},
      pages = {143--146},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/INFRKM.2010.5466931}
    }
    
    Bahri, T. & Bendania, A. Effect of language dominance on cognitive processes in a Stroop task. 1997 Percept Mot Skills
    Vol. 84(3 Pt 1), pp. 979-988 
    article  
    Abstract: The present study investigated the effect of language dominance on 40 subjects' performance on a Stroop task. In the first group were 20 Education majors using mainly the Arabic language, while in the second group of 20 students were majors in English. Each group performed two different Stroop tasks. Analysis showed that language comprehension affected the way subjects processed the information. This difference was explained in terms of cognitive processes involved and by a late selective attention process.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bahri1997,
      author = {T. Bahri and A. Bendania},
      title = {Effect of language dominance on cognitive processes in a Stroop task.},
      journal = {Percept Mot Skills},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {84},
      number = {3 Pt 1},
      pages = {979--988}
    }
    
    Bahumaid & Showqi Collocation in English-Arabic Translation 2006 Babel
    Vol. 52(2), pp. 133-152 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bahumaid2006Collocation,
      author = {Bahumaid and Showqi},
      title = {Collocation in English-Arabic Translation},
      journal = {Babel},
      publisher = {John Benjamins Publishing Company},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {52},
      number = {2},
      pages = {133--152},
      url = {http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/jbp/bab/2006/00000052/00000002/art00003}
    }
    
    Bakalla, M. The morphological and phonological components of the Arabic verb (Meccan Arabic) 1979 London: Longman  book  
    BibTeX:
    @book{Bakalla1979,
      author = {Bakalla, M},
      title = {The morphological and phonological components of the Arabic verb (Meccan Arabic)},
      journal = {London: Longman},
      year = {1979}
    }
    
    Bar-Adon, A. Primary syntactic structures in Hebrew child language 1971 Child language: A book of readings  incollection  
    Abstract: A discussion of the word order and syntactic structures used by children in the development of Hebrew.
    BibTeX:
    @incollection{,
      author = {Bar-Adon, Aaron},
      title = {Primary syntactic structures in Hebrew child language},
      booktitle = {Child language: A book of readings},
      publisher = {Prentice-Hall, Inc.},
      year = {1971}
    }
    
    Bar-Adon, A. Analogy and analogic change as reflected in contemporary Hebrew 1971 Child language: A book of readings  incollection  
    Abstract: reprinted from 9th International Congress of Linguists, 1964, pp. = 758-763. Study of the changes that have taken place in Hebrew since its revitalization.
    BibTeX:
    @incollection{,
      author = {Bar-Adon, Aaron},
      title = {Analogy and analogic change as reflected in contemporary Hebrew},
      booktitle = {Child language: A book of readings},
      publisher = {Prentice-Hall, Inc.},
      year = {1971}
    }
    
    Barncord, S.W. & Wanlass, R.L. The symbol trail making test: test development and utility as a measure of cognitive impairment. 2001 Appl Neuropsychol
    Vol. 8(2), pp. 99-103 
    article  
    Abstract: Although the Trail Making Test (TMT) has proven to be an exceptional clinical tool, its applications have been limited by the instrument's use of the Arabic numeral system and Latin alphabet. Clearly an instrument not limited by a specific alphabet or numerical system could fill this void. This study presents the development and validation of an alternative to the TMT that offers modestly similar psychometric properties and can be used with populations that have no familiarity with the Arabic numerical system or a specific alphabet. The Symbol Trail Making Test (STMT), which employs symbols that are not language or numerically based was administered to a normative sample of 210 participants, including 54 individuals whose first language was not English, for the purpose of collecting normative data. Reliability, assessed through an alternate form administration, and convergent validity, assessed through correlation with the TMT in a nonpatient sample, was deemed acceptable. Significant discriminant validity was obtained comparing non-brain-injured patients to brain-injured patients, particularly on time measures. An analysis of variance found no significant difference between native English speakers and individuals speaking English as a second language on performance on the STMT. This preliminary study provides evidence that the STMT is a clinically useful instrument for discriminating brain-injured from non-brain-injured participants without employing a specific culture-bound symbol system.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Barncord2001,
      author = {S. W. Barncord and R. L. Wanlass},
      title = {The symbol trail making test: test development and utility as a measure of cognitive impairment.},
      journal = {Appl Neuropsychol},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {8},
      number = {2},
      pages = {99--103}
    }
    
    Barr, R.L. Embossing arabic letters and numbers on new raised-line polyethylene paper: an aid for the blind. 1970 Science
    Vol. 169(940), pp. 94-95 
    article  
    Abstract: A new polyethylene paper may be marked on a hard surface with an ordinary oversize ball-point pen or dull pencil point. Where the paper is marked, a raised-line imprint appears on the same side of the paper as that used for writing. This imprint may be both felt and seen. Newly blinded and partially sighted persons are able to read ordinary Arabic letters and numerals after a few trials.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Barr1970,
      author = {R. L. Barr},
      title = {Embossing arabic letters and numbers on new raised-line polyethylene paper: an aid for the blind.},
      journal = {Science},
      year = {1970},
      volume = {169},
      number = {940},
      pages = {94--95}
    }
    
    Basso, A., Burgio, F. & Caporali, A. Acalculia, aphasia and spatial disorders in left and right brain-damaged patients. 2000 Cortex
    Vol. 36(2), pp. 265-280 
    article  
    Abstract: The paper reports the performance of 50 left- and 26 vascular right-brain-damaged (LBD, RBD) patients in the EC301 Calculation Battery, which explores different aspects of number and calculation processing. All patients underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological testing that also included evaluation for the presence and type of aphasia in LBD patients, and of spatial disorders in RBD patients. LBD were subdivided in three groups: non-aphasic (NA), Broca and Wernicke aphasics. Results indicate that language and calculation disorders can dissociate. The relationship between spatial and calculation disorders in RBD patients is less clear. No significant difference was found between Broca and Wernicke aphasics, nor between NA and RBD patients. In the transcoding tasks (reading or writing to dictation numbers and number words, for instance) syntactic errors were the most frequent type of errors in all groups. They were also present when neither the input nor the required response was in the Arabic code, and a word-by-word strategy could have been used to read the number word or write a spoken number in the orthographic code.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Basso2000,
      author = {A. Basso and F. Burgio and A. Caporali},
      title = {Acalculia, aphasia and spatial disorders in left and right brain-damaged patients.},
      journal = {Cortex},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {36},
      number = {2},
      pages = {265--280}
    }
    
    Bedrick, S.D. & Mauro, A. A multi-lingual web service for drug side-effect data. 2009 AMIA Annu Symp Proc
    Vol. 2009, pp. 34-38 
    article  
    Abstract: In this paper, we describe a system that provides drug side-effect data for use as a component in service-oriented architectures. Our system uses "Web 2.0" techniques to collect data from a variety of public sources, and can provide its output in a variety of human languages (e.g. Spanish and Arabic). To demonstrate our tool's versatility and the ease with which it may be integrated into larger systems, we present several front-ends that use our system, including SMS ("text message"), "instant messenger", and iPhone interfaces. We enlisted a panel of Argentinean clinicians to review and rate the quality of our system's Spanish-language output in order to investigate whether freely-available general-purpose machine translation technology (Google's translation API) is adequate for consumer medical applications. Our raters found that Google's translation quality varied greatly among drugs, and we conclude that it is better used as a starting point than as a complete translation solution.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bedrick2009,
      author = {Steven D Bedrick and Alejandro Mauro},
      title = {A multi-lingual web service for drug side-effect data.},
      journal = {AMIA Annu Symp Proc},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {2009},
      pages = {34--38}
    }
    
    Beesley, K. Arabic morphology using only finite-state operations   misc URL 
    Abstract: Finite-state morphology has been successful in the description and computational implementation of a wide variety of natural languages. However, the particular challenges of Arabic, and the limitations of some implementations of finite-state morphology, have led many researchers to believe that finite-state power was not sufficient to handle Arabic and other Semitic morphology. This paper illustrates how the morphotactics and the variation rules of Arabic have been described using only...
    BibTeX:
    @misc{BeesleyArabic,
      author = {Beesley, K.},
      title = {Arabic morphology using only finite-state operations},
      url = {http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.22.7654}
    }
    
    Beesley, K. Arabic Morphological Analysis on the Internet 1998   misc URL 
    Abstract: : [Arabic, Morphology, Finite State] This paper describes a finite-state morphological analyzer of written Modern Standard Arabic words that is available for testing on the Internet at
    BibTeX:
    @misc{Beesley1998Arabic,
      author = {Beesley, K.},
      title = {Arabic Morphological Analysis on the Internet},
      year = {1998},
      url = {http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.28.5655}
    }
    
    Beesley, K.R. Consonant Spreading in Arabic Stems 1998
    Vol. 1#COLINGACL#, pp. 117-123 
    inproceedings  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Beesley98co,
      author = {Kenneth R. Beesley},
      title = {Consonant Spreading in Arabic Stems},
      booktitle = {#COLINGACL#},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {1},
      pages = {117-123}
    }
    
    Beesley, K.R. Arabic Finite-State Morphological Analysis and Generation 1996 #COLING96#, pp. 89-94  inproceedings  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Beesley96,
      author = {Kenneth R Beesley},
      title = {Arabic Finite-State Morphological Analysis and Generation},
      booktitle = {#COLING96#},
      publisher = {Center for Sprogteknologi},
      year = {1996},
      pages = {89-94}
    }
    
    Beeston, A.F.L. Embedding of the Theme-Predicate Structure in Arabic 1974 Language
    Vol. 50(3), pp. 474-477 
    article URL 
    Abstract: An Arabic theme-predicate structure may incorporate, as its predicate element, an embedded structure which itself consists of theme plus predicate. Authorities have not stated how far this process can be continued by further embeddings. Usage indicates, however, that a second embedding occurs only under certain limiting restrictions, and a third embedding not at all.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Beeston1974,
      author = {Beeston, A. F. L.},
      title = {Embedding of the Theme-Predicate Structure in Arabic},
      journal = {Language},
      publisher = {Linguistic Society of America},
      year = {1974},
      volume = {50},
      number = {3},
      pages = {474--477},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/412219}
    }
    
    Belaïd, A. & Choisy, C. Human Reading Based Strategies for Off-Line Arabic Word Recognition 2008 Arabic and Chinese Handwriting Recognition, pp. 36-56  incollection DOI URL 
    Abstract: This paper summarizes techniques proposed for off-line Arabic word recognition. This point of view concerns the human reading favoring an interactive mechanism between global memorization and local verification sim- plifying the recognition of complex scripts such as Arabic. According to this consideration, specific papers are analyzed with comments on strategies.
    BibTeX:
    @incollection{Belaid2008Human,
      author = {Belaïd, Abdel and Choisy, Christophe},
      title = {Human Reading Based Strategies for Off-Line Arabic Word Recognition},
      journal = {Arabic and Chinese Handwriting Recognition},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {36--56},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-78199-83},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-78199-8\_3}
    }
    
    Belin, C., Pionner, V., Perrier, D. & Larmande, P. [Tachistoscopic reading of arabic words] 1990 J Fr Ophtalmol
    Vol. 13(5), pp. 299-301 
    article  
    Abstract: The authors study the tachistoscopic recognition of Arabic words in Arabic speakers. This study shows that Arabic words are read by Arabic speakers in the same way as French words by French speaking readers. Under such circumstances, the direction of reading appears to be less important than hemispheric specialisation.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Belin1990,
      author = {C. Belin and V. Pionner and D. Perrier and P. Larmande},
      title = {[Tachistoscopic reading of arabic words]},
      journal = {J Fr Ophtalmol},
      year = {1990},
      volume = {13},
      number = {5},
      pages = {299--301}
    }
    
    Bella, H. & Morley, D. The use of women's vocabulary in teaching primary health care. 1983 Lancet
    Vol. 1(8325), pp. 639-640 
    article  
    Abstract: Sudan's program to train illiterate village midwives is most likely the oldest and the most successful of the village health worker training programs in the world. Initiated in 1920, the training has become well accepted by the villagers. The women are chosen by their communities and selected for training. They spend 9 months in practical training inspired by the Wolff sisters and pioneer Sudanese trained midwives. Those who started the program developed a deep knowledge of and respect for the culture. Due to the cult of female circumcision, all women want and are in need of assistance in delivery. The same is not the case for antenatal care, and those developing the program had to discover an appropriate simile easily comprehended by women. The cooking pot was the choice, and the term "pot inspection" became a recognized term for antenatal care, even in the teaching hospital. After adopting the concept of "pot inspection", a large turnout of expectant mothers was achieved in the 1st year, and since then antenatal care has been popular. Another practice requiring change was the tradition that after delivery a woman in the Sudan should lie flat in bed for 40 days. In an effort to overcome this custom, the uterus was likened to a "gabana" or coffee pot. In sum, the training was based on common utensils found in the homes where the midwives would work. The total training curriculum is in question and answer form. Simple colloquial Sudanese Arabic understood by the illiterate midwives is used. In addition to developing common similes, the program originators made a study of the language and vocabulary commonly used by women in their daily speech. They used this vocabulary in all their teaching. Sudan's program is probably the first to provide primary health care through part-time health workers.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bella1983,
      author = {H. Bella and D. Morley},
      title = {The use of women's vocabulary in teaching primary health care.},
      journal = {Lancet},
      year = {1983},
      volume = {1},
      number = {8325},
      pages = {639--640}
    }
    
    Ben & Ben Combining a hybrid approach for features selection and hidden Markov models in multifont Arabic characters recognition 2006 Document Image Analysis for Libraries, 2006. DIAL '06. Second International Conference on, pp. 5 pp.+  proceedings URL 
    Abstract: Optical character recognition (OCR) has been an active subject of research since the early days of computers. Despite the age of the subject, it remains one of the most challenging and exciting areas of research in computer science. In recent years it has grown into a mature discipline, producing a huge body of work. In this paper, we present an Arabic optical multifont character recognition approach based on both Hough transform and wavelet transform for features selection and hidden Markov models for classification. In the next sections, the whole OCR system is presented. The different tests carried out on a set of about 170.000 samples of multifont Arabic characters and the obtained results so far are developed.
    BibTeX:
    @proceedings{Ben2006Combining,
      author = {Ben and Ben},
      title = {Combining a hybrid approach for features selection and hidden Markov models in multifont Arabic characters recognition},
      journal = {Document Image Analysis for Libraries, 2006. DIAL '06. Second International Conference on},
      year = {2006},
      pages = {5 pp.+},
      url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/absall.jsp?arnumber=1612952}
    }
    
    Ben, Kanoun, S., Alimi, A.M. & Mullot, R. Three decision levels strategy for Arabic and Latin texts differentiation in printed and handwritten natures 2007 Document Analysis and Recognition, 2007. ICDAR 2007. Ninth International Conference on
    Vol. 2Document Analysis and Recognition, 2007. ICDAR 2007. Ninth International Conference on, pp. 1103-1107 
    proceedings DOI URL 
    Abstract: Arabic and Latin script identification in printed and handwritten nature present several difficulties because the Arabic (printed or handwritten) and the handwritten Latin scripts are cursive scripts of nature. To avoid all possible confusions which can be generated, we propose in this paper a strategy which is based on three decision levels where each level will have its own features vector and will consist in identifying only one script among the scripts to identify.
    BibTeX:
    @proceedings{Ben2007Three,
      author = {Ben and Kanoun, S. and Alimi, A. M. and Mullot, R.},
      title = {Three decision levels strategy for Arabic and Latin texts differentiation in printed and handwritten natures},
      booktitle = {Document Analysis and Recognition, 2007. ICDAR 2007. Ninth International Conference on},
      journal = {Document Analysis and Recognition, 2007. ICDAR 2007. Ninth International Conference on},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {2},
      pages = {1103--1107},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICDAR.2007.4377086},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICDAR.2007.4377086}
    }
    
    Ben Cheikh, I., Belaid, A. & Kacem, A. A novel approach for the recognition of a wide Arabic handwritten word lexicon 2008 Proc. 19th Int. Conf. Pattern Recognition ICPR 2008, pp. 1-4  inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{BenCheikh2008,
      author = {Ben Cheikh, I. and Belaid, A. and Kacem, A. },
      title = {A novel approach for the recognition of a wide Arabic handwritten word lexicon},
      booktitle = {Proc. 19th Int. Conf. Pattern Recognition ICPR 2008},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {1--4},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICPR.2008.4761148}
    }
    
    Benajiba, Y., Rosso, P. & Benedruiz, J. ANERsys: An Arabic Named Entity Recognition System Based on Maximum Entropy 2007 Computational Linguistics and Intelligent Text Processing, pp. 143-153  incollection DOI URL 
    Abstract: The task of Named Entity Recognition (NER) allows to identify proper names as well as temporal and numeric expressions, in an open-domain text. NER systems proved to be very important for many tasks in Natural Language Processing (NLP) such as Information Retrieval and Question Answering tasks. Unfortunately, the main efforts to build reliable NER systems for the Arabic language have been made in a commercial frame and the approach used as well as the accuracy of the performance are not known. In this paper, we present ANERsys: a NER system built exclusively for Arabic texts based-on n-grams and maximum entropy. Furthermore, we present both the specific Arabic language dependent heuristic and the gazetteers we used to boost our system. We developed our own training and test corpora (ANERcorp) and gazetteers (ANERgazet) to train, evaluate and boost the implemented technique. A major effort was conducted to make sure all the experiments are carried out in the same framework of the CONLL 2002 conference. We carried out several experiments and the preliminary results showed that this approach allows to tackle successfully the problem of NER for the Arabic language.
    BibTeX:
    @incollection{Benajiba2007ANERsys,
      author = {Benajiba, Yassine and Rosso, Paolo and Benedruiz, José},
      title = {ANERsys: An Arabic Named Entity Recognition System Based on Maximum Entropy},
      journal = {Computational Linguistics and Intelligent Text Processing},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {143--153},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-70939-813},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-70939-8\_13}
    }
    
    Benajiba, Y. & Zitouni, I. Morphology-Based Segmentation Combination for Arabic Mention Detection 2009 ACM Transactions on Asian Language Information Processing (TALIP)
    Vol. 8(4), pp. 1-18 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The Arabic language has a very rich/complex morphology. Each Arabic word is composed of zero or more prefixes, one stem and zero or more suffixes. Consequently, the Arabic data is sparse compared to other languages such as English, and it is necessary to conduct word segmentation before any natural language processing task. Therefore, the word-segmentation step is worth a deeper study since it is a preprocessing step which shall have a significant impact on all the steps coming afterward. In this article, we present an Arabic mention detection system that has very competitive results in the recent Automatic Content Extraction (ACE) evaluation campaign. We investigate the impact of different segmentation schemes on Arabic mention detection systems and we show how these systems may benefit from more than one segmentation scheme. We report the performance of several mention detection models using different kinds of possible and known segmentation schemes for Arabic text: punctuation separation, Arabic Treebank, and morphological and character-level segmentations. We show that the combination of competitive segmentation styles leads to a better performance. Results indicate a statistically significant improvement when Arabic Treebank and morphological segmentations are combined.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Benajiba2009,
      author = {Benajiba, Yassine and Zitouni, Imed},
      title = {Morphology-Based Segmentation Combination for Arabic Mention Detection},
      journal = {ACM Transactions on Asian Language Information Processing (TALIP)},
      publisher = {ACM},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {8},
      number = {4},
      pages = {1--18},
      doi = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1644879.1644883}
    }
    
    Bendania, A. & Abed, A.S. Reliability and factorial structure of an Arabic translation of the Self-Consciousness Scale. 1997 Psychol Rep
    Vol. 81(3 Pt 2), pp. 1091-1101 
    article  
    Abstract: An Arabic translation of Fenigstein, Scheier, and Buss's 1975 Self-consciousness scale was administered to 254 United Arab Emirates University undergraduate students, 99 men and 155 women with a mean age of 24 years. A factor analysis of the intercorrelations indicated the same general factors as in the original and other replicating studies. This study, however, differed from them in item loadings and distribution of items within the three factors of the scale. Other factor solutions were also tried and reported. Differences between men and women were also noted. In contrast with previous studies, the Arabic version showed differences in the magnitude of correlations among subscales. These differences were discussed in the light of cross-cultural and Arabic studies showing the influence of culture.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bendania1997,
      author = {A. Bendania and A. S. Abed},
      title = {Reliability and factorial structure of an Arabic translation of the Self-Consciousness Scale.},
      journal = {Psychol Rep},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {81},
      number = {3 Pt 2},
      pages = {1091--1101}
    }
    
    Benouareth, A., Ennaji, A. & Sellami, M. HMMs with Explicit State Duration Applied to Handwritten Arabic Word Recognition 2006 ICPR '06: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Pattern Recognition, pp. 897-900  inproceedings DOI URL 
    Abstract: This paper describes an off-line segmentation-free handwritten Arabic words recognition system. The described system uses discrete HMMs with explicit state duration of various kinds (Gauss, Poisson and Gamma) for the word classification purpose. After preprocessing, the word image is analyzed from right to left in order to extract from it a sequence of feature vectors. Then, vector quantization is applied to this sequence and its output is submitted to a HMMs classifier based on a likelihood criterion for identifying the word using the Viterbi algorithm. Several experiments were performed using the IFN/ENIT benchmark database, they showed, on the one hand, a substantial improvement in the recognition rate when HMMs with explicit state duration of either discrete or continuous distribution are used instead of classical HMMs (i.e. with implicit state duration), on the other hand, the Gamma distribution for the state duration, that have given the best recognition rate (91.23 % in top 2), seems more suitable for the HMMs based modeling of Arabic handwriting..
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Benouareth2006HMMs,
      author = {Benouareth, Abdallah and Ennaji, Abdellatif and Sellami, Mokhtar},
      title = {HMMs with Explicit State Duration Applied to Handwritten Arabic Word Recognition},
      booktitle = {ICPR '06: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Pattern Recognition},
      publisher = {IEEE Computer Society},
      year = {2006},
      pages = {897--900},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICPR.2006.631},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICPR.2006.631}
    }
    
    Bentin, S. & Ibrahim, R. New evidence for phonological processing during visual word recognition: the case of Arabic. 1996 J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn
    Vol. 22(2), pp. 309-323 
    article  
    Abstract: Lexical decision and naming were examined with words and pseudowords in literary Arabic and with transliterations of words in a Palestinian dialect that has no written form. Although the transliterations were visually unfamiliar, they were not easily rejected in lexical decision, and they were more slowly accepted in phonologically based lexical decision. Naming transliterations of spoken words was slower than naming of literary words and pseudowords. Apparently, phonological computation is mandatory for both lexical decision and naming. A large frequency effect in both lexical decision and naming suggests that addressed phonology is an option for familiar orthographic patterns. The frequency effect on processing transliterations indicated that lexical phonology is involved with prelexical phonological computation even if addressed phonology is not possible. These data support a combination between a cascade-type process, in which partial products of the grapheme-to-phoneme translation activate phonological units in the lexicon, and an interactive model, in which the activated lexical units feed back, shaping the prelexical phonological computation process.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bentin1996,
      author = {S. Bentin and R. Ibrahim},
      title = {New evidence for phonological processing during visual word recognition: the case of Arabic.},
      journal = {J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {22},
      number = {2},
      pages = {309--323}
    }
    
    Berggren, J.L., Sidoli & Nathan Aristarchus's On the Sizes and Distances of the Sun and the Moon: Greek and Arabic Texts 2007 Archive for History of Exact Sciences
    Vol. 61(3), pp. 213-254 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Berggren2007Aristarchuss,
      author = {Berggren and  J. L. and Sidoli and Nathan},
      title = {Aristarchus's On the Sizes and Distances of the Sun and the Moon: Greek and Arabic Texts},
      journal = {Archive for History of Exact Sciences},
      publisher = {Springer},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {61},
      number = {3},
      pages = {213--254},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00407-006-0118-4},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00407-006-0118-4}
    }
    
    Berman, R.A. On derived and deriving nominals in modern Hebrew 1976 Studies in modern Hebrew syntax and semantics  incollection  
    BibTeX:
    @incollection{,
      author = {Berman, Ruth A.},
      title = {On derived and deriving nominals in modern Hebrew},
      booktitle = {Studies in modern Hebrew syntax and semantics},
      publisher = {North-Holland },
      year = {1976}
    }
    
    Berman, R.A. Formal, lexical, and semantic factors in the acquisition of Hebrew resultative particles 1994 Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, pp. 82-92  incollection  
    BibTeX:
    @incollection{,
      author = {Berman, Ruth A.},
      title = {Formal, lexical, and semantic factors in the acquisition of Hebrew resultative particles},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society},
      publisher = {Berkeley Ling. Soc.},
      year = {1994},
      pages = {82-92},
      note = {February 18 21, 1994: General Session: Dedicated to the Contributions of Charles J.}
    }
    
    Berman, R.A. A step-by-step model of language learning 1986 Stage and structure: Re-opening the debate  incollection  
    BibTeX:
    @incollection{,
      author = {Berman, Ruth A.},
      title = {A step-by-step model of language learning},
      booktitle = {Stage and structure: Re-opening the debate},
      publisher = {Ablex Publishers},
      year = {1986}
    }
    
    Berman, R.A. Child language and language change 1992 Hebrew as a living language  incollection  
    BibTeX:
    @incollection{,
      author = {Berman, Ruth A.},
      title = {Child language and language change},
      booktitle = {Hebrew as a living language},
      publisher = {Haifa University Press},
      year = {1992},
      note = {HEBREW}
    }
    
    Berman, R.A. Cognitive components of language development 1987 First and second language acquisition processes  incollection  
    BibTeX:
    @incollection{,
      author = {Berman, Ruth A.},
      title = {Cognitive components of language development},
      booktitle = {First and second language acquisition processes},
      publisher = {Newbury House},
      year = {1987}
    }
    
    Berman, R.A. Theory and research in the acquisition of Hebrew as a native tongue 1994 Psycholinguistic studies in Hebrew  incollection  
    BibTeX:
    @incollection{,
      author = {Berman, Ruth A.},
      title = {Theory and research in the acquisition of Hebrew as a native tongue },
      booktitle = {Psycholinguistic studies in Hebrew},
      publisher = {Haifa University Press},
      year = {1994},
      note = {HEBREW}
    }
    
    Berman, R.A. The acquisition of Hebrew 1986
    Vol. 1 The crosslinguistic study of language acquisition  
    incollection  
    BibTeX:
    @incollection{,
      author = {Berman, Ruth A.},
      title = {The acquisition of Hebrew},
      booktitle = {The crosslinguistic study of language acquisition },
      publisher = {Erlbaum},
      year = {1986},
      volume = {1 }
    }
    
    Berman, R.A. Marking of verb transitivity by Hebrew-speaking children 1993 Journal of Child Language
    Vol. 20, pp. 641-669 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Berman, Ruth A.},
      title = {Marking of verb transitivity by Hebrew-speaking children},
      journal = {Journal of Child Language},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {20},
      pages = {641-669}
    }
    
    Berman, R.A. On acquiring an (S)VO language: Subjectless sentences in children's Hebrew 1990 Linguistics
    Vol. 28(6), pp. 1135-1166 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Berman, Ruth A.},
      title = {On acquiring an (S)VO language: Subjectless sentences in children's Hebrew},
      journal = {Linguistics},
      year = {1990},
      volume = {28},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1135-1166}
    }
    
    Berman, R.A. On the ability to relate events in narrative 1988 Discourse Processes
    Vol. 11(4), pp. 469-497 
    article  
    Abstract: Narrative texts of 112 Hebrew-speaking children and adults, based on a picture storybook reporting the adventures of a boy and his dog in search of their pet frog, are examined from the point of view of overall narrative structure and of linguistic devices for expressing sequentiality and discourse connectivity. Children as young as three and four years showed command of inflectional morphology and simple-clause syntactic structure, but were unable to organize their narratives on a more global thematic level. Major cutoff points in overall narrative abilities were found between preschoolers aged 3 to 6 years, compared with schoolage children aged 7 to 12 years. The latter produced rather stereotyped narratives, compared with the individual stylistic choices manifested by adults. RAB
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Berman, Ruth A.},
      title = {On the ability to relate events in narrative},
      journal = {Discourse Processes},
      year = {1988},
      volume = {11},
      number = {4},
      pages = {469-497}
    }
    
    Berman, R.A. Productivity in the lexicon: New-word formation in Modern Hebrew 1987 Folia Linguistica
    Vol. XXI, pp. 425-461 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Berman, Ruth A.},
      title = {Productivity in the lexicon: New-word formation in Modern Hebrew},
      journal = {Folia Linguistica},
      year = {1987},
      volume = {XXI},
      pages = {425-461}
    }
    
    Berman, R.A. A developmental route: Learning about the form and use of complex nominals in Hebrew 1987 Linguistics
    Vol. 25-6, pp. 1057-1085 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Berman, Ruth A.},
      title = {A developmental route: Learning about the form and use of complex nominals in Hebrew},
      journal = {Linguistics},
      year = {1987},
      volume = {25-6},
      pages = {1057-1085}
    }
    
    Berman, R.A. Establishing a schema: Children's construals of verb-tense marking 1983 Language Sciences
    Vol. 5(1), pp. 61-78 
    article  
    Abstract: This paper analyzed overextension of prefixal m- marking on certain classes of verbs by Hebrew-speaking children at the stage of early morphosyntax in relation to the child's task in acquiring a wide range of verb inflections to encode - interalia distinctions of tense and mood
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Berman, Ruth A.},
      title = {Establishing a schema: Children's construals of verb-tense marking},
      journal = {Language Sciences},
      year = {1983},
      volume = {5},
      number = {1},
      pages = {61-78}
    }
    
    Berman, R.A. Verb-pattern alteration: The interface of morphology, syntax, and semantics in Hebrew child language 1982 Journal of Child Language
    Vol. 9, pp. 169-191 
    article  
    Abstract: Observational and experimental data from children ages 2-6 reveal a development in linguistic control of the system from nonalteration to near mastery, with the concepts of causativity and distinctions in transitivity being lexicalized earlier than others
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Berman, Ruth A.},
      title = {Verb-pattern alteration: The interface of morphology, syntax, and semantics in Hebrew child language},
      journal = {Journal of Child Language},
      year = {1982},
      volume = {9},
      pages = {169-191}
    }
    
    Berman, R.A. Regularity vs. anomaly: The acquisition of Hebrew inflectional morphology 1981 Journal of Child Language
    Vol. 8, pp. 265-282 
    article  
    Abstract: Certain morphologically complex forms are simplified by neutralization, reformulation, or by analytic paraphrases of bound constructions. Various anomalous forms are handled by regularization of lexical exceptions or by conflating forms belonging to different lexical patterns
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Berman, Ruth A.},
      title = {Regularity vs. anomaly: The acquisition of Hebrew inflectional morphology},
      journal = {Journal of Child Language},
      year = {1981},
      volume = {8},
      pages = {265-282}
    }
    
    Berman, R.A. Language development and language knowledge: Evidence from the acquisition of Hebrew morphophonology 1981 Journal of Child Language
    Vol. 8, pp. 609-626 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Berman, Ruth A.},
      title = {Language development and language knowledge: Evidence from the acquisition of Hebrew morphophonology},
      journal = {Journal of Child Language},
      year = {1981},
      volume = {8},
      pages = {609-626}
    }
    
    Berman, R.A. Child language as evidence for grammatical description: Preschoolers' construal of transitivity in the verb system of Hebrew 1980 Linguistics
    Vol. 18, pp. 677-701 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Berman, Ruth A.},
      title = {Child language as evidence for grammatical description: Preschoolers' construal of transitivity in the verb system of Hebrew},
      journal = {Linguistics},
      year = {1980},
      volume = {18},
      pages = {677-701}
    }
    
    Berman, R.A. The re-emergence of a bilingual: A case study of a Hebrew-English speaking child 1979 Working Papers on Bilingualism
    Vol. 19, pp. 157-180 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Berman, Ruth A.},
      title = {The re-emergence of a bilingual: A case study of a Hebrew-English speaking child},
      journal = {Working Papers on Bilingualism},
      year = {1979},
      volume = {19},
      pages = {157-180}
    }
    
    Berman, R.A. & Clark, E.V. Lexical productivity in children and adults: Final report 1992   book  
    Abstract: A crosslinguistic study using English and Hebrew and focusing on denominal verb-formation and the acquisition of resultative (endstate,perfective) verb forms. The study conbines extensive diary data on children's naturalistic innovations in the two languages with structured elicitation tests. RAB
    BibTeX:
    @book{,
      author = {Berman, Ruth A. and Clark, Eve V.},
      title = {Lexical productivity in children and adults: Final report},
      publisher = {Binational Science Foundation (BSF)},
      year = {1992}
    }
    
    Berman, R.A. & Clark, E.V. Learning to use compounds for contrast 1989 First Language
    Vol. 9, pp. 247-270 
    article  
    Abstract: This study investigated children's ability to produce compounds by asking them to label contrasting subcategories as distinct from generic categories. 60 Hebrew speakers (2:0 to 7:4), and 12 adults, answered questions about a series of picture sets. Adults and older children produced compound nouns as labels for subcategories, and favored one-word labels for generic categories. Two and three year olds produced mostly inappropriate, one-word labels for both levels of categories. But children's subcategory labels, whether compound or nouns with relative clause or prepositional phrase adjuncts, consistently included a dimension contrast, while their generic category labels mentioned the absence of such a dimension.
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Berman, Ruth A. and Clark, Eve V.},
      title = {Learning to use compounds for contrast},
      journal = {First Language},
      year = {1989},
      volume = {9},
      pages = {247-270}
    }
    
    Berman, R.A. & Dromi, E. On marking time without aspect in child language 1984 Papers and Reports on Child Language Development
    Vol. 23, pp. 23-32 
    article  
    Abstract: The study is an attempt to consider the development of linguistic marking of time in Hebrew apart from aspect. The interest focuses on the emergence of the finite forms - Present, Past, and Future- as grammatical devices for encoding time. The investigation is based on 160 transcripts of adult-child interactions, covering 102 children in eight age groups, from 1:0 to 5:6 years of age. In order to integrate various kinds of information relevant to how children deploy time-related forms, three parameters were taken into account: (1) relative frequency of occurrence of different verb forms at different ages, (2)relationship between tense-marking on verbs and the semantics of verbs used at different ages, and (3) use of time-adverbs which refer to present, past, or future, as they interact with verb forms.
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Berman, Ruth A. and Dromi, Esther},
      title = {On marking time without aspect in child language},
      journal = {Papers and Reports on Child Language Development},
      year = {1984},
      volume = {23},
      pages = {23-32}
    }
    
    Berman, R.A., Hecht, B.F. & Clark, E.V. The acquisition of agent and instrument noun forms in Hebrew 1982 Papers and Reports on Child Language Development
    Vol. 21, pp. 16-24 
    article  
    Abstract: The paper is a study of the acquisition of word formation devoted specially to the construction of agent and instrument noun forms by Hebrew speaking children
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Berman, Ruth A. and Hecht, Barbara F. and Clark, Eve V.},
      title = {The acquisition of agent and instrument noun forms in Hebrew},
      journal = {Papers and Reports on Child Language Development},
      year = {1982},
      volume = {21},
      pages = {16-24}
    }
    
    Berman, R.A. & Neeman, Y. Development of linguistic forms: Hebrew 1994 Relating Events in Narrative: A crosslinguistic developmental study  incollection  
    BibTeX:
    @incollection{,
      author = {Berman, Ruth A. and Neeman, Y.},
      title = {Development of linguistic forms: Hebrew},
      booktitle = {Relating Events in Narrative: A crosslinguistic developmental study},
      publisher = {Lawrence Erlbaum Associates},
      year = {1994}
    }
    
    Berman, R.A. & Sagi, Y. Al darxey tecurat hamilim vexidusan bagil haca'ir (Word-formation processes and lexical innovations of young children) 1981 Hebrew Computational Linguistics
    Vol. 18, pp. 31-62 
    article  
    Abstract: A 5 year study of one Israeli child from 2 to 7 years of age plus supplemental data from other children are used for examining word-formation processes and lexical innovations in the spontaneous speech of young children. It was found that there are clear developments in the strategies used by young children to fill gaps in their lexicon. The findings indicate that by late preschool age Hebrew-speaking children have a sense of consonantal root plus morphological pattern as a primary word-formation device
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Berman, Ruth A. and Sagi, Yisrael},
      title = {Al darxey tecurat hamilim vexidusan bagil haca'ir (Word-formation processes and lexical innovations of young children)},
      journal = {Hebrew Computational Linguistics},
      year = {1981},
      volume = {18},
      pages = {31-62},
      note = {HEBREW}
    }
    
    Berman, R.A. & Weissenborn, J. Acquisition of word order: A crosslinguistic study 1991   book  
    Abstract: Crosslinguistics study of syntactic structures in French, German, and Hebrew. 15 children ages 1:6 to 3:6 were studied.
    BibTeX:
    @book{,
      author = {Berman, Ruth A. and Weissenborn, JÇŸ¶¬rgen},
      title = {Acquisition of word order: A crosslinguistic study},
      publisher = {German-Israel Foundation for Research and Development (GIF)},
      year = {1991},
      note = {HEBREW}
    }
    
    Biadsy, F., Habash, N. & Hirschberg, J. Improving the Arabic pronunciation dictionary for phone and word recognition with linguistically-based pronunciation rules 2009 NAACL '09: Proceedings of Human Language Technologies: The 2009 Annual Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, pp. 397-405  inproceedings  
    Abstract: In this paper, we show that linguistically motivated pronunciation rules can improve phone and word recognition results for Modern Standard Arabic (MSA). Using these rules and the MADA morphological analysis and disambiguation tool, multiple pronunciations per word are automatically generated to build two pronunciation dictionaries; one for training and another for decoding. We demonstrate that the use of these rules can significantly improve both MSA phone recognition and MSA word recognition accuracies over a baseline system using pronunciation rules typically employed in previous work on MSA Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR). We obtain a significant improvement in absolute accuracy in phone recognition of 3.77%--7.29% and a significant improvement of 4.1% in absolute accuracy in ASR.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Biadsy2009,
      author = {Biadsy, Fadi and Habash, Nizar and Hirschberg, Julia},
      title = {Improving the Arabic pronunciation dictionary for phone and word recognition with linguistically-based pronunciation rules},
      booktitle = {NAACL '09: Proceedings of Human Language Technologies: The 2009 Annual Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics},
      publisher = {Association for Computational Linguistics},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {397--405}
    }
    
    Billa, J., Noamany, M., Srivastava, A., Liu, D., Stone, R., Xu, J., Makhoul, J. & Kubala, F. Audio indexing of Arabic broadcast news 2002 Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, 2002. Proceedings. (ICASSP '02). IEEE International Conference on
    Vol. 1Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, 2002. Proceedings. (ICASSP '02). IEEE International Conference on, pp. I-5-I-8 vol.1 
    proceedings DOI URL 
    Abstract: This paper describes the development of the BBN audio indexing system for broadcast news in Arabic. Key issues addressed in this work revolve around the three major components of the audio indexing system: automatic speech recognition, speaker identification, and named entity identification. The system deals with several challenges introduced by the Arabic language, including the absence of short vowels in written text and the presence of compound words that are formed by the concatenation of certain conjunctions, prepositions, articles, and pronouns, as prefixes and suffixes to the word stem. The lack of short vowels in the transcripts prompted a novel solution that further demonstrated the power of hidden Markov models to deal with ambiguity. Another challenge was the acquisition of appropriate language modeling data, given the absence of broadcast news data for that purpose. We present performance results for all three components of the audio indexing system, which we believe represent the state of the art for Arabic broadcast news.
    BibTeX:
    @proceedings{Billa2002Audio,
      author = {Billa, J. and Noamany, M. and Srivastava, A. and Liu, D. and Stone, R. and Xu, J. and Makhoul, J. and Kubala, F.},
      title = {Audio indexing of Arabic broadcast news},
      booktitle = {Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, 2002. Proceedings. (ICASSP '02). IEEE International Conference on},
      journal = {Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, 2002. Proceedings. (ICASSP '02). IEEE International Conference on},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {1},
      pages = {I-5--I-8 vol.1},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICASSP.2002.1005661},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICASSP.2002.1005661}
    }
    
    Bird, S. & Blackburn, P. A Logical Approach to Arabic Phonology 1991 Proceedings of the Fifth Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, pp. 89-94  inproceedings URL 
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{BirdBlackburn91,
      author = {Steven Bird and Patrick Blackburn},
      title = { A Logical Approach to Arabic Phonology },
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the Fifth Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics},
      year = {1991},
      pages = {89-94},
      url = {http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/E91-1016.pdf}
    }
    
    Bishai, W.B. Coptic Lexical Influence on Egyptian Arabic 1964 Journal of Near Eastern Studies
    Vol. 23(1), pp. 39-47 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bishai1964,
      author = {Wilson B. Bishai},
      title = {Coptic Lexical Influence on Egyptian Arabic},
      journal = {Journal of Near Eastern Studies},
      publisher = {The University of Chicago Press},
      year = {1964},
      volume = {23},
      number = {1},
      pages = {39--47},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/543178}
    }
    
    Bishai, W.B. Coptic Grammatical Influence on Egyptian Arabic 1962 Journal of the American Oriental Society
    Vol. 82(3), pp. 285-289 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bishai1962,
      author = {Wilson B. Bishai},
      title = {Coptic Grammatical Influence on Egyptian Arabic},
      journal = {Journal of the American Oriental Society},
      publisher = {American Oriental Society},
      year = {1962},
      volume = {82},
      number = {3},
      pages = {285--289},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/597639}
    }
    
    Bivar, A.D.H. Arabic Documents of Northern Nigeria 1959 Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London
    Vol. 22(1/3), pp. 324-349 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bivar1959,
      author = {Bivar, A. D. H.},
      title = {Arabic Documents of Northern Nigeria},
      journal = {Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London},
      publisher = {Cambridge University Press on behalf of School of Oriental and African Studies},
      year = {1959},
      volume = {22},
      number = {1/3},
      pages = {324--349},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/609432}
    }
    
    Blackburn & Steven A Grammar of Classical Arabic - by Wolfdietrich Fischer, translated from the German by Jonathan Rodgers 2007 The Muslim World
    Vol. 97(3), pp. 537-539 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Blackburn2007Grammar,
      author = {Blackburn and Steven},
      title = {A Grammar of Classical Arabic - by Wolfdietrich Fischer, translated from the German by Jonathan Rodgers},
      journal = {The Muslim World},
      publisher = {Blackwell Publishing},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {97},
      number = {3},
      pages = {537--539},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1478-1913.2007.00198.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1478-1913.2007.00198.x}
    }
    
    Blanc, H. Dual and Pseudo-Dual in the Arabic Dialects 1970 Language
    Vol. 46(1), pp. 42-57 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Almost all known varieties of vernacular Arabic are characterized by a functional and formal split of the old dual morpheme -ayn. It serves as a dual marker when appended to some nouns, as a plural marker with others; the two functions entail morphophonemic, sometimes also phonetic and syntactic, differences. Some of the features studied can be traced back to the ninth century; others are later developments.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Blanc1970,
      author = {Blanc, Haim},
      title = {Dual and Pseudo-Dual in the Arabic Dialects},
      journal = {Language},
      publisher = {Linguistic Society of America},
      year = {1970},
      volume = {46},
      number = {1},
      pages = {42--57},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/412406}
    }
    
    Blanken, G., Dorn, M. & Sinn, H. Inversion errors in Arabic number reading: is there a nonsemantic route? 1997 Brain Cogn
    Vol. 34(3), pp. 404-423 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: This article reports on a mildly aphasic patient with major disorders in reading, writing, and number processing. His predominant error type in reading aloud Arabic numbers and in matching heard numerals with Arabic numbers was the violation of the inversion rule of the German Arabic number reading system. According to this rule most of the two-digit numbers or numbers in the final and prefinal position of longer digit strings have to be read beginning with the final digit (e.g. 26-->sechsundzwanzig (literally translated: six-and-twenty)). It is argued that AT's inversion errors (e.g., 26-->zweiundsechzig (literally translated: two-and-sixty)) are not consistent with the predictions of single route models of Arabic number reading but are in agreement with proposals of a visually based asemantic reading routine in addition to a semantically mediated reading routine.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Blanken1997,
      author = {G. Blanken and M. Dorn and H. Sinn},
      title = {Inversion errors in Arabic number reading: is there a nonsemantic route?},
      journal = {Brain Cogn},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {34},
      number = {3},
      pages = {404--423},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/brcg.1997.0917},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/brcg.1997.0917}
    }
    
    Bledsoe, C.H. & Robey, K.M. Arabic Literacy and Secrecy Among the Mende of Sierra Leone 1986 Man
    Vol. 21(2), pp. 202-226 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The social uses of Arabic literacy for concealing and manipulating knowledge among the Mende of Sierra Leone are examined. We show that those Mende who are competent in Arabic literacy use their skills much like indigenous elite used traditional secret knowledge: to gain the labour and allegiance of dependants. In contrast to the paradigm which views literacy as a mode of facilitating communication, we show that those Mende who are learned in Arabic construe the knowledge to which literacy allegedly gives access as dangerous and, therefore, secret. We contrast these patterns with the uses of English literacy and with recent changes in Arabic education itself.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bledsoe1986,
      author = {Bledsoe, Caroline H. and Robey, Kenneth M.},
      title = {Arabic Literacy and Secrecy Among the Mende of Sierra Leone},
      journal = {Man},
      publisher = {Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland},
      year = {1986},
      volume = {21},
      number = {2},
      pages = {202--226},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/2803157}
    }
    
    Blum Kulka, S. Interpreting and Performing Speech Acts in a Second Language: A Cross Cultural Study of Hebrew and English 1983 Sociolinguistics and Language Acquisition, pp. 36-55  incollection  
    BibTeX:
    @incollection{,
      author = {Blum Kulka, Shoshana},
      title = {Interpreting and Performing Speech Acts in a Second Language: A Cross Cultural Study of Hebrew and English},
      booktitle = {Sociolinguistics and Language Acquisition},
      publisher = {Newbury House},
      year = {1983},
      pages = {36-55}
    }
    
    Blum Kulka, S. & Levenston, E.A. Lexical-Grammatical Pragmatic Indicators 1987 Studies in Second Language Acquisition
    Vol. 9(2), pp. 155-70 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Blum Kulka, Shoshana and Levenston, Edward A.},
      title = {Lexical-Grammatical Pragmatic Indicators},
      journal = {Studies in Second Language Acquisition},
      year = {1987},
      volume = {9},
      number = {2},
      pages = {155-70}
    }
    
    Blum-Kulka, S. "You got to know how to tell a story" - Telling, tales, and tellers in American and Israeli narrative events at dinner 1993 Language in Society
    Vol. 22, pp. 361-402 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Blum-Kulka, Shoshana},
      title = {"You got to know how to tell a story" - Telling, tales, and tellers in American and Israeli narrative events at dinner},
      journal = {Language in Society},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {22},
      pages = {361-402}
    }
    
    Bonami, O. & Samvelian, P. Inflectional periphrasis in Persian 2009 Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar, University of Göttingen, Germany, pp. 26-46  inproceedings URL 
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Bonami:Samvelian:09,
      author = {Olivier Bonami and Pollet Samvelian},
      title = {Inflectional periphrasis in Persian},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar, University of Göttingen, Germany},
      publisher = {CSLI Publications},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {26--46},
      url = {http://cslipublications.stanford.edu/HPSG/2009/}
    }
    
    Boneschi, P. Is Malak an Arabic Word? 1945 Journal of the American Oriental Society
    Vol. 65(2), pp. 107-111 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Boneschi1945,
      author = {Boneschi, Paulo},
      title = {Is Malak an Arabic Word?},
      journal = {Journal of the American Oriental Society},
      publisher = {American Oriental Society},
      year = {1945},
      volume = {65},
      number = {2},
      pages = {107--111},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/593933}
    }
    
    Borer, H. & Wexler, K. The maturation of syntax 1987 Parameter-setting and language acquisition  incollection  
    Abstract: Authors argue that maturational factors are the cause of the late development of some syntactic structures. They argue that the late appearance of the passive in English and Hebrew indicates that it is subject to age constraints.
    BibTeX:
    @incollection{,
      author = {Borer, Hagit and Wexler, Kenneth},
      title = {The maturation of syntax},
      booktitle = {Parameter-setting and language acquisition},
      publisher = {Reidel},
      year = {1987}
    }
    
    Boudelaa, S. & Marslen-Wilson, W. Discontinuous morphology in time: Incremental masked priming in Arabic 2005 Language and Cognitive Processes
    Vol. 20(1), pp. 207+ 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Boudelaa2005Discontinuous,
      author = {Boudelaa, Sami and Marslen-Wilson, William},
      title = {Discontinuous morphology in time: Incremental masked priming in Arabic},
      journal = {Language and Cognitive Processes},
      publisher = {Psychology Press, part of the Taylor & Francis Group},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {20},
      number = {1},
      pages = {207+},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01690960444000106},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01690960444000106}
    }
    
    Boudelaa, S. & Marslen-Wilson, W.D. Aralex: a lexical database for Modern Standard Arabic. 2010 Behav Res Methods
    Vol. 42(2), pp. 481-487 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: In this article, we present a new lexical database for Modern Standard Arabic: Aralex. Based on a contemporary text corpus of 40 million words, Aralex provides information about (1) the token frequencies of roots and word patterns, (2) the type frequency, or family size, of roots and word patterns, and (3) the frequency of bigrams, trigrams in orthographic forms, roots, and word patterns. Aralex will be a useful tool for studying the cognitive processing of Arabic through the selection of stimuli on the basis of precise frequency counts. Researchers can use it as a source of information on natural language processing, and it may serve an educational purpose by providing basic vocabulary lists. Aralex is distributed under a GNU-like license, allowing people to interrogate it freely online or to download it from www.mrc-cbu.cam.ac.uk:8081/aralex.online/login.jsp.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Boudelaa2010,
      author = {Sami Boudelaa and William D Marslen-Wilson},
      title = {Aralex: a lexical database for Modern Standard Arabic.},
      journal = {Behav Res Methods},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {42},
      number = {2},
      pages = {481--487},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/BRM.42.2.481},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/BRM.42.2.481}
    }
    
    Boudelaa, S. & Marslen-Wilson, W.D. Allomorphic variation in Arabic: implications for lexical processing and representation. 2004 Brain Lang
    Vol. 90(1-3), pp. 106-116 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: This study probes the effects of allomorphy on access to Arabic roots and word patterns in two cross-modal priming experiments. Experiment 1 used strong roots which undergo no allomorphy, and weak roots which undergo allomorphy and surface with only two of their three consonants in some derivations. Word pairs sharing a root morpheme prime each other reliably not only when the root was strong (e.g., [see text] participant/participate), but also when it was weak (e.g., [see text] agreement-agree, where the weak root [wfq] surfaces fully in the target but not the prime). This facilitation occurred even when the weak root surfaced with different semantic meanings across prime and target (e.g., [see text] destination/confront). Experiment 2 assessed the effects of allomorphy on word pattern processing, comparing word pairs where the word pattern is transparently realised in both prime and target (e.g., [see text] spread/bear], with pairs which share the same underlying word pattern but where a weak root triggers an assimilation process in the prime (e.g., [see text] unite/smile). This assimilation process does not disrupt the CV-structure of the word pattern, in contrast to a third condition where this is disrupted in both prime and target (e.g., [see text] turn around/say). Strong priming effects were observed in the first two conditions but not in the third. The bearing of these findings on models of lexical processing and representation is discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Boudelaa2004,
      author = {Sami Boudelaa and William D Marslen-Wilson},
      title = {Allomorphic variation in Arabic: implications for lexical processing and representation.},
      journal = {Brain Lang},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {90},
      number = {1-3},
      pages = {106--116},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0093-934X(03)00424-3},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0093-934X(03)00424-3}
    }
    
    Boudelaa, S. & Marslen-Wilson, W.D. Abstract morphemes and lexical representation: the CV-Skeleton in Arabic. 2004 Cognition
    Vol. 92(3), pp. 271-303 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Overlaps in form and meaning between morphologically related words have led to ambiguities in interpreting priming effects in studies of lexical organization. In Semitic languages like Arabic, however, linguistic analysis proposes that one of the three component morphemes of a surface word is the CV-Skeleton, an abstract prosodic unit coding the phonological shape of the surface word and its primary syntactic function, which has no surface phonetic content (McCarthy, J. J. (1981). A prosodic theory of non-concatenative morphology, Linguistic Inquiry, 12 373-418). The other two morphemes are proposed to be the vocalic melody, which conveys additional syntactic information, and the root, which defines meaning. In three experiments using masked, cross-modal, and auditory-auditory priming we examined the role of the vocalic melody and the CV-Skeleton as potential morphemic units in the processing and representation of Arabic words. Prime/target pairs sharing the vocalic melody but not the CV-Skeleton consistently failed to prime. In contrast, word pairs sharing only the CV-Skeleton primed reliably throughout, with the amount of priming being as large as that observed between word pattern pairs sharing both vocalic melody and CV-Skeleton. Priming between morphologically related words can be observed when there is no overlap either in meaning or in surface phonetic form.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Boudelaa2004a,
      author = {Sami Boudelaa and William D Marslen-Wilson},
      title = {Abstract morphemes and lexical representation: the CV-Skeleton in Arabic.},
      journal = {Cognition},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {92},
      number = {3},
      pages = {271--303},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2003.08.003},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2003.08.003}
    }
    
    Boudelaa, S. & Marslen-Wilson, W.D. Morphological units in the Arabic mental lexicon. 2001 Cognition
    Vol. 81(1), pp. 65-92 
    article  
    Abstract: Standard views of morphology in Modern Standard Arabic hold that surface word forms comprise at least two morphemes: a three-consonantal root conveying semantic meaning and a word pattern carrying syntactic information. An alternative account claims that semantic information is carried by a bi-consonantal morphological unit called the etymon. Accordingly, in the form [batara] the core meaning is carried not by the tri-consonantal root morpheme [btr] but by the etymon morpheme [b,t] which surfaces in other forms like [batta] "sever", [batala] "cut off" with the same meaning "cutting". Previous experimental research in Semitic languages has assumed the tri-consonantal root/word pattern approach. In cross-modal and masked priming experiments we ask whether the etymon, as a more fine-grained two-consonantal morphological unit, can yield the morphological priming effects typically obtained with tri-consonantal root morphemes. The results clearly show that two words sharing an etymon do facilitate each other both in cross-modal and masked priming even though they do not share a root, controlling for semantic and for form overlap effects. The bearing of these results on theories of morphological processing and representation is discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Boudelaa2001,
      author = {S. Boudelaa and W. D. Marslen-Wilson},
      title = {Morphological units in the Arabic mental lexicon.},
      journal = {Cognition},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {81},
      number = {1},
      pages = {65--92}
    }
    
    Boudelaa, S. & Meftah, M. Cross-language effects of lexical stress in word recognition: the case of Arabic English bilinguals 1996
    Vol. 1Proc. Conf. Fourth Int Spoken Language ICSLP 96, pp. 121-124 
    inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Boudelaa1996,
      author = {Boudelaa, S. and Meftah, M. },
      title = {Cross-language effects of lexical stress in word recognition: the case of Arabic English bilinguals},
      booktitle = {Proc. Conf. Fourth Int Spoken Language ICSLP 96},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {1},
      pages = {121--124},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICSLP.1996.607052}
    }
    
    Boudelaa, S., PulvermǬller, F., Hauk, O., Shtyrov, Y. & Marslen-Wilson, W. Arabic morphology in the neural language system. 2010 J Cogn Neurosci
    Vol. 22(5), pp. 998-1010 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: There are two views about morphology, the aspect of language concerned with the internal structure of words. One view holds that morphology is a domain of knowledge with a specific type of neurocognitive representation supported by specific brain mechanisms lateralized to left fronto-temporal cortex. The alternate view characterizes morphological effects as being a by-product of the correlation between form and meaning and where no brain area is predicted to subserve morphological processing per se. Here we provided evidence from Arabic that morphemes do have specific memory traces, which differ as a function of their functional properties. In an MMN study, we showed that the abstract consonantal root, which conveys semantic meaning (similarly to monomorphemic content words in English), elicits an MMN starting from 160 msec after the deviation point, whereas the abstract vocalic word pattern, which plays a range of grammatical roles, elicits an MMN response starting from 250 msec after the deviation point. Topographically, the root MMN has a symmetric fronto-central distribution, whereas the word pattern MMN lateralizes significantly to the left, indicating stronger involvement of left peri-sylvian areas. In languages with rich morphologies, morphemic processing seems to be supported by distinct neural networks, thereby providing evidence for a specific neuronal basis for morphology as part of the cerebral language machinery.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Boudelaa2010a,
      author = {Sami Boudelaa and Friedemann PulvermǬller and Olaf Hauk and Yury Shtyrov and William Marslen-Wilson},
      title = {Arabic morphology in the neural language system.},
      journal = {J Cogn Neurosci},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {22},
      number = {5},
      pages = {998--1010},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/jocn.2009.21273},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/jocn.2009.21273}
    }
    
    Bouillon, P., Halimi, S., Rayner, M. & Hockey, B.A. Adapting a Medical speech to speech translation system (MedSLT) to Arabic 2007 Proceedings of the 2007 Workshop on Computational Approaches to Semitic Languages: Common Issues and Resources, pp. 41-48  inproceedings URL 
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{bouillon-EtAl:2007:CASL2007,
      author = {Bouillon, Pierrette and Halimi, Sonia and Rayner, Manny and Hockey, Beth Ann},
      title = {Adapting a Medical speech to speech translation system (MedSLT) to Arabic},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2007 Workshop on Computational Approaches to Semitic Languages: Common Issues and Resources},
      publisher = {Association for Computational Linguistics},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {41--48},
      url = {http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/W/W07/W07-0806}
    }
    
    Boumans, L. The attributive possessive in Moroccan Arabic spoken by young bilinguals in the Netherlands and their peers in Morocco 2006 Bilingualism: Language and Cognition
    Vol. 9(03), pp. 213-231 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Boumans, L.},
      title = {The attributive possessive in Moroccan Arabic spoken by young bilinguals in the Netherlands and their peers in Morocco},
      journal = {Bilingualism: Language and Cognition},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {9},
      number = {03},
      pages = {213-231}
    }
    
    Bovingdon, Roderick, Dalli & Angelo Statistical analysis of the source origin of Maltese 2006 Language and Computers
    Vol. 56(1), pp. 63-76 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bovingdon2006Statistical,
      author = {Bovingdon and Roderick and Dalli and Angelo},
      title = {Statistical analysis of the source origin of Maltese},
      journal = {Language and Computers},
      publisher = {Rodopi},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {56},
      number = {1},
      pages = {63--76},
      url = {http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/rodopi/lang/2006/00000056/00000001/art00006}
    }
    
    Bowers, J.S., Mimouni, Z. & Arguin, M. Orthography plays a critical role in cognate priming: evidence from French/English and Arabic/French cognates. 2000 Mem Cognit
    Vol. 28(8), pp. 1289-1296 
    article  
    Abstract: A series of three experiments was carried out in order to better characterize the representations that support long-term cognate priming. In Experiment 1, robust priming was obtained between orthographically similar French/English cognates in bilingual speakers, and this priming was mediated, in part, by orthographic codes, given that priming for these items was dramatically reduced following a study-test modality shift. In Experiment 2, no priming was obtained between the same set of French/English cognates in monolingual English speakers. Finally, in Experiment 3, priming for orthographically unrelated Arabic/French cognates was no larger than cross-modal priming, suggesting that these effects were mediated by nonorthographic representations. The role of orthography in supporting cognate priming is discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bowers2000,
      author = {J. S. Bowers and Z. Mimouni and M. Arguin},
      title = {Orthography plays a critical role in cognate priming: evidence from French/English and Arabic/French cognates.},
      journal = {Mem Cognit},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {28},
      number = {8},
      pages = {1289--1296}
    }
    
    Boysson-Bardies, B.D., Halle, P., Sagart, L. & Durand, C. A crosslinguistic investigation of vowel formants in babbling. 1989 J Child Lang
    Vol. 16(1), pp. 1-17 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Boysson-Bardies1989,
      author = {B. De Boysson-Bardies and P. Halle and L. Sagart and C. Durand},
      title = {A crosslinguistic investigation of vowel formants in babbling.},
      journal = {J Child Lang},
      year = {1989},
      volume = {16},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1--17}
    }
    
    Braine, M.D.S. Children's first word combinations. With Commentary by Melissa Bowerman. 1976 Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development
    Vol. 41 
    article  
    Abstract: A descriptive analysis is presented of the syntactic patterns in 16 corpora of word combinations from 11 Ss learning English(6 Ss), Samoan, Finnish, Hebrew, or Swedish. The mean utterance lengths range up to about 1.7 morphemes. The data indicate that each S has learned a number of positional formulae that map components of meaning into positions in the surface structure e.g., here + X. They are specific, often quite narrow, in their range. Two sources of free word-order are also noted: 'groping' before a formula is learned, and separate learning of two formulae. There is no evidence for grammatical word classes. In general, the evidence indicates less grammatical competence at this stage of development than children are being credited with in much current work
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Braine, Martin D. S.},
      title = {Children's first word combinations. With Commentary by Melissa Bowerman.},
      journal = {Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development},
      year = {1976},
      volume = {41}
    }
    
    Brini, W., Ellouze, M., Mesfar, S. & Belguith, L.H. An Arabic question-answering system for factoid questions 2009 Proc. Int. Conf. Natural Language Processing and Knowledge Engineering NLP-KE 2009, pp. 1-7  inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Brini2009,
      author = {Brini, W. and Ellouze, M. and Mesfar, S. and Belguith, L. H. },
      title = {An Arabic question-answering system for factoid questions},
      booktitle = {Proc. Int. Conf. Natural Language Processing and Knowledge Engineering NLP-KE 2009},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {1--7},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/NLPKE.2009.5313730}
    }
    
    Brown, A. & Al-Khayal, Z. Validity and reliability of the Arabic translation of the child oral-health-related quality of life questionnaire (CPQ1114) in Saudi Arabia 2006 International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry
    Vol. 16(6), pp. 405-411 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Brown2006Validity,
      author = {Brown, A. and Al-Khayal, Z.},
      title = {Validity and reliability of the Arabic translation of the child oral-health-related quality of life questionnaire (CPQ1114) in Saudi Arabia},
      journal = {International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry},
      publisher = {Blackwell Publishing},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {16},
      number = {6},
      pages = {405--411},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-263X.2006.00775.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-263X.2006.00775.x}
    }
    
    Brown, R.W. A first language: The early stages 1973   book  
    Abstract: Brown marshals results of his own studies on child language as well as other recent work relevant to the linguistic description of child language. In contrast to his earlier interpretations, semantics and cognition are considered in addition to syntax. This first volume includes an introduction (touching on Brown's attempt to learn Japanese and a chimpanzee's attempts to learn sign language) and description of the first two (pretransformational) stages of multiword speech: expression of major meanings and acquisition of grammatical morphemes. For stage I speech, Brown adopts the idea of grammars based on the meaning relations among words, comparing the approaches of Bloom, Schlesinger, and Fillmore. For stage II speech he attempts to account for the order of acquisition of grammatical morphemes. Brown synthesizes a lot of ideas and data in this re-analysis of the Adam, Eve, and Sarah corpora and survey of related research. However, the need for additional data is evident, especially for stage II. On pages 66 and 70, Brown lists studies (most written in English) based on corpora of utterances from 35 children (American, Finnish, Swedish, French, German, Mexican, Russian, Hebrew, Samoan, Japanese, Korean, and Luo). Brown focuses on the American studies but frequently mentions comparative data, particularly on pp. 156-158 (word order) and pp. 293-298 (morphology)
    BibTeX:
    @book{,
      author = {Brown, Roger W.},
      title = {A first language: The early stages},
      publisher = {Harvard University Press},
      year = {1973}
    }
    
    Brustad, K. The syntax of spoken Arabic: A comparative study of Moroccan, Egyptian, Syrian and Kuwaiti dialects. 2000   book  
    BibTeX:
    @book{Brustad2000,
      author = {Brustad, K},
      title = {The syntax of spoken Arabic: A comparative study of Moroccan, Egyptian, Syrian and Kuwaiti dialects. },
      publisher = {Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press},
      year = {2000}
    }
    
    Brux, A.A. Arabic-English Transliteration for Library Purposes 1930 The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures
    Vol. 47(1), pp. 1-30 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Brux1930,
      author = {Brux, Adolph August},
      title = {Arabic-English Transliteration for Library Purposes},
      journal = {The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures},
      publisher = {The University of Chicago Press},
      year = {1930},
      volume = {47},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1--30},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/528958}
    }
    
    Brysbaert, M., Fias, W. & NoǮl, M.P. The Whorfian hypothesis and numerical cognition: is 'twenty-four' processed in the same way as 'four-and-twenty'? 1998 Cognition
    Vol. 66(1), pp. 51-77 
    article  
    Abstract: Recent theoretical developments have redefined a Whorfian effect as a processing difference due to the language of the individual, and no longer as a marker for or against linguistic determinism. Within this framework. Whorfian effects can be used to investigate whether a particular part of the cognitive system is penetrable by language processes or forms an encapsulated module, provided the experimenter ensures that the target language difference is not caused by peripheral input or output processes. In this article, we examine the possibility of a Whorfian effect in numerical cognition by making use of the fact that in the Dutch number naming system the order of tens and units is reversed (i.e. 24 is read 'four-and-twenty'). In a first experiment, we asked native French- and Dutch-speaking students to name the solution of addition problems with a two-digit and a single-digit operand (e.g. 20 + 4 =?, 24 + 1 =?). The order of the operands was manipulated (20 + 4 vs. 4 + 20) as well as the presentation modality (Arabic vs. verbal). Three language differences emerged from this study. Experiment 2, however, showed that these differences were all due to input or output processes rather than differences in the addition operation (i.e. the differences between Dutch and French disappeared when subjects were asked to type the answer rather than pronounce it). On the basis of these findings, we question the idea that mathematical operations are based on verbal processes.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Brysbaert1998,
      author = {M. Brysbaert and W. Fias and M. P. NoǮl},
      title = {The Whorfian hypothesis and numerical cognition: is 'twenty-four' processed in the same way as 'four-and-twenty'?},
      journal = {Cognition},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {66},
      number = {1},
      pages = {51--77}
    }
    
    Buium, N. Interrogative types in parental speech to language-learning children - a linguistic universal? 1976 Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
    Vol. 5, pp. 135-142 
    article  
    Abstract: The present study investigated the frequency of occurrence of various interrogative types in the language of American mothers(English) and Israeli mothers (Hebrew) to their 24-month-old language-learning children. It was found that both groups of mothers produced a similar hierarchy of the various wh-questions
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Buium, Nissan},
      title = {Interrogative types in parental speech to language-learning children - a linguistic universal?},
      journal = {Journal of Psycholinguistic Research},
      year = {1976},
      volume = {5},
      pages = {135-142}
    }
    
    Buium, N. & Turnure, J.E. A cross-cultural study of verbal elaboration productivity and memory in young children 1977 Child Development
    Vol. 48, pp. 296-300 
    article  
    Abstract: 56 5-year-old Israeli children were tested to determine whether questioning procedures found to be successful with American children for enhancing memory processes would be successful with children from another culture who spoke a different language. Analysis of correct recall confirmed that the what and why questions led to better performances
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Buium, Nissan and Turnure, James E.},
      title = {A cross-cultural study of verbal elaboration productivity and memory in young children},
      journal = {Child Development},
      year = {1977},
      volume = {48},
      pages = {296-300}
    }
    
    Bulacu, M., Schomaker, L. & Brink, A. Text-Independent Writer Identification and Verification on Offline Arabic Handwriting 2007 Document Analysis and Recognition, 2007. ICDAR 2007. Ninth International Conference on
    Vol. 2Document Analysis and Recognition, 2007. ICDAR 2007. Ninth International Conference on, pp. 769-773 
    inproceedings DOI URL 
    Abstract: In this paper, we evaluate the performance on Arabic handwriting of the text-independent writer identification methods that we developed and tested on Western script in recent years. We use the IFN/ENIT data in the experiments reported here and our tests involve 350 writers. The results show that our methods are very effective and the conclusions drawn in previous studies remain valid also on Arabic script. High performance is achieved by combining textural features (joint directional probability distributions) with allographic features (grapheme-emission distributions).
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{arabic07,
      author = {Bulacu, M. and Schomaker, L. and Brink, A.},
      title = {Text-Independent Writer Identification and Verification on Offline Arabic Handwriting},
      booktitle = {Document Analysis and Recognition, 2007. ICDAR 2007. Ninth International Conference on},
      journal = {Document Analysis and Recognition, 2007. ICDAR 2007. Ninth International Conference on},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {2},
      pages = {769--773},
      url = {http://www.ai.rug.nl/bulacu/icdar2007-bulacu-schomaker-brink.pdf},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICDAR.2007.4377019}
    }
    
    Burnett & Charles The Semantics of Indian Numerals in Arabic, Greek and Latin 2006 Journal of Indian Philosophy
    Vol. 34(1-2), pp. 15-30 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Burnett2006Semantics,
      author = {Burnett and Charles},
      title = {The Semantics of Indian Numerals in Arabic, Greek and Latin},
      journal = {Journal of Indian Philosophy},
      publisher = {Springer},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {34},
      number = {1-2},
      pages = {15--30},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10781-005-8153-z},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10781-005-8153-z}
    }
    
    Bushofa, B.M.F. & Spann, M. Segmentation of Arabic characters using their contour information 1997 Digital Signal Processing Proceedings, 1997. DSP 97., 1997 13th International Conference on
    Vol. 2Digital Signal Processing Proceedings, 1997. DSP 97., 1997 13th International Conference on, pp. 683-686 vol.2 
    proceedings URL 
    Abstract: Arabic characters are written cursively in both printed and handwritten forms and they consist of 28 main characters. However, most of their shapes change when they are joined to form a word. This poses a challenging problem if these characters are to be recognised. We present an algorithm which allows Arabic words to be segmented into the proper set of characters. This is achieved by choosing the right position of segmentation which is indicated by an angle formed between each pair of joined characters. This algorithm is superior to those that rely on the histogram method. It improved the recognition rate of the segmented characters to 97.01% over a set characters consisting of two fonts each in four different sizes
    BibTeX:
    @proceedings{Bushofa1997Segmentation,
      author = {Bushofa, B. M. F. and Spann, M.},
      title = {Segmentation of Arabic characters using their contour information},
      booktitle = {Digital Signal Processing Proceedings, 1997. DSP 97., 1997 13th International Conference on},
      journal = {Digital Signal Processing Proceedings, 1997. DSP 97., 1997 13th International Conference on},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {2},
      pages = {683--686 vol.2},
      url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/absall.jsp?arnumber=628443}
    }
    
    Butcher, A. & Ahmad, K. Some acoustic and aerodynamic characteristics of pharyngeal consonants in Iraqi Arabic. 1987 Phonetica
    Vol. 44(3), pp. 156-172 
    article  
    Abstract: The articulation of pharyngeal consonants in Arabic is still not fully understood. The production of these sounds by a small group of speakers of an Iraqi dialect was analysed by means of acoustic and aerodynamic techniques. It was found that both [n] and could be said to be produced by a constriction in the pharynx (whereby the possibility of epiglottal involvement cannot be excluded), but that laryngeal tension may also play an important role. Vowels preceded or followed by pharyngeals have lowered and centralized allophones. High rates of airflow for [n] may be facilitated by lowering the velum. Both sounds could be regarded as approximants, formed in a region of the vocal tract where true fricatives are very difficult to produce.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Butcher1987,
      author = {A. Butcher and K. Ahmad},
      title = {Some acoustic and aerodynamic characteristics of pharyngeal consonants in Iraqi Arabic.},
      journal = {Phonetica},
      year = {1987},
      volume = {44},
      number = {3},
      pages = {156--172}
    }
    
    BǸland, R. & Mimouni, Z. Deep dyslexia in the two languages of an Arabic/French bilingual patient. 2001 Cognition
    Vol. 82(2), pp. 77-126 
    article  
    Abstract: We present a single case study of an Arabic/French bilingual patient, ZT, who, at the age of 32, suffered a cerebral vascular accident that resulted in a massive infarct in the left peri-sylvian region. ZT's reading displays the characteristics of the deep dyslexia syndrome in both languages, that is, production of semantic, visual, and morphological errors, and concreteness effect in reading aloud and impossibility of reading nonwords. In the first part of this paper, using a three-route model of reading, we account for the patient's performance by positing functional lesions, which affect the non-lexical, the semantic lexical and the non-semantic lexical routes of reading. Phonological priming observed in a cross-language visual lexical decision task indicates that implicit assembled phonological recoding is possible. The above lesions and implicit nonword reading characterize the output form of deep dyslexia. However, error distribution reveals dissociations across languages (e.g. the semantic error rate is higher in French whereas translations are more frequent in the Arabic testing) that cannot be accounted for within a three-route model. In the second part, extensions to Plaut and Shallice's connectionist model (Cognitive Neuropsychology, 10 (5) (1993) 377) are proposed to account for the translinguistic errors observed. ZT's error distribution is compared to that obtained by Plaut and Shallice after lesions had been applied at different locations through the 40-60 network. The overall syndrome of deep dyslexia found in both languages is explained as resulting from lesions along the direct (O-->I) and output (S-->Ip, Ip-->P) pathways of reading. Lesions along the output pathway mostly affecting S-->Ip connections in French and Ip-->P connections in Arabic account for discrepancies in ZT's error pattern across tasks and languages. This case study demonstrates the superiority of a connectionist approach for predicting the error pattern in deep dyslexia.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Beland2001,
      author = {R. BǸland and Z. Mimouni},
      title = {Deep dyslexia in the two languages of an Arabic/French bilingual patient.},
      journal = {Cognition},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {82},
      number = {2},
      pages = {77--126}
    }
    
    Cadora, F. Review: [untitled] 1983 The Modern Language Journal
    Vol. 67(2), pp. 179-180 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cadora1983,
      author = {Cadora, Frederic},
      title = {Review: [untitled]},
      journal = {The Modern Language Journal},
      publisher = {Blackwell Publishing on behalf of the National Federation of Modern Language Teachers Associations},
      year = {1983},
      volume = {67},
      number = {2},
      pages = {179--180},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/328306}
    }
    
    Cahan, S. & Cohen, N. Age versus schooling effects on intelligence development 1989 Child Development
    Vol. 60, pp. 1239-1249 
    article  
    Abstract: The sample included all students in Jerusalem's Hebrew-language, state-controlled elementary schools. The results unambiguously point to schooling as the major factor underlying the increase of intelligence test scores as a function of age and to the larger effect schooling has on verbal than nonverbal tests. .
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Cahan, Sorel and Cohen, Nora},
      title = {Age versus schooling effects on intelligence development},
      journal = {Child Development},
      year = {1989},
      volume = {60},
      pages = {1239-1249}
    }
    
    Cahana-Amitay, D. & Katzenberger, I.E. Segmentation of written and spoken narratives in Hebrew 1999
    Vol. 1Developing Literacy Across Genres, Modalities, and Language, pp. 158-168 
    incollection  
    BibTeX:
    @incollection{,
      author = {Cahana-Amitay, Dalia and Katzenberger, Irit E},
      title = {Segmentation of written and spoken narratives in Hebrew},
      booktitle = {Developing Literacy Across Genres, Modalities, and Language},
      publisher = {Tel Aviv University Press},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {1},
      pages = {158-168}
    }
    
    Calverley, E.E. The Arabic Generic Negative 1964 Journal of the American Oriental Society
    Vol. 84(2), pp. 171-172 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Calverley1964,
      author = {Calverley, Edwin E.},
      title = {The Arabic Generic Negative},
      journal = {Journal of the American Oriental Society},
      publisher = {American Oriental Society},
      year = {1964},
      volume = {84},
      number = {2},
      pages = {171--172},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/597105}
    }
    
    Campbell, J.I.D. & Metcalfe, A.W.S. Arabic digit naming speed: task context and redundancy gain. 2008 Cognition
    Vol. 107(1), pp. 218-237 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: There is evidence for both semantic and asemantic routes for naming Arabic digits, but neuropsychological dissociations suggest that number-fact retrieval (2x3=6) can inhibit the semantic route for digit naming. Here, we tested the hypothesis that such inhibition should slow digit naming, based on the principle that reduced access to multiple routes would counteract redundancy gain (the response time advantage expected from parallel retrieval pathways). Participants named two single digit numbers and then performed simple addition or magnitude comparison (Experiment 1), multiplication or magnitude comparison (Experiment 2), and multiplication or subtraction (Experiment 3) on the same or on a different pair of digits. Addition and multiplication were expected to inhibit the semantic route, whereas comparison and subtraction should enable the semantic route. Digit naming time was approximately 15ms slower when participants subsequently performed addition or multiplication relative to comparison or subtraction, regardless of whether or not the same digit pair was involved. A letter naming control condition in Experiment 3 demonstrated that the effect was specific to digit naming. Number fact retrieval apparently can inhibit Arabic digit naming processes.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Campbell2008,
      author = {Jamie I D Campbell and Arron W S Metcalfe},
      title = {Arabic digit naming speed: task context and redundancy gain.},
      journal = {Cognition},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {107},
      number = {1},
      pages = {218--237},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2007.10.001},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2007.10.001}
    }
    
    Campbell, J.I.D. & Reynvoet, B. Context-dependent semantic priming in number naming. 2009 J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn
    Vol. 35(6), pp. 1552-1556 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Previous research has shown that time to name single-digit Arabic numbers is about 15 ms slower when naming trials are interleaved with simple multiplication (e.g., state product of 2 x 3) than when naming digits is interleaved with magnitude comparison (e.g., state larger; 2 upward arrow 3). To explain this phenomenon, J. I. D. Campbell and A. W. S. Metcalfe (2008) proposed that the comparison context enables both semantic and asemantic pathways for digit naming but that number-fact retrieval inhibits the semantic route and slows digit naming relative to the comparison context. To test this hypothesis, the authors modified the naming context paradigm by introducing a semantic priming manipulation. They replicated the digit-naming response time advantage for comparison relative to the multiplication context and observed semantic priming only in the comparison context. In comparison blocks, digit naming was 8 ms faster immediately after naming near digit primes (+/-1) compared to far primes (>or=3), but in multiplication blocks there was no priming. The results reinforce the theory that number-fact retrieval can inhibit the semantic route for digit naming (L. Cohen & S. Dehaene, 1995) and thereby reconfigure the cognitive architecture for naming digits.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Campbell2009,
      author = {Jamie I D Campbell and Bert Reynvoet},
      title = {Context-dependent semantic priming in number naming.},
      journal = {J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {35},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1552--1556},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0017012},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0017012}
    }
    
    Cantlon, J.F., Brannon, E.M., Carter, E.J. & Pelphrey, K.A. Functional imaging of numerical processing in adults and 4-y-old children. 2006 PLoS Biol
    Vol. 4(5), pp. e125 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Adult humans, infants, pre-school children, and non-human animals appear to share a system of approximate numerical processing for non-symbolic stimuli such as arrays of dots or sequences of tones. Behavioral studies of adult humans implicate a link between these non-symbolic numerical abilities and symbolic numerical processing (e.g., similar distance effects in accuracy and reaction-time for arrays of dots and Arabic numerals). However, neuroimaging studies have remained inconclusive on the neural basis of this link. The intraparietal sulcus (IPS) is known to respond selectively to symbolic numerical stimuli such as Arabic numerals. Recent studies, however, have arrived at conflicting conclusions regarding the role of the IPS in processing non-symbolic, numerosity arrays in adulthood, and very little is known about the brain basis of numerical processing early in development. Addressing the question of whether there is an early-developing neural basis for abstract numerical processing is essential for understanding the cognitive origins of our uniquely human capacity for math and science. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 4-Tesla and an event-related fMRI adaptation paradigm, we found that adults showed a greater IPS response to visual arrays that deviated from standard stimuli in their number of elements, than to stimuli that deviated in local element shape. These results support previous claims that there is a neurophysiological link between non-symbolic and symbolic numerical processing in adulthood. In parallel, we tested 4-y-old children with the same fMRI adaptation paradigm as adults to determine whether the neural locus of non-symbolic numerical activity in adults shows continuity in function over development. We found that the IPS responded to numerical deviants similarly in 4-y-old children and adults. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence that the neural locus of adult numerical cognition takes form early in development, prior to sophisticated symbolic numerical experience. More broadly, this is also, to our knowledge, the first cognitive fMRI study to test healthy children as young as 4 y, providing new insights into the neurophysiology of human cognitive development.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cantlon2006,
      author = {Jessica F Cantlon and Elizabeth M Brannon and Elizabeth J Carter and Kevin A Pelphrey},
      title = {Functional imaging of numerical processing in adults and 4-y-old children.},
      journal = {PLoS Biol},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {4},
      number = {5},
      pages = {e125},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0040125},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0040125}
    }
    
    CaÇño, A., Rapp, B., Costa, A. & Juncadella, M. Deafness for the meanings of number words. 2008 Neuropsychologia
    Vol. 46(1), pp. 63-81 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: We describe the performance of an aphasic individual who showed a selective impairment affecting his comprehension of auditorily presented number words and not other word categories. His difficulty in number word comprehension was restricted to the auditory modality, given that with visual stimuli (written words, Arabic numerals and pictures) his comprehension of number and non-number words was intact. While there have been previous reports of selective difficulty or sparing of number words at the semantic and post-semantic levels, this is the first reported case of a pre-semantic deficit that is specific to the category of number words. This constitutes evidence that lexical semantic distinctions are respected by modality-specific neural mechanisms responsible for providing access to the meanings of words.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cano2008,
      author = {AgnÇùs CaÇño and Brenda Rapp and Albert Costa and Montserrat Juncadella},
      title = {Deafness for the meanings of number words.},
      journal = {Neuropsychologia},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {46},
      number = {1},
      pages = {63--81},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2007.08.008},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2007.08.008}
    }
    
    Chakhachiro & Raymond Translating irony in political commentary texts from English into Arabic 2007 Babel
    Vol. 53(3), pp. 216-240 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Chakhachiro2007Translating,
      author = {Chakhachiro and Raymond},
      title = {Translating irony in political commentary texts from English into Arabic},
      journal = {Babel},
      publisher = {John Benjamins Publishing Company},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {53},
      number = {3},
      pages = {216--240},
      url = {http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/jbp/bab/2007/00000053/00000003/art00002}
    }
    
    Chao, Y.R. The Cantian idiolect: An analysis of the Chinese spoken by a twenty-eight-months-old child 1951 University of California Publications in Semitic Philology
    Vol. 11, pp. 27-44 
    article  
    Abstract: Chao reports on the development of his granddaughter Canta's acquisition of Mandarin -- he examines her phonological inventory, her grammatical development during a one month period, and provides a list of her first words. Reprinted in Bar-Adon & Leopold (1971). Child language - a book of readings. Prentice-Hall, and also in Ferguson & Slobin, 1973. Studies in child language development. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Chao, Yuen Ren},
      title = {The Cantian idiolect: An analysis of the Chinese spoken by a twenty-eight-months-old child},
      journal = {University of California Publications in Semitic Philology},
      year = {1951},
      volume = {11},
      pages = {27-44}
    }
    
    Cheng, J., Bernstein, J., Pado, U. & Suzuki, M. Automated Assessment of Spoken Modern Standard Arabic 2009 Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Innovative Use of NLP for Building Educational Applications, pp. 1-9  inproceedings URL 
    Abstract: Proficiency testing is an important ingredient in successful language teaching. However, repeated testing for course placement, over the course of instruction or for certification can be time-consuming and costly. We present the design and validation of the Versant Arabic Test, a fully automated test of spoken Modern Standard Arabic, that evaluates test-takers' facility in listening and speaking. Experimental data shows the test to be highly reliable (testretest r=0.97) and to strongly predict performance on the ILR OPI (r=0.87), a standard interview test that assesses oral proficiency.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Cheng2009Automated,
      author = {Cheng, Jian and Bernstein, Jared and Pado, Ulrike and Suzuki, Masanori},
      title = {Automated Assessment of Spoken Modern Standard Arabic},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Innovative Use of NLP for Building Educational Applications},
      publisher = {Association for Computational Linguistics},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {1--9},
      url = {http://www.aclweb.org/anthology-new/W/W09/W09-2101.bib}
    }
    
    Cheriet, M. Strategies for visual arabic handwriting recognition: Issues and case study 2007 Proc. 9th Int. Symp. Signal Processing and Its Applications ISSPA 2007, pp. 1-6  inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Cheriet2007,
      author = {Cheriet, M. },
      title = {Strategies for visual arabic handwriting recognition: Issues and case study},
      booktitle = {Proc. 9th Int. Symp. Signal Processing and Its Applications ISSPA 2007},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {1--6},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ISSPA.2007.4555620}
    }
    
    Cheung, A., Bennamoun, M. & Bergmann, N.W. A recognition-based Arabic optical character recognition system 1998
    Vol. 5Proc. IEEE Int Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Conf, pp. 4189-4194 
    inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Cheung1998,
      author = {Cheung, A. and Bennamoun, M. and Bergmann, N. W. },
      title = {A recognition-based Arabic optical character recognition system},
      booktitle = {Proc. IEEE Int Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Conf},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {5},
      pages = {4189--4194},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICSMC.1998.727502}
    }
    
    Cheung, A., Bennamoun, M. & Bergmann, N.W. Implementation of a statistical based Arabic character recognition system 1997
    Vol. 2Proc. IEEE TENCON '97. IEEE Region 10 Annual Conf.. Speech and Image Technologies for Computing and Telecommunications, pp. 531-534 
    inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Cheung1997,
      author = {Cheung, A. and Bennamoun, M. and Bergmann, N. W. },
      title = {Implementation of a statistical based Arabic character recognition system},
      booktitle = {Proc. IEEE TENCON '97. IEEE Region 10 Annual Conf.. Speech and Image Technologies for Computing and Telecommunications},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {2},
      pages = {531--534},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TENCON.1997.648261}
    }
    
    Chincotta, D., HyÇônÇÏ, J. & Underwood, G. Eye fixations, speech rate and bilingual digit span: numeral reading indexes fluency not word length. 1997 Acta Psychol (Amst)
    Vol. 97(3), pp. 253-275 
    article  
    Abstract: The present study examined whether the reading of language-neutral stimuli, as numerals are, at maximal speed by bilinguals indexes processes related to fluency rather than differences in articulation time between languages. We tested two groups of bilinguals that spoke the same languages (Finnish and Swedish) but whose mother tongues were different and obtained measures of Arabic numeral processing by monitoring eye movements. These measures were contrasted with articulation and numeral reading estimates of word length. The results indicated that Finnish- and Swedish-dominant bilinguals had shorter gaze durations and shorter reading times in their respective dominant languages, whereas both groups articulated digits faster in Swedish than Finnish. The Swedish-dominant group had a larger digit span in Swedish, whereas digit span was marginally greater in Finnish than Swedish for the Finnish-dominant group. The finding that numeral reading was influenced by cognitive loads independent of articulation, thus, moderated the view that bilingual digit span effects are mediated exclusively by variation in word length between languages.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Chincotta1997,
      author = {D. Chincotta and J. HyÇônÇÏ and G. Underwood},
      title = {Eye fixations, speech rate and bilingual digit span: numeral reading indexes fluency not word length.},
      journal = {Acta Psychol (Amst)},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {97},
      number = {3},
      pages = {253--275}
    }
    
    Chipman, H.H. & di Francavilla, M.I. His or hers? How young English and Algerian Arabic speaking children understand third person possessive pronouns in object position 1989 Folia Linguistica
    Vol. 23, pp. 157-180 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Chipman, Harold H. and di Francavilla, Margherita Imperiali},
      title = {His or hers? How young English and Algerian Arabic speaking children understand third person possessive pronouns in object position},
      journal = {Folia Linguistica},
      year = {1989},
      volume = {23},
      pages = {157-180}
    }
    
    Cho, Y.S. & Proctor, R.W. When is an odd number not odd? Influence of task rule on the MARC effect for numeric classification. 2007 J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn
    Vol. 33(5), pp. 832-842 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: When classifying numbers as odd or even with left-right keypresses, performance is better with the mapping even-right/odd-left than with the opposite mapping. This linguistic markedness association of response codes (MARC) effect has been attributed to compatibility between the linguistic markedness of stimulus and response codes. In 2 experiments participants made keypresses to the Arabic numerals or number words 3, 4, 8, and 9 using the odd-even parity rule or a multiple-of-3 rule, which yield the same keypress response for each stimulus. For both stimulus modes, the MARC effect was obtained with the odd-even rule, but tended to reverse with the multiple-of-3 rule. The reversal was complete for the right response, but task rule had little influence on the left response. The results are consistent with the view that the MARC effect and its reversal are caused by correspondence of the stimulus code designated as positive by the task rule with the positive-polarity right response code.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cho2007,
      author = {Yang Seok Cho and Robert W Proctor},
      title = {When is an odd number not odd? Influence of task rule on the MARC effect for numeric classification.},
      journal = {J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {33},
      number = {5},
      pages = {832--842},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-7393.33.5.832},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-7393.33.5.832}
    }
    
    Cipolotti, L., Warrington, E.K. & Butterworth, B. Selective impairment in manipulating Arabic numerals. 1995 Cortex
    Vol. 31(1), pp. 73-86 
    article  
    Abstract: This paper describes an acalculic patient (B.A.L.) with an unusual selective deficit in manipulating arabic numerals. The patient was unimpaired in reading aloud letters, words and written number names but unable to read aloud single arabic numerals. Furthermore, his ability to produce the next number in the sequence and his ability to produce answers to simple addition and subtraction was relatively spared when the stimuli were presented as number names but impaired when the stimuli were presented as arabic numerals. Using magnitude comparison tasks it was demonstrated that his knowledge of cardinal values of arabic numerals was preserved. His impairment in manipulating arabic numerals was interpreted in terms of a deficit in the connection between format specific number codes and the verbal numeral production system.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cipolotti1995,
      author = {L. Cipolotti and E. K. Warrington and B. Butterworth},
      title = {Selective impairment in manipulating Arabic numerals.},
      journal = {Cortex},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {31},
      number = {1},
      pages = {73--86}
    }
    
    Clark, E.V. & Berman, R.A. Types of linguistic knowledge: Interpreting and producing compound nouns 1987 Journal of Child Language
    Vol. 14(3), pp. 547-67 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Clark, Eve V. and Berman, Ruth A.},
      title = {Types of linguistic knowledge: Interpreting and producing compound nouns},
      journal = {Journal of Child Language},
      year = {1987},
      volume = {14},
      number = {3},
      pages = {547-67}
    }
    
    Clark, E.V. & Berman, R.A. Structure and use in the acquisition of word formation 1984 Language
    Vol. 60, pp. 542-90 
    article  
    Abstract: Children, like adults, coin words to fill lexical gaps. To do this, children must build up a repertoire of word formation devices to use. This study examines the influence of semantic transparency, of formal simplicity, of productivity,and of conventionality on the acquisition of a repertoire of word formation devices by looking at the role of these principles in Hebrew-speaking children's coinages of novel agent and instrument nouns, and comparing their patterns of acquisition to those of English-speaking children for the same lexical domains - From Language
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Clark, Eve V. and Berman, Ruth A.},
      title = {Structure and use in the acquisition of word formation},
      journal = {Language},
      year = {1984},
      volume = {60},
      pages = {542-90}
    }
    
    Coates, M.W., Stewart, M. & Waite, H. The Arabic Element in Modern Spanish 1943 Hispania
    Vol. 26(1), pp. 59-64 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Coates1943,
      author = {Coates, Mary Weld and Marion Stewart and Waite, Helen},
      title = {The Arabic Element in Modern Spanish},
      journal = {Hispania},
      publisher = {American Association of Teachers of Spanish and Portuguese},
      year = {1943},
      volume = {26},
      number = {1},
      pages = {59--64},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/333757}
    }
    
    Coderre, E.L., Filippi, C.G., Newhouse, P.A. & Dumas, J.A. Ichi, Ni, 3, 4: neural representation of kana, kanji, and Arabic numbers in native Japanese speakers. 2009 Brain Cogn
    Vol. 70(3), pp. 289-296 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: The Japanese language represents numbers in kana digit words (a syllabic notation), kanji numbers and Arabic numbers (logographic notations). Kanji and Arabic numbers have previously shown similar patterns of numerical processing, and because of their shared logographic properties may exhibit similar brain areas of numerical representation. Kana digit words require a larger phonetic component, and therefore may show different areas of numerical representation as compared to kanji or Arabic numbers. The present study investigated behavioral reaction times and brain activation with fMRI during the numerical processing of kana digit words, kanji numbers and Arabic numbers. No differences in behavioral reaction time were found between kanji and Arabic numbers. In contrast, kana digit words produced a longer reaction time as compared to the other two notations. The imaging data showed that kana activated the posterior cingulate cortex when compared to kanji and Arabic numbers. It is suggested that this posterior cingulate activation reflects an additional attentional demand in this script which may be related to the infrequent use of kana digit words, or may reflect an extra step of phonological mediation in converting the visual word form to the verbal word form. Overall, the data suggest that number reading is processed differently in these three notations.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Coderre2009,
      author = {Emily L Coderre and Christopher G Filippi and Paul A Newhouse and Julie A Dumas},
      title = {Ichi, Ni, 3, 4: neural representation of kana, kanji, and Arabic numbers in native Japanese speakers.},
      journal = {Brain Cogn},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {70},
      number = {3},
      pages = {289--296},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2009.03.002},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2009.03.002}
    }
    
    Coetzee, A. & Pater, J. Weighted constraints and gradient restrictions on place co-occurrence in Muna and Arabic 2008 Natural Language & Linguistic Theory
    Vol. 26(2), pp. 289-337 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Abstract  This paper documents a restriction against the co-occurrence of homorganic consonants in the root morphemes of Muna, a western Austronesian language, and compares the Muna pattern with the much-studied similar pattern in Arabic. As in Arabic, the restriction applies gradiently: its force depends on the place of articulation of the consonants involved, and on whether the homorganic consonants are similar in terms of other features. Muna differs from Arabic in the relative strengths of these other features in affecting co-occurrence rates of homorganic consonants. Along with the descriptions of these patterns, this paper presents phonological analyses in terms of weighted constraints, as in Harmonic Grammar. This account uses a gradual learning algorithm that acquires weights that reflect the relative frequency of different sequence types in the two languages. The resulting grammars assign the sequences acceptability scores that correlate with a measure of their attestedness in the lexicon. This application of Harmonic Grammar illustrates its ability to capture both gradient and categorical patterns.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Coetzee2008Weighted,
      author = {Coetzee, Andries and Pater, Joe},
      title = {Weighted constraints and gradient restrictions on place co-occurrence in Muna and Arabic},
      journal = {Natural Language & Linguistic Theory},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {26},
      number = {2},
      pages = {289--337},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11049-008-9039-z},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11049-008-9039-z}
    }
    
    Cohen, L. & Dehaene, S. [Reading numbers in pure alexia: effects of the task and hemispheric specialization] 1995 Rev Neurol (Paris)
    Vol. 151(8-9), pp. 480-485 
    article  
    Abstract: Selective conservation of the ability to read Arabic numbers in patients unable to read words or even letters is a classical characteristic of pure alexia described by Dejerine (1982). We report our work on the capacity of two patients with pure typical alexia to process numbers. Our main finding was that these patients could count pairs of Arabic numbers correctly when the reading task was simple (example 2 4-->"two four") or when the task involved comparing sizes (example 2 4-->"four is bigger than two"). Inversely, these patients often made mistakes when asked to perform arithmetic operations (example 2 4-->"two plus four equals six"). Using these two numbers, there was a similar dissociation between excellent performance on comparison tests and severe deficiency in reading out loud. We interpret these findings with the hypothesis that both of the hemispheres can identify Arabic numbers, but that the visual systems on the right and left play a different role during different tasks. In pure alexia, a lesion in the left identification system leads to selective deficiency in linguistic tasks such as reading numbers out loud, recognizing numbers with several figures or mental arithmetic. The right identification system in intact and is sufficient for comparison or reading isolated Arabic numbers.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cohen1995,
      author = {L. Cohen and S. Dehaene},
      title = {[Reading numbers in pure alexia: effects of the task and hemispheric specialization]},
      journal = {Rev Neurol (Paris)},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {151},
      number = {8-9},
      pages = {480--485}
    }
    
    Cohen, L., Dehaene, S., Chochon, F., LehǸricy, S. & Naccache, L. Language and calculation within the parietal lobe: a combined cognitive, anatomical and fMRI study. 2000 Neuropsychologia
    Vol. 38(10), pp. 1426-1440 
    article  
    Abstract: We report the case of a patient (ATH) who suffered from aphasia, deep dyslexia, and acalculia, following a lesion in her left perisylvian area. She showed a severe impairment in all tasks involving numbers in a verbal format, such as reading aloud, writing to dictation, or responding verbally to questions of numerical knowledge. In contrast, her ability to manipulate non-verbal representations of numbers, i.e., Arabic numerals and quantities, was comparatively well preserved, as evidenced for instance in number comparison or number bisection tasks. This dissociated impairment of verbal and non-verbal numerical abilities entailed a differential impairment of the four arithmetic operations. ATH performed much better with subtraction and addition, that can be solved on the basis of quantity manipulation, than with multiplication and division problems, that are commonly solved by retrieving stored verbal sequences. The brain lesion affected the classical language areas, but spared a subset of the left inferior parietal lobule that was active during calculation tasks, as demonstrated with functional MRI. Finally, the relative preservation of subtraction versus multiplication may be related to the fact that subtraction activated the intact right parietal lobe, while multiplication activated predominantly left-sided areas.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cohen2000,
      author = {L. Cohen and S. Dehaene and F. Chochon and S. LehǸricy and L. Naccache},
      title = {Language and calculation within the parietal lobe: a combined cognitive, anatomical and fMRI study.},
      journal = {Neuropsychologia},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {38},
      number = {10},
      pages = {1426--1440}
    }
    
    Cohen, L., Dehaene, S. & Verstichel, P. Number words and number non-words. A case of deep dyslexia extending to Arabic numerals. 1994 Brain
    Vol. 117 ( Pt 2), pp. 267-279 
    article  
    Abstract: Although the ability to process numerical symbols may be considered a special case of more general linguistic abilities, deficits affecting numbers and words are usually interpreted within entirely independent frameworks. We report a patient presenting typical deep dyslexia, as confirmed in a series of word and non-word reading tasks. Moreover, the main features of his deficit extended to arabic numerals. The patient was equally unable to read aloud non-words and unfamiliar numerals, whereas he performed significantly better with real words and familiar arabic numerals such as famous dates or brands of cars. Additionally, familiar numerals and words yielded qualitatively similar errors, as did unfamiliar numerals and non-words. This contrasting performance with familiar and unfamiliar numerals seems incompatible with any single-route model of number reading. It is rather consistent with the existence of two routes for number reading: a 'surface' route mapping any digit string into a word sequence according to language-specific rules; and a 'deep' semantic route functioning only with familiar items that possess a specific lexical entry. We therefore suggest that number reading is architecturally similar to word reading, although these two processes probably rest on functionally and anatomically distinct pathways.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cohen1994,
      author = {L. Cohen and S. Dehaene and P. Verstichel},
      title = {Number words and number non-words. A case of deep dyslexia extending to Arabic numerals.},
      journal = {Brain},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {117 ( Pt 2)},
      pages = {267--279}
    }
    
    ColomǸ, A., Laka, I. & Sebastiǭn-GallǸs, N. Language effects in addition: How you say it counts. 2010 Q J Exp Psychol (Colchester)
    Vol. 63(5), pp. 965-983 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the role of language in calculation. Two populations were compared, one with a base-10 language, and another (Basque) in which number words are constructed by combining multiples of 20 and units or teens (e.g., "35" is said "twenty and fifteen"). Experiment 1 asked participants to verbally solve additions presented as Arabic digits. Basque participants solved the additions that consisted of a multiple of 20 and a teen (e.g., 20 + 15) faster than controls with identical answers (e.g., 25 + 10). No differences were found in the base-10 language group. Experiment 2 replicated this result even if participants had to type the answer on a numerical keypad, instead of saying it. Hence, the structure of number words in each of the languages influenced the way additions were solved, even if language was not necessary for conducting the task. Finally, in Experiment 3, both language groups performed a numerical comparison task in which no effects of the structure of number words were obtained. Results of the three experiments are discussed in light of current models of numerical cognition.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Colome2010,
      author = {Angels ColomǸ and Itziar Laka and Nǧria Sebastiǭn-GallǸs},
      title = {Language effects in addition: How you say it counts.},
      journal = {Q J Exp Psychol (Colchester)},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {63},
      number = {5},
      pages = {965--983},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17470210903134377},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17470210903134377}
    }
    
    Comrie, B. Aspect 1976   book  
    BibTeX:
    @book{Comrie1976,
      author = {Comrie, B},
      title = {Aspect},
      publisher = {Cambridge: Cambridge University Press},
      year = {1976}
    }
    
    Conley, T.M. Literary and Philosophical Rhetoric in the Greek, Roman, Syriac, and Arabic Worlds Historiographia Linguistica
    Vol. 37(1-2), pp. 247-250 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{ConleyLiterary,
      author = {Conley, Thomas M.},
      title = {Literary and Philosophical Rhetoric in the Greek, Roman, Syriac, and Arabic Worlds},
      journal = {Historiographia Linguistica},
      publisher = {John Benjamins Publishing Company},
      volume = {37},
      number = {1-2},
      pages = {247--250},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/hl.37.1/2.16con},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/hl.37.1/2.16con}
    }
    
    Cooper, R.L. Planning language acquisition 1988 Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics  article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Cooper, Robert L.},
      title = {Planning language acquisition},
      journal = {Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics},
      year = {1988}
    }
    
    Cresswell, M.J. Arabic numerals in propositional attitude sentences 2006 Analysis
    Vol. 66(289), pp. 92-93 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cresswell2006Arabic,
      author = {Cresswell, M. J.},
      title = {Arabic numerals in propositional attitude sentences},
      journal = {Analysis},
      publisher = {Blackwell Publishing},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {66},
      number = {289},
      pages = {92--93},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8284.2006.00594.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8284.2006.00594.x}
    }
    
    Crowther, C.S. & Mann, V. Use of vocalic cues to consonant voicing and native language background: the influence of experimental design. 1994 Percept Psychophys
    Vol. 55(5), pp. 513-525 
    article  
    Abstract: For native speakers of English and several other languages, preceding vocalic duration and F1 offset frequency are two of the cues that convey the stop consonant voicing distinction in word-final position. For speakers learning English as a second language, there are indications that use of vocalic duration, but not F1 offset frequency, may be hindered by a lack of experience with phonemic (i.e., lexical) vowel length (the "phonemic vowel length account": Crowther & Mann, 1992). In this study, native speakers of Arabic, a language that includes a phonemic vowel length distinction, were tested for their use of vocalic duration and F1 offset in production and perception of the English consonant-vowel-consonant forms pod and pot. The phonemic vowel length hypothesis predicts that Arabic speakers should use vocalic duration extensively in production and perception. On the contrary, Experiment 1 revealed that, consistent with Flege and Port's (1981) findings, they produced only slightly (but significantly) longer vocalic segments in their pod tokens. It further indicated that their productions showed a significant variation in F1 offset as a function of final stop voicing. Perceptual sensitivity to vocalic duration and F1 offset as voicing cues was tested in two experiments. In Experiment 2, we employed a factorial combination of these two cues and a finely spaced vocalic duration continuum. Arabic speakers did not appear to be very sensitive to vocalic duration, but they were about as sensitive as native English speakers to F1 offset frequency. In Experiment 3, we employed a one-dimensional continuum of more widely spaced stimuli that varied only vocalic duration. Arabic speakers showed native-English-like sensitivity to vocalic duration. An explanation based on the perceptual anchor theory of context coding (Braida et al., 1984; Macmillan, 1987; Macmillan, Braida, & Goldberg, 1987) and phoneme perception theory (Schouten & Van Hessen, 1992) is offered to reconcile the apparently contradictory perceptual findings. The explanation does not attribute native-English-like voicing perception to the Arabic subjects. The findings in this study call for a modification of the phonemic vowel length hypothesis.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Crowther1994,
      author = {C. S. Crowther and V. Mann},
      title = {Use of vocalic cues to consonant voicing and native language background: the influence of experimental design.},
      journal = {Percept Psychophys},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {55},
      number = {5},
      pages = {513--525}
    }
    
    Crutch, S.J., Ridha, B.H. & Warrington, E.K. The different frameworks underlying abstract and concrete knowledge: evidence from a bilingual patient with a semantic refractory access dysphasia. 2006 Neurocase
    Vol. 12(3), pp. 151-163 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: We report the case of a bilingual patient (IRQ) who acquired a semantic refractory access dysphasia following a middle cerebral artery stroke. In a series of spoken word-written word matching tasks, the degree of semantic similarity between target and distractor items was found to affect the accuracy of IRQ's identification of concrete but not abstract words. By contrast, the degree of semantic association between target and distractor items was found to affect response accuracy when identifying abstract but not concrete words. These results provide further corroboration for the notion that abstract concepts are supported by an associative representational network whereas concrete concepts are supported by a categorical representational framework. We also demonstrate an equivalent refractory deficit of comprehension in both English and Arabic. In addition, we provide the first documented evidence of a category-specific refractory deficit of knowledge for abstract words.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Crutch2006,
      author = {Sebastian J Crutch and Basil H Ridha and Elizabeth K Warrington},
      title = {The different frameworks underlying abstract and concrete knowledge: evidence from a bilingual patient with a semantic refractory access dysphasia.},
      journal = {Neurocase},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {12},
      number = {3},
      pages = {151--163},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13554790600598832},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13554790600598832}
    }
    
    Cruttenden, A. The acquisition of pronouns and language simplification 1974 Language and Speech
    Vol. 20, pp. 191-7 
    article  
    Abstract: The order of acquisition of pronouns in English (together with common confusions) is surveyed, using evidence from published studies and from two new sets of data. Perceptual reasons are advanced for the order of acquisition: end saliency and syllabicity (together with a preference for animate subjects and inanimate objects). Comparison is made with acquisition in Arabic and French, and with simplification in creole languages.
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Cruttenden, Alan},
      title = {The acquisition of pronouns and language simplification},
      journal = {Language and Speech},
      year = {1974},
      volume = {20},
      pages = {191-7}
    }
    
    Cushion, S. & Hemard, D. Applying New Technological Developments to CALL for Arabic 2002 Computer Assisted Language Learning, pp. 501-508  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Teachers and researchers trying to produce CALL software in languages that use the non-Latin alphabets have a long history of seeing their work disappear into a series of nonsensical characters or black squares. This problem is particularly true of web-based material because there are so many unknown factors associated with the operating system of a distant user. This paper will describe how recent technological developments have provided the possibility of overcoming these technical problems in conjunction with the Java programming language and the Unicode character numbering system. This approach has enabled the conversion of previously developed software, which produced web-based CALL material in the Latin alphabet, to produce similar material in Arabic. The system does not rely on the restructuring of the host computer&039;s operating system and enables teachers of Arabic to produce their own interactive CALL material in a form that will be easily accessible to their students.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cushion2002Applying,
      author = {Cushion, S. and Hemard, D.},
      title = {Applying New Technological Developments to CALL for Arabic},
      journal = {Computer Assisted Language Learning},
      publisher = {Routledge, part of the Taylor & Francis Group},
      year = {2002},
      pages = {501--508},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1076/call.15.5.501.13472},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1076/call.15.5.501.13472}
    }
    
    Cziko, G.A. A review of the state-process and punctual-nonpunctual distinctions in children's acquisitions of verbs 1989 First Language
    Vol. 9, pp. 1-31 
    article  
    Abstract: Approximately 60 empirical studies were initially reviewed with 13 reporting findings relevant to the state-process and/or punctual-nonpunctual distinctions involving the languages of English, French, Greek, Hebrew, Italian, Japanese, Polish, Serbo-Croatian, and Turkish. It was found that these studies in general provide support for the hypothesis that children universally distinguish stative from process verbs. .
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Cziko, Gary A.},
      title = {A review of the state-process and punctual-nonpunctual distinctions in children's acquisitions of verbs},
      journal = {First Language},
      year = {1989},
      volume = {9},
      pages = {1-31}
    }
    
    Daana, H.A. The development of consonant clusters, stress and plural nouns in Jordanian Arabic child language 2009 School: Dept. of Language and Linguistics, University of Essex  phdthesis URL 
    BibTeX:
    @phdthesis{Daana2009,
      author = {Hana Asaad Daana},
      title = {The development of consonant clusters, stress and plural nouns in Jordanian Arabic child language},
      school = {Dept. of Language and Linguistics, University of Essex},
      year = {2009},
      url = {http://serlib0.essex.ac.uk/record=b1708467~S5}
    }
    
    Dada, A. Implementation of the Arabic numerals and their syntax in GF 2007 Semitic '07: Proceedings of the 2007 Workshop on Computational Approaches to Semitic Languages, pp. 9-16  inproceedings  
    Abstract: The numeral system of Arabic is rich in its morphosyntactic variety yet suffers from the lack of a good computational resource that describes it in a reusable way. This implies that applications that require the use of rules of the Arabic numeral system have to either reimplement them each time, which implies wasted resources, or use simplified, imprecise rules that result in low quality applications. A solution has been devised with Grammatical Framework (GF) to use language constructs and grammars as libraries that can be written once and reused in various applications. In this paper, we describe our implementation of the Arabic numeral system, as an example of a bigger implementation of a grammar library for Arabic. We show that users can reuse our system by accessing a simple language-independent API rule.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Dada2007,
      author = {Dada, Ali},
      title = {Implementation of the Arabic numerals and their syntax in GF},
      booktitle = {Semitic '07: Proceedings of the 2007 Workshop on Computational Approaches to Semitic Languages},
      publisher = {Association for Computational Linguistics},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {9--16}
    }
    
    Dadoo, Y. Language, Identity, Modernity: The Arabic Study Circle of Durban Asian Journal of Social Science
    Vol. 37(6), pp. 968-969 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{DadooLanguage,
      author = {Dadoo, Yousuf},
      title = {Language, Identity, Modernity: The Arabic Study Circle of Durban},
      journal = {Asian Journal of Social Science},
      publisher = {BRILL},
      volume = {37},
      number = {6},
      pages = {968--969},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156848409X12526657425622},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/156848409X12526657425622}
    }
    
    Daftuar, C.N. Legibility of five-digit Arabic and Devanagri numerals as a function of their sizes. 1977 J Gen Psychol
    Vol. 97(1st Half), pp. 139-144 
    article  
    Abstract: The purpose was to test two hypotheses: (a) Arabic numerals would be more legible than Devanagri; and (b) among all the four type sizes, 10-point printing faces would be most legible. Five-digit stimuli of four printing sizes (8-, 10-, 12-, and 14-points), printed on white cards in deep black ink, were tachistoscopically presented to 16 students (eight males, eight females) of undergraduate and graduate classes. F ratios for within points, as well as for within scripts, were significant. In all point sizes Arabic was more legible. All but two pairs of means of Arabic numerals (8- X 10-points and 10- X 12-points), but only two pairs of means (8- X 12-points and 8- X 14-points) of Devanagri numerals were significantly different from each other. Legibility scores distinctly rose with increase in sizes in both the numerals.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Daftuar1977,
      author = {C. N. Daftuar},
      title = {Legibility of five-digit Arabic and Devanagri numerals as a function of their sizes.},
      journal = {J Gen Psychol},
      year = {1977},
      volume = {97},
      number = {1st Half},
      pages = {139--144}
    }
    
    Dalrymple-Alford, E.C. Prestimulus language cueing and speed of identifying Arabic and English words. 1967 Psychol Rep
    Vol. 21(1), pp. 27-28 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Dalrymple-Alford1967,
      author = {E. C. Dalrymple-Alford},
      title = {Prestimulus language cueing and speed of identifying Arabic and English words.},
      journal = {Psychol Rep},
      year = {1967},
      volume = {21},
      number = {1},
      pages = {27--28}
    }
    
    Damian, M.F. Asymmetries in the processing of Arabic digits and number words. 2004 Mem Cognit
    Vol. 32(1), pp. 164-171 
    article  
    Abstract: Numbers can be represented as Arabic digits ("6") or as number words ("six"). The present study investigated potential processing differences between the two notational formats. In view of the previous finding (e.g., Potter & Faulconer, 1975) that objects are named slower, but semantically categorized faster, than corresponding words, it was investigated whether a similar interaction between stimulus format and task could be obtained with numbers. Experiment 1 established that number words were named faster than corresponding digits, but only if the two notation formats were presented in separate experimental blocks. Experiment 2 contrasted naming with a numerical magnitude judgment task and demonstrated an interaction between notation and task, with slower naming but faster magnitude judgment latencies for digits than for number words. These findings suggest that processing of the two notation formats is asymmetric, with digits gaining rapid access to numerical magnitude representations, but slower access to lexical codes, and the reverse for number words.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Damian2004,
      author = {Markus F Damian},
      title = {Asymmetries in the processing of Arabic digits and number words.},
      journal = {Mem Cognit},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {32},
      number = {1},
      pages = {164--171}
    }
    
    Darwish, A.M. & Auda, G.A. A new composite feature vector for Arabic handwritten signature recognition 1994 Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, 1994. ICASSP-94., 1994 IEEE International Conference on
    Vol. ii, pp. II/613-II/616 vol.2 
    proceedings URL 
    Abstract: One of the main difficulties in solving complex recognition problems is to find an optimum feature vector that translates the input image to a set of numeric values to be presented to the classifier. Optimum in the sense that it classifies samples correctly, it is easy to compute and it is small in size. This step is essential to reduce the amount of data presented to the classifier. Even if we have an excellent learning classifier, the role of the feature vector should not be underestimated. We present a comparative study for a large number of features (210) previously studied in the literature as applied to the problem of recognizing Arabic handwritten signatures. Based on the statistical results of this study, a new feature vector was suggested and tested. It yielded 98.6% recognition rate for our specific application. Since signature were represented as a 2D array of binary values output from a scanner, it is our view that the proposed vector can be generalized to the problem of recognizing any limited number of 2D binary patterns
    BibTeX:
    @proceedings{Darwish1994New,
      author = {Darwish, A. M. and Auda, G. A.},
      title = {A new composite feature vector for Arabic handwritten signature recognition},
      journal = {Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, 1994. ICASSP-94., 1994 IEEE International Conference on},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {ii},
      pages = {II/613--II/616 vol.2},
      url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/absall.jsp?arnumber=389581}
    }
    
    Darwish, K., Hassan, H. & Emam, O. Examining the effect of improved context sensitive morphology on Arabic information retrieval 2005 Semitic '05: Proceedings of the ACL Workshop on Computational Approaches to Semitic Languages, pp. 25-30  inproceedings  
    Abstract: This paper explores the effect of improved morphological analysis, particularly context sensitive morphology, on monolingual Arabic Information Retrieval (IR). It also compares the effect of context sensitive morphology to non-context sensitive morphology. The results show that better coverage and improved correctness have a dramatic effect on IR effectiveness and that context sensitive morphology further improves retrieval effectiveness, but the improvement is not statistically significant. Furthermore, the improvement obtained by the use of context sensitive morphology over the use of light stemming was not significantly significant.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Darwish2005,
      author = {Darwish, Kareem and Hassan, Hany and Emam, Ossama},
      title = {Examining the effect of improved context sensitive morphology on Arabic information retrieval},
      booktitle = {Semitic '05: Proceedings of the ACL Workshop on Computational Approaches to Semitic Languages},
      publisher = {Association for Computational Linguistics},
      year = {2005},
      pages = {25--30}
    }
    
    Darwish, K. & Magdy, W. Error correction vs. query garbling for Arabic OCR document retrieval 2007 ACM Trans. Inf. Syst.
    Vol. 26(1), pp. 5 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: Due to the existence of large numbers of legacy documents (such as old books and newspapers), improving retrieval effectiveness for OCR'ed documents continues to be an important problem. This article compares the effect of OCR error correction with and without language modeling and the effect of query garbling with weighted structured queries on the retrieval of OCR degraded Arabic documents. The results suggest that moderate error correction does not yield statistically significant improvement in retrieval effectiveness when indexing and searching using n-grams. Also, reversing error correction models to perform query garbling in conjunction with weighted structured queries yields improved retrieval effectiveness. Lastly, using very good error correction that utilizes language modeling yields the best improvement in retrieval effectiveness.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Darwish2007,
      author = {Darwish, Kareem and Magdy, Walid},
      title = {Error correction vs. query garbling for Arabic OCR document retrieval},
      journal = {ACM Trans. Inf. Syst.},
      publisher = {ACM},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {26},
      number = {1},
      pages = {5},
      doi = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1292591.1292596}
    }
    
    Darwish, K. & Magdy, W. Error correction vs. query garbling for Arabic OCR document retrieval 2007 ACM Trans. Inf. Syst.
    Vol. 26(1), pp. 5+ 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Due to the existence of large numbers of legacy documents (such as old books and newspapers), improving retrieval effectiveness for OCR'ed documents continues to be an important problem. This article compares the effect of OCR error correction with and without language modeling and the effect of query garbling with weighted structured queries on the retrieval of OCR degraded Arabic documents. The results suggest that moderate error correction does not yield statistically significant improvement in retrieval effectiveness when indexing and searching using n-grams. Also, reversing error correction models to perform query garbling in conjunction with weighted structured queries yields improved retrieval effectiveness. Lastly, using very good error correction that utilizes language modeling yields the best improvement in retrieval effectiveness.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Darwish2007Error,
      author = {Darwish, Kareem and Magdy, Walid},
      title = {Error correction vs. query garbling for Arabic OCR document retrieval},
      journal = {ACM Trans. Inf. Syst.},
      publisher = {ACM},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {26},
      number = {1},
      pages = {5+},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1292591.1292596},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1292591.1292596}
    }
    
    Darzi, A. & Motavallian, R. The minimal distance principle and obligatory control in Persian 2010 Language Sciences
    Vol. 32(4), pp. 488 - 504 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: The goal of this paper is to investigate the syntax and semantics of obligatory control predicates in Persian. After reviewing present syntactic approaches to control, the facts of Persian are shown to lead to the conclusion that it is not possible to identify the controller in Persian on purely syntactic grounds. Rather, the properties of obligatory control constructions in this language provide evidence for the necessity of considering semantic factors in the proper analysis of this construction. These properties are shown to follow a semantic treatment along the lines of (Jackendoff and Culicover, 2003) and (Culicover and Jackendoff, 2005). We propose that in Persian obligatory control constructions, the control predicate licenses an event complement with the controller being the argument to which the control predicate assigns the role of actor for the action stated in the complement clause. Classes of exceptions, not to be discussed in this paper, may be treated as coercion in the sense of Sag and Pollard (1991), Pollard and Sag (1994); followed by Jackendoff and Culicover (2003) and Culicover and Jackendoff (2005), in which internal conventionalized semantic materials, not present in syntax, are added.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Darzi2010,
      author = {Ali Darzi and Rezvan Motavallian},
      title = {The minimal distance principle and obligatory control in Persian},
      journal = {Language Sciences},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {32},
      number = {4},
      pages = {488 - 504},
      url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6VD2-4X5BP0B-1/2/7b52c3c4fcb125843a75a0d99ff84a5c},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.langsci.2009.08.001}
    }
    
    Daya, E., Roth, D. & Wintner, S. Identifying semitic roots: Machine learning with linguistic constraints 2008 Comput. Linguist.
    Vol. 34(3), pp. 429-448 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Words in Semitic languages are formed by combining two morphemes: a root and a pattern. The root consists of consonants only, by default three, and the pattern is a combination of vowels and consonants, with non-consecutive &8220;slots&8221; into which the root consonants are inserted. Identifying the root of a given word is an important task, considered to be an essential part of the morphological analysis of Semitic languages, and information on roots is important for linguistics research as well as for practical applications. We present a machine learning approach, augmented by limited linguistic knowledge, to the problem of identifying the roots of Semitic words. Although programs exist which can extract the root of words in Arabic and Hebrew, they are all dependent on labor-intensive construction of large-scale lexicons which are components of full-scale morphological analyzers. The advantage of our method is an automation of this process, avoiding the bottleneck of having to laboriously list the root and pattern of each lexeme in the language. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first application of machine learning to this problem, and one of the few attempts to directly address non-concatenative morphology using machine learning. More generally, our results shed light on the problem of combining classifiers under (linguistically motivated) constraints.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Daya2008Identifying,
      author = {Daya, Ezra and Roth, Dan and Wintner, Shuly},
      title = {Identifying semitic roots: Machine learning with linguistic constraints},
      journal = {Comput. Linguist.},
      publisher = {MIT Press},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {34},
      number = {3},
      pages = {429--448},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/coli.2008.07-002-R1-06-30},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/coli.2008.07-002-R1-06-30}
    }
    
    Dehaene, S. & Akhavein, R. Attention, automaticity, and levels of representation in number processing. 1995 J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn
    Vol. 21(2), pp. 314-326 
    article  
    Abstract: Participants performed same-different judgments for pairs of numerals in 2 conditions: numerical matching (responding "same" to pairs such as 2-TWO), or physical matching (responding "different" to pairs such as 2-TWO). In most cases, a distance effect was obtained, with the different responses being slower when the 2 numbers were numerically close together (e.g., 1-2) than when they were further apart (e.g., 1-8). This indicates that numbers were automatically converted mentally into quantities, even when the participants had been told to attend exclusively to their physical characteristics. As postulated by several models of number processing, (e.g., Dehaene, 1992; McCloskey, 1992) Arabic and verbal numerals thus appear to converge toward a common semantic representation of quantities. However, the present results suggest that an asemantic transcoding route might allow for a direct mapping of Arabic and verbal numbers, perhaps by means of a common phonological representation.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Dehaene1995,
      author = {S. Dehaene and R. Akhavein},
      title = {Attention, automaticity, and levels of representation in number processing.},
      journal = {J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {21},
      number = {2},
      pages = {314--326}
    }
    
    Delazer, M. & Denes, G. Writing arabic numerals in an agraphic patient. 1998 Brain Lang
    Vol. 64(2), pp. 257-266 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: We report on the writing of Arabic numerals in a patient whose alphabetical script was restricted to graphemic jargon (Schonauer & Denes, 1994). The analysis of writing errors in Arabic script over three testing sessions (4, 10, and 13 months after stroke) confirmed the separate processing of syntactic and lexical information in number production proposed by current models. The changing error pattern over time reflected some difficulties observed in developmental studies on the acquisition of Arabic numeral writing. Errors were mostly of the syntactic type and (at a certain stage) were based on the verbal form of the numerals. As reported in neuropsychological (Noel & Seron, 1995) and developmental (Power & Dal Martello, 1990; Seron & Fayol, 1994) studies, sum relations were more difficult to transcode than product relations within complex numerals.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Delazer1998,
      author = {M. Delazer and G. Denes},
      title = {Writing arabic numerals in an agraphic patient.},
      journal = {Brain Lang},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {64},
      number = {2},
      pages = {257--266},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/brln.1998.1971},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/brln.1998.1971}
    }
    
    Delazer, M., Gasperi, A., Bartha, L., Trinka, E. & Benke, T. Number processing in temporal lobe epilepsy. 2004 J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry
    Vol. 75(6), pp. 901-903 
    article  
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Specific cognitive impairments have been found in association with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), such as deficits in declarative memory or verbal abilities. No attention has been paid so far to possible deficits in number processing. OBJECTIVE: To investigate deficits in number processing in patients with TLE. METHODS: Numerical abilities were assessed in 28 right handed patients with medically intractable unilateral TLE and in a control group. RESULTS: No differences between patients and controls were found in analogue number processing with Arabic input, in a comparison task, or in simple addition and simple subtraction; however, there were significant group differences in tasks with verbal input, in simple division, in complex mental calculation, in a semantic knowledge task, and in conceptual tasks. Only minor differences were found between patients with right and left TLE. CONCLUSIONS: While numerical deficits may be expected in patients with left sided TLE, it is open for discussion why patients with right sided TLE also show numerical deficits.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Delazer2004,
      author = {M. Delazer and A. Gasperi and L. Bartha and E. Trinka and T. Benke},
      title = {Number processing in temporal lobe epilepsy.},
      journal = {J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {75},
      number = {6},
      pages = {901--903}
    }
    
    Delazer, M., Lochy, A., Jenner, C., Domahs, F. & Benke, T. When writing 0 (zero) is easier than writing O (o): a neuropsychological case study of agraphia. 2002 Neuropsychologia
    Vol. 40(12), pp. 2167-2177 
    article  
    Abstract: Though a few case studies reported a dissociation between intact writing of Arabic and impaired writing of alphabetical script, a detailed experimental analysis of such a dissociation is still lacking. We report a follow-up study of a patient with a parieto-occipital lesion who is affected by severe peripheral agraphia for letters, but not for Arabic digits. While letters in writing to dictation are frequently illegible, distorted, or consist in meaningless strokes, Arabic digits are well-formed and fluently produced. In a series of tasks, including copying of letters with tachistoscopic presentation and handwriting on a digitizing tablet, several processing levels are assessed in order to localize JS' functional writing impairment and to determine different processing routes for letters and for numbers. Overall, the results of the experimental investigation suggest a notation specific deficit in the activation of graphomotor patterns for letters, but not for digits. The study thus adds evidence to the so far reported dissociations between Arabic and alphabetical scripts.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Delazer2002,
      author = {M. Delazer and A. Lochy and C. Jenner and F. Domahs and Th Benke},
      title = {When writing 0 (zero) is easier than writing O (o): a neuropsychological case study of agraphia.},
      journal = {Neuropsychologia},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {40},
      number = {12},
      pages = {2167--2177}
    }
    
    Deloche, G. & Seron, X. Syntactical knowledge in a case of agrammatism: evidence from transcoding Roman and Arabic numerals. 1985 Brain Lang
    Vol. 25(2), pp. 234-245 
    article  
    Abstract: The ability of an aphasic subject with agrammatism in both comprehension and production to transcribe quantities from Roman numerals to Arabic and the reverse was investigated. Systematic errors in the transcoding processes were observed that could not be accounted for by the peculiarities of the two ideographic coding systems or by difficulties with direct transcoding rules. The results are discussed in the framework of the current debate on preserved/impaired hierarchical syntactical knowledge of agrammatic subjects. The findings paralleled the results of previous studies on the transcoding skills of agrammatics from/to alphabetic numerals to/from digital forms. In the case of this particular patient, it is therefore tentatively concluded in favor of preserved syntactical knowledge.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Deloche1985,
      author = {G. Deloche and X. Seron},
      title = {Syntactical knowledge in a case of agrammatism: evidence from transcoding Roman and Arabic numerals.},
      journal = {Brain Lang},
      year = {1985},
      volume = {25},
      number = {2},
      pages = {234--245}
    }
    
    Demuth, K. Maturation and the acquisition of the Sesotho passive 1989 Language
    Vol. 65, pp. 56-80 
    article  
    Abstract: The author argues that Borer and Wexler's 1987 analysis of the passive in English and Hebrew may be inaccurate, and that as it is acquired early in Sesotho, its late appearance in English and Hebrew maybe due to the effect of factors other than maturation.
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Demuth, Katherine},
      title = {Maturation and the acquisition of the Sesotho passive},
      journal = {Language},
      year = {1989},
      volume = {65},
      pages = {56-80}
    }
    
    Denes, G. & Signorini, M. Door but not four and 4 a category specific transcoding deficit in a pure acalculic patient. 2001 Cortex
    Vol. 37(2), pp. 267-277 
    article  
    Abstract: We report a left parietal damaged, acalculic, non aphasic patient who showed a specific deficit in reading Arabic and spelled-out numerals. Word reading was flawless, while he showed a severe impairment in reading meaningless strings of phonemes (phonological alexia). He also showed a dissociation between the preserved ability to retrieve knowledge about general facts and the impairment in retrieving cardinal, personal and non-personal numerical facts. These findings point to a separate organization in the brain of the numerical domain.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Denes2001,
      author = {G. Denes and M. Signorini},
      title = {Door but not four and 4 a category specific transcoding deficit in a pure acalculic patient.},
      journal = {Cortex},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {37},
      number = {2},
      pages = {267--277}
    }
    
    Depuydt, L. Agent-Less Indirect Adjectival Verb Forms in Egyptian and Arabic: The Case of JRRW N. F and MAFÇS¶¨Ç.¶¦L LAHU, "for Whom One Acts" 1997 Journal of the American Oriental Society
    Vol. 117(3), pp. 487-505 
    article URL 
    Abstract: A striking characteristic of earlier-that is, Old and Middle, and to some extent also Late-Egyptian, as opposed to Demotic and Coptic, is the high incidence of verb forms exhibiting a changeable ending as to gender and number-that is, an adjectival ending-referring to an entity involved in the event expressed by the verb form. In later Egyptian, such forms became entirely obsolete. One type of Egyptian adjectival verb form, the agent-less indirect type, has often been compared, with much controversy, with the Arabic syntagm involving adjectival verb forms called naÇS¶¨t sababÇ"¶®, which is also indirect, but not always agent-less. This paper addresses the issue of the similarity of the Egyptian and Arabic constructions. In this endeavor, it is important to create a basis for comparison by clearly delineating the two phenomena in their respective languages. The two should only be compared in as far as they overlap.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Depuydt1997,
      author = {Depuydt, Leo},
      title = {Agent-Less Indirect Adjectival Verb Forms in Egyptian and Arabic: The Case of JRRW N. F and MAFÇS¶¨Ç.¶¦L LAHU, "for Whom One Acts"},
      journal = {Journal of the American Oriental Society},
      publisher = {American Oriental Society},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {117},
      number = {3},
      pages = {487--505},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/605248}
    }
    
    Deutsch, A., Frost, R., Pelleg, S., Pollatsek, A. & Rayner, K. Early morphological effects in reading: evidence from parafoveal preview benefit in Hebrew. 2003 Psychon Bull Rev
    Vol. 10(2), pp. 415-422 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Hebrew words are composed of two interwoven morphemes: a triconsonantal root and a word pattern. We examined the role of the root morpheme in word identification by assessing the benefit of presentation of a parafoveal preview word derived from the same root as a target word. Although the letter information of the preview was not consciously perceived, a preview of a word derived from the same root morpheme as the foveal target word facilitated eye-movement measures of first-pass reading (i.e.,first fixation and gaze duration). These results are the first to demonstrate early morphological effects in the context of sentence reading in which no external task is imposed on the reader, and converge with previous findings of morphemic priming in Hebrew using the masked priming paradigm, and morphemic parafoveal preview benefit effects in a single-word identification task.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Deutsch2003Early,
      author = {Deutsch, A. and Frost, R. and Pelleg, S. and Pollatsek, A. and Rayner, K.},
      title = {Early morphological effects in reading: evidence from parafoveal preview benefit in Hebrew.},
      journal = {Psychon Bull Rev},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {10},
      number = {2},
      pages = {415--422},
      url = {http://view.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12921418}
    }
    
    Diab, M. Improved Arabic Base Phrase Chunking with a new enriched POS tag set 2007 Proceedings of the 2007 Workshop on Computational Approaches to Semitic Languages: Common Issues and Resources, pp. 89-96  inproceedings URL 
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{diab:2007:CASL2007,
      author = {Diab, Mona},
      title = {Improved Arabic Base Phrase Chunking with a new enriched POS tag set},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2007 Workshop on Computational Approaches to Semitic Languages: Common Issues and Resources},
      publisher = {Association for Computational Linguistics},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {89--96},
      url = {http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/W/W07/W07-0812}
    }
    
    Diab, M., Alkhalifa, M., ElKateb, S., Fellbaum, C., Mansouri, A. & Palmer, M. SemEval-2007 Task 18: Arabic Semantic Labeling 2007 Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Semantic Evaluations (SemEval-2007), pp. 93-98  inproceedings URL 
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{diab-EtAl:2007:SemEval-2007,
      author = {Diab, Mona and Alkhalifa, Musa and ElKateb, Sabry and Fellbaum, Christiane and Mansouri, Aous and Palmer, Martha},
      title = {SemEval-2007 Task 18: Arabic Semantic Labeling},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Semantic Evaluations (SemEval-2007)},
      publisher = {Association for Computational Linguistics},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {93--98},
      url = {http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/W/W07/W07-2017}
    }
    
    Diab, M., Moschitti, A. & Pighin, D. CUNIT: A Semantic Role Labeling System for Modern Standard Arabic 2007 Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Semantic Evaluations (SemEval-2007), pp. 133-136  inproceedings URL 
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{diab-moschitti-pighin:2007:SemEval-2007,
      author = {Diab, Mona and Moschitti, Alessandro and Pighin, Daniele},
      title = {CUNIT: A Semantic Role Labeling System for Modern Standard Arabic},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Semantic Evaluations (SemEval-2007)},
      publisher = {Association for Computational Linguistics},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {133--136},
      url = {http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/W/W07/W07-2026}
    }
    
    Dickins, J. Junction in English and Arabic: Syntactic, discoursal and denotative features 2009 Journal of Pragmatics  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Using Standard Arabic original texts and idiomatic English translations, this paper considers syntactic, discoursal and denotative similarities and differences between English and Arabic in respect of junction. In order to define the basic analytical scope, a composite definition of 'sentence' is developed, integrating grammatical, semantic and punctuational/intonational criteria. It is argued for both English and Arabic that the adjunctionǽƒ'ªƒ_odisjunction distinction is properly syntactic, but that disjunctionǽƒ'ªƒ_ocoordination is perhaps better understood as a semantic cline. The relationship between thematic structure, mainnessǽƒ'ªƒ_osubordination and grounding is investigated. While English typically backgrounds rhematic subordinate clauses, with disjuncts more likely to be foregrounded than adjuncts, Arabic readily allows foregrounding of rhematic subordinate clauses. The Arabic disjuncts (' i d ) and ( inlMMLBox ) 'since, as' may display discoursal independence beyond that possible for a foregrounded subordinate disjunct rheme in English. While English standardly requires both main coordinate clauses to be foregrounded, Arabic allows either clause to be foregrounded or backgrounded. Denotative differences are illustrated by the greater capacity of Arabic adjunct-heads ( inlMMLBox ) and ( ila ' an ) 'until' for denotative independence from their main clause than English 'until'. Discoursal and denotative factors may interact to produce Arabic coordinate-clause types which are strikingly unlike English ones.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Dickins2009Junction,
      author = {Dickins, James},
      title = {Junction in English and Arabic: Syntactic, discoursal and denotative features},
      journal = {Journal of Pragmatics},
      year = {2009},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2009.09.003},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2009.09.003}
    }
    
    Dickins, J. Cumulative difference and catastrophic change: The translation of Arabic / 2005 Babel
    Vol. 51(3), pp. 262-283 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Dickins2005Cumulative,
      author = {Dickins, James},
      title = {Cumulative difference and catastrophic change: The translation of Arabic /},
      journal = {Babel},
      publisher = {John Benjamins Publishing Company},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {51},
      number = {3},
      pages = {262--283},
      url = {http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/jbp/bab/2005/00000051/00000003/art00004}
    }
    
    Diehl, F., Gales, M.J.F., Tomalin, M. & Woodland, P.C. Phonetic pronunciations for arabic speech-to-text systems 2008 Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing ICASSP 2008, pp. 1573-1576  inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Diehl2008,
      author = {Diehl, F. and Gales, M. J. F. and Tomalin, M. and Woodland, P. C. },
      title = {Phonetic pronunciations for arabic speech-to-text systems},
      booktitle = {Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing ICASSP 2008},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {1573--1576},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICASSP.2008.4517924}
    }
    
    DinÇõ, G. [A study on medical periodicals published in Turkish in Arabic alphabet-II] 1993 Tip Tarihi Arastirmalari
    Vol. 5, pp. 96-131 
    article  
    Abstract: In this article medical periodicals published in Turkish in Arabic alphabet between the year 1849, when the first medical periodical was published, and 1928, when the Latin alphabet was accepted, are introduced. First a general history of medical periodicals is given, then each periodical is introduced with its physical characteristics and contents, such as the publisher, editor, publisher's address, office frequency and duration of the publications, press, measurements, whether it's illustrated or not, number of pages and columns and writer's names are given. Utilizing these data, each periodical is criticized. This study is published in two parts and in the end an alphabetical and chronological list of the periodicals and a list classifying the periodicals, according to their subjects, is given. A general survey of the research is made and conclusions based on the data.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Dinc1993,
      author = {G. DinÇõ},
      title = {[A study on medical periodicals published in Turkish in Arabic alphabet-II]},
      journal = {Tip Tarihi Arastirmalari},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {5},
      pages = {96--131}
    }
    
    Dodd, W. Do interpreters affect consultations? 1984 Fam Pract
    Vol. 1(1), pp. 42-47 
    article  
    Abstract: Mass migration leads to problems with language and cultural integration and has significant medical implications. The effect of interpreters on the diagnosis of mental diseases and ill-defined conditions was investigated in the primary care department of the Riyadh Al Kharj Hospital Programme, Saudi Arabia. Two groups of general practitioners working in the same health centre with the same patients were compared--10 Arabic-speaking and 10 non-Arabic-speaking. No differences in diagnosis were found that could be attributed to the use of interpreters, although there was a significant difference between experienced and less experienced doctors. The reasons for this finding are discussed, along with suggestions for the organization of an interpreting service.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Dodd1984,
      author = {W. Dodd},
      title = {Do interpreters affect consultations?},
      journal = {Fam Pract},
      year = {1984},
      volume = {1},
      number = {1},
      pages = {42--47}
    }
    
    Donitsa-Schmidt, S., Inbar, O. & Shohamy, E. The Effects of Teaching Spoken Arabic on Students' Attitudes and Motivation in Israel 2004 The Modern Language Journal
    Vol. 88(2), pp. 217-228 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The study investigated whether changes in the educational context of teaching Arabic as a second language in Israeli schools affect students' attitudes towards the language, its speakers and culture, and motivation to study the language. These changes included teaching spoken Arabic rather than Modern Standard Arabic and lowering the starting age of instruction. Self-report questionnaires were distributed to 692 students (4th-6th grade) and 362 parents from 14 elementary schools. The findings revealed that students who study spoken Arabic (experimental group), as opposed to those who do not (control group), report holding more positive attitudes towards the Arabic language, its culture, and speakers, and also claim to be more motivated to study the language. Findings also confirm the important role that parents have over their children's behavior because parents' attitudes constituted one of the predictors of students' motivation to study Arabic. Yet, the variable that best predicted students' motivation was their satisfaction with their Arabic study program.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Donitsa-Schmidt2004,
      author = {Donitsa-Schmidt, Smadar and Inbar, Ofra and Shohamy, Elana},
      title = {The Effects of Teaching Spoken Arabic on Students' Attitudes and Motivation in Israel},
      journal = {The Modern Language Journal},
      publisher = {Blackwell Publishing on behalf of the National Federation of Modern Language Teachers Associations},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {88},
      number = {2},
      pages = {217--228},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/3588752}
    }
    
    Donlan, C., Cowan, R., Newton, E.J. & Lloyd, D. The role of language in mathematical development: evidence from children with specific language impairments. 2007 Cognition
    Vol. 103(1), pp. 23-33 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: A sample (n=48) of eight-year-olds with specific language impairments is compared with age-matched (n=55) and language matched controls (n=55) on a range of tasks designed to test the interdependence of language and mathematical development. Performance across tasks varies substantially in the SLI group, showing profound deficits in production of the count word sequence and basic calculation and significant deficits in understanding of the place-value principle in Hindu-Arabic notation. Only in understanding of arithmetic principles does SLI performance approximate that of age-matched-controls, indicating that principled understanding can develop even where number sequence production and other aspects of number processing are severely compromised.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Donlan2007,
      author = {Chris Donlan and Richard Cowan and Elizabeth J Newton and Delyth Lloyd},
      title = {The role of language in mathematical development: evidence from children with specific language impairments.},
      journal = {Cognition},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {103},
      number = {1},
      pages = {23--33},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2006.02.007},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2006.02.007}
    }
    
    Doron & David Lexical and Exegetical Similarities and Differences in North African Judaeo-Arabic Suruh on Genesis 2007 Journal of Semitic Studies
    Vol. 52(1), pp. 113-135 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Doron2007Lexical,
      author = {Doron and David},
      title = {Lexical and Exegetical Similarities and Differences in North African Judaeo-Arabic Suruh on Genesis},
      journal = {Journal of Semitic Studies},
      publisher = {Oxford University Press},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {52},
      number = {1},
      pages = {113--135},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jss/fgl040},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jss/fgl040}
    }
    
    Doron, E. & Heycock, C. In support of broad subjects in Hebrew 2010 Lingua
    Vol. 120(7), pp. 1764 - 1776 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: In previous work we have argued that Hebrew and Arabic share with Japanese the property of allowing an "extra" clause-initial DP that has the properties of a subject rather than, e.g. a left-dislocated or topicalized phrase in an A-bar position: we called this type of clause-initial phrase the "Broad Subject". Landau (2009) argues that this analysis is incorrect for Hebrew, and that all the cases that we discuss are better analysed as left-dislocations. In this reply we show that 1. much of Landau's argumentation is based on a fundamental misreading of our work, 2. of his proposed tests for subjecthood, those that are valid confirm the status of the broad subject, 3. the distinction between left-dislocation and broad subjects in Hebrew stands.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Doron2010,
      author = {Edit Doron and Caroline Heycock},
      title = {In support of broad subjects in Hebrew},
      journal = {Lingua},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {120},
      number = {7},
      pages = {1764 - 1776},
      note = {Optional Ergative Marking},
      url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6V6H-4Y835B9-1/2/0dc2ad44be24cbf84c570e1d7e0af1e5},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2009.12.002}
    }
    
    Dreuw, P., Jonas, S. & Ney, H. White-space models for offline Arabic handwriting recognition 2008 Proc. 19th Int. Conf. Pattern Recognition ICPR 2008, pp. 1-4  inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Dreuw2008,
      author = {Dreuw, P. and Jonas, S. and Ney, H. },
      title = {White-space models for offline Arabic handwriting recognition},
      booktitle = {Proc. 19th Int. Conf. Pattern Recognition ICPR 2008},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {1--4},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICPR.2008.4761841}
    }
    
    Driessen, G. First and second language proficiency: Prospects for Turkish and Moroccan children in the netherlands 1992 Language, culture, and curriculum  article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Driessen, Geert},
      title = {First and second language proficiency: Prospects for Turkish and Moroccan children in the netherlands},
      journal = {Language, culture, and curriculum},
      year = {1992}
    }
    
    Dromi, E. Early lexical development 1987   book  
    Abstract: A case study of a Hebrew child's linguistic development during the one-word stage, and a comparison of the child's development to that reported in the literature. Reviewed by Barrett in the British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 7, pp. 93-94.
    BibTeX:
    @book{,
      author = {Dromi, Esther},
      title = {Early lexical development},
      publisher = {Cambridge University Press},
      year = {1987}
    }
    
    Dromi, E. On the identification of the extensional behaviors of new words 1983 Rassegna Italiana di Linguistica Applicata  article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Dromi, Esther},
      title = {On the identification of the extensional behaviors of new words},
      journal = {Rassegna Italiana di Linguistica Applicata},
      year = {1983}
    }
    
    Dromi, E. More on the acquisition of locative prepositions - an analysis of Hebrew data 1979 Journal of Child Language
    Vol. 6, pp. 547-562 
    article  
    Abstract: The use of locative prepositions by Hebrew-speaking kibbutz children aged 2-3 was analyzed for use in obligatory context and for appropriate use. The finding suggests the following order of acquisition- be-, 'in' - le-, 'to' - le+ pronominal suffixes, 'to' (dative) - al, 'on' - le, 'to' (directional) - mi-, 'from' - al-yad, 'beside' -meaxorev, 'behind' - mitaxat le-, 'under.'
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Dromi, Esther},
      title = {More on the acquisition of locative prepositions - an analysis of Hebrew data},
      journal = {Journal of Child Language},
      year = {1979},
      volume = {6},
      pages = {547-562}
    }
    
    Dromi, E. & Berman, R.A. Language-specific and language-general in developing syntax 1986 Journal of Child Language
    Vol. 13, pp. 371-387 
    article  
    Abstract: The distribution of a number of syntactic structures in the speech output of 102 Israeli preschoolers was examined. Our analysis reveals that while in some areas there are clearly age-related differences among preschool children, other types of syntactic patterning exhibit a stable behavior.
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Dromi, Esther and Berman, Ruth A.},
      title = {Language-specific and language-general in developing syntax},
      journal = {Journal of Child Language},
      year = {1986},
      volume = {13},
      pages = {371-387}
    }
    
    Dromi, E. & Berman, R.A. A morphemic measure of early language development: data from modern Hebrew 1982 Journal of Child Language
    Vol. 9, pp. 403-424 
    article  
    Abstract: The method of calculating morpheme-per-utterance (MPU) that is described here was tried out on 2-3 year-old Hebrew-speaking children and measured for internal consistency against different types of elicitation procedures and for validity by comparison with the subjects' performance on a specially devised measure of syntactic-semantic development. The results clearly indicate that the MPU is a useful developmental index of the linguistic proficiency of 2-3 year-old Hebrew speakers
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Dromi, Esther and Berman, Ruth A.},
      title = {A morphemic measure of early language development: data from modern Hebrew},
      journal = {Journal of Child Language},
      year = {1982},
      volume = {9},
      pages = {403-424}
    }
    
    Dromi, E., Leonard, L., Adam, G. & Zadunaisky-ehrlich, S. Verb agreement morphology in Hebrew-speaking children with specific language impairment 1999 Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research
    Vol. 42, pp. 1414-1431 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Dromietal1999,
      author = {Dromi, E and Leonard, L and Adam, G and Zadunaisky-ehrlich, S},
      title = {Verb agreement morphology in Hebrew-speaking children with specific language impairment},
      journal = {Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {42},
      pages = {1414--1431}
    }
    
    Drory, R. Literary Contacts and Where to Find Them: On Arabic Literary Models in Medieval Jewish Literature 1993 Poetics Today
    Vol. 14(2), pp. 277-302 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Literary contacts are generally assumed to consist of bilateral relations between two adjacent literatures, whereby one is considered to have "influence" over the other. The complexity of the problems encountered in the study of cultural and literary interference is demonstrated here by way of two medieval Jewish literary products which evolved as a direct result of the association between Jewish literature and Arabic culture. Moses ibn Ezra's Kitab al-muhadara wa al-mudhakara, written in Judeo-Arabic, and Judah al-Harizi's Hebrew Maqamat were both produced during the final phase of Jewish cultural contact with Arabic, in twelfth- and thirteenth-century northern Spain and Provence. Both are famous examples of Jewish works inspired by Arabic models, yet a reexamination of the cultural circumstances of their production reveals that it was not the Arabic-Jewish context that was responsible for their evolution, but rather a third, local yet non-Arabic one, grounded specifically in the relations between the individual authors and the Jewish cultural climate of that time in Christian Spain, in one case, and in the East (Syria, Palestine, and Babylon), in the other.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Drory1993,
      author = {Drory, Rina},
      title = {Literary Contacts and Where to Find Them: On Arabic Literary Models in Medieval Jewish Literature},
      journal = {Poetics Today},
      publisher = {Duke University Press},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {14},
      number = {2},
      pages = {277--302},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/1773120}
    }
    
    Duh, K. POS Tagging of Dialectal Arabic: A Minimally Supervised Approach   misc URL 
    Abstract: Natural language processing technology for the dialects of Arabic is still in its infancy, due to the problem of obtaining large amounts of text data for spoken Arabic.
    BibTeX:
    @misc{AndPOS,
      author = {Kevin Duh And},
      title = {POS Tagging of Dialectal Arabic: A Minimally Supervised Approach},
      url = {http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.59.9675}
    }
    
    Duh, K. & Kirchhoff, K. Lexicon Acquisition for Dialectal Arabic Using Transductive Learning 2006 Proceedings of the 2006 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, pp. 399-407  inproceedings URL 
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{duh-kirchhoff:2006:EMNLP,
      author = {Duh, Kevin and Kirchhoff, Katrin},
      title = {Lexicon Acquisition for Dialectal Arabic Using Transductive Learning},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2006 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing},
      publisher = {Association for Computational Linguistics},
      year = {2006},
      pages = {399--407},
      url = {http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/W/W06/W06-1647}
    }
    
    Dukes, K. & Buckwalter, T. A Dependency Treebank of the Quran using traditional Arabic grammar 2010 Proc. 7th Int Informatics and Systems (INFOS) Conf, pp. 1-7  inproceedings  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Dukes2010,
      author = {Dukes, K. and Buckwalter, T. },
      title = {A Dependency Treebank of the Quran using traditional Arabic grammar},
      booktitle = {Proc. 7th Int Informatics and Systems (INFOS) Conf},
      year = {2010},
      pages = {1--7}
    }
    
    Duwairi, R., Al-Refai, M. & Khasawneh, N. Stemming Versus Light Stemming as Feature Selection Techniques for Arabic Text Categorization 2007 Proc. 4th Int. Conf. Innovations in Information Technology IIT '07, pp. 446-450  inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Duwairi2007,
      author = {Duwairi, R. and Al-Refai, M. and Khasawneh, N. },
      title = {Stemming Versus Light Stemming as Feature Selection Techniques for Arabic Text Categorization},
      booktitle = {Proc. 4th Int. Conf. Innovations in Information Technology IIT '07},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {446--450},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IIT.2007.4430403}
    }
    
    Duyck, W., Lagrou, E., Gevers, W. & Fias, W. Roman digit naming: evidence for a semantic route. 2008 Exp Psychol
    Vol. 55(2), pp. 73-81 
    article  
    Abstract: Earlier research with monolinguals and bilinguals showed that numbers may be named through both a semantic and a phonological route, depending on the number's language and format (Arabic or verbal), task demands, and naming language. The present study investigated the importance of the semantic route for the processing of a third representation of magnitude, namely Roman digits. Using an interference paradigm, we showed that the processing of Roman target digits is influenced by Arabic digit distractors, both in a naming task and a parity judgment task. Roman digits were processed faster if the target and distractor were of the same magnitude. If this was not the case, processing speed slowed down as the numerical distance between target and distractor increased. This strongly suggests that semantic access is mandatory when naming Roman digits. Implications are discussed for the number processing domain and for models of translation in bilinguals.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Duyck2008,
      author = {Wouter Duyck and Evelyne Lagrou and Wim Gevers and Wim Fias},
      title = {Roman digit naming: evidence for a semantic route.},
      journal = {Exp Psychol},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {55},
      number = {2},
      pages = {73--81}
    }
    
    Edzard, L. Stylistic Elements in the Use of Arabic as Language in Diplomacy: Recent Developments in United Nations Context 1996 Die Welt des Islams
    Vol. 36(1), pp. 25-58 
    article URL 
    Abstract: In this paper, a number of stylistic features of contemporary diplomatic Arabic will be investigated. These are the interference of historical and contemporary Arab-Islamic thought and terminology with accepted stylistic standards in international documents as well as certain metaphorical, including euphemistical, elements of style that are germane to Arabic. Subject of the discussion will be bi- and multilateral treaties that are either concluded in Arabic or in which Arabic is one of the official languages. Furthermore, diplomatic correspondence that originates in Arabic will be considered. Certain linguistic features of Arabic as surfacing in the said documents, independently of any religious implications, will be closely followed, if relevant for the interpretation of the documents under discussion. One of the main foci of attention will be the vast diplomatic correspondence that has been surrounding the Iraq-Kuwait-crisis. Finally, the unique case of an Arabic diplomatic poem will be cited.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Edzard1996,
      author = {Edzard, Lutz},
      title = {Stylistic Elements in the Use of Arabic as Language in Diplomacy: Recent Developments in United Nations Context},
      journal = {Die Welt des Islams},
      publisher = {BRILL},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {36},
      number = {1},
      pages = {25--58},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/3693437}
    }
    
    Eisele, J.C. On the Description and Representation of Arabic 1997 Journal of the American Oriental Society
    Vol. 117(2), pp. 325-331 
    article URL 
    Abstract: In Modern Arabic, Clive Holes suceeds in detailing present-day Arabic in all of its variety. Yet, in drawing conclusions regarding several important points, he fails to consider fully and objectively some of the data he himself presents in the study, due partly to his uncritical acceptance of certain widely-held but often unexpressed notions about Arabic. This-together with occasional lapses in the data itself-ultimately undermines the premise of the work, which is to represent variation in Arabic in a dynamic, fluid fashion.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Eisele1997,
      author = {Eisele, John C.},
      title = {On the Description and Representation of Arabic},
      journal = {Journal of the American Oriental Society},
      publisher = {American Oriental Society},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {117},
      number = {2},
      pages = {325--331},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/605494}
    }
    
    Eisele, J.C. Artificial Punning in the Egyptian Arabic Ballad: A Reinterpretation of Structuralist Poetics 1997 Language
    Vol. 73(4), pp. 751-769 
    article URL 
    Abstract: This article presents a linguistic analysis of a specific feature of a literary genre: the artificial punning found in the Egyptian Arabic narrative ballad (as described in Cachia 1989). A comparison of how these puns differ from regular processes in the phonology and morphology of the language reveals that this encoding by the poet-performer is very much a mirror image of regular processes. The audience's decoding of them, therefore, follows a pathway similar to regular processes. The dichotomy between the puns' linguistically based formal composition and their contextually based semantic interpretation is analyzed within a reinterpretation of a Jakobsonian structuralist framework involving a hierarchization of linguistic levels based on two factors: the degree of combinatoric freedom and the degree of semantic immediacy. This analysis reveals that the artificial punning in these ballads is actually the obverse of what one would expect to find following the definition of poetic discourse given by Roman Jakobson. This study thus shows that such artificial punning subverts normal expectations about poetic discourse and this has great implications for understanding the production and interpretation of literary word play in any tradition.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Eisele1997a,
      author = {Eisele, John C.},
      title = {Artificial Punning in the Egyptian Arabic Ballad: A Reinterpretation of Structuralist Poetics},
      journal = {Language},
      publisher = {Linguistic Society of America},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {73},
      number = {4},
      pages = {751--769},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/417325}
    }
    
    El, Alimi, A.M., Charfi, M. & Ennaji, A. Recovery of temporal information from off-line Arabic handwritten 2005 Computer Systems and Applications, 2005. The 3rd ACS/IEEE International Conference onComputer Systems and Applications, 2005. The 3rd ACS/IEEE International Conference on, pp. 127+  proceedings DOI URL 
    Abstract: Summary form only given. In this paper, we present a system of restoration of temporal order in the offline Arabic handwritten tracing. The word image, captured in level of gray from a scanner with a resolution of 300 dpi, passes by four stages of preprocessing: binarization, filtering, smoothing and elimination of the diacritical signs. A first algorithm calculates for every point of the contour a curvature function. The local maximas of this function correspond to the dominant points of the contour. The dominant points correspond to all angular variations on the contour (end of the stroke, cross point, branch point, pocket, buckle...). A sweep of a window of a dimension equal to the triple of the thickness, of the stroke permits to detect cross and branch points of features and a suitable algorithm permits to solve the problem of the temporal order in these ambiguous zones. Finally, another algorithm permits to detect the starting point and to follow the tracing in order to reconstitute the order in which it has been written. The system is improved by an algorithm that treats the particular cases concerning the starting point, the ambiguous zone analysis and the progression of the system at the time of the follow-up of the contour. Preliminary results obtained from our basis (50 words written by 2 people), are: detection of the point of departure: 96 correct interpretation of ambiguous zones: 95 and movement of pen (temporal order) recovered: 92
    BibTeX:
    @proceedings{El2005Recovery,
      author = {El and Alimi, A. M. and Charfi, M. and Ennaji, A.},
      title = {Recovery of temporal information from off-line Arabic handwritten},
      booktitle = {Computer Systems and Applications, 2005. The 3rd ACS/IEEE International Conference on},
      journal = {Computer Systems and Applications, 2005. The 3rd ACS/IEEE International Conference on},
      year = {2005},
      pages = {127+},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/AICCSA.2005.1387116},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/AICCSA.2005.1387116}
    }
    
    El Isbihani, A., Khadivi, S., Bender, O. & Ney, H. Morpho-syntactic Arabic Preprocessing for Arabic to English Statistical Machine Translation 2006 Proceedings on the Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation, pp. 15-22  inproceedings URL 
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{elisbihani-EtAl:2006:WMT,
      author = {El Isbihani, Anas and Khadivi, Shahram and Bender, Oliver and Ney, Hermann},
      title = {Morpho-syntactic Arabic Preprocessing for Arabic to English Statistical Machine Translation},
      booktitle = {Proceedings on the Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation},
      publisher = {Association for Computational Linguistics},
      year = {2006},
      pages = {15--22},
      url = {http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/W/W06/W06-3103}
    }
    
    El-Hage, G.N. Gibran's Unpublished Letters to Archbishop Antonious Bashir 2005 Journal of Arabic Literature
    Vol. 36(2), pp. 172-182 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{ElHage2005Gibrans,
      author = {El-Hage, George N.},
      title = {Gibran's Unpublished Letters to Archbishop Antonious Bashir},
      journal = {Journal of Arabic Literature},
      publisher = {Brill Academic Publishers},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {36},
      number = {2},
      pages = {172--182},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1570064054909172},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1570064054909172}
    }
    
    El-Haj, M.O. & Hammo, B.H. Evaluation of Query-Based Arabic Text Summarization System 2008 Proc. Int. Conf. Natural Language Processing and Knowledge Engineering NLP-KE '08, pp. 1-7  inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{El-Haj2008,
      author = {El-Haj, M. O. and Hammo, B. H. },
      title = {Evaluation of Query-Based Arabic Text Summarization System},
      booktitle = {Proc. Int. Conf. Natural Language Processing and Knowledge Engineering NLP-KE '08},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {1--7},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/NLPKE.2008.4906790}
    }
    
    El-Imam, Y.A. An unrestricted vocabulary Arabic speech synthesis system 1989 #IEEE_J_ASSP#
    Vol. 37(12), pp. 1829-1845 
    article DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @article{El-Imam1989,
      author = {El-Imam, Y. A. },
      title = {An unrestricted vocabulary Arabic speech synthesis system},
      journal = {#IEEE_J_ASSP#},
      year = {1989},
      volume = {37},
      number = {12},
      pages = {1829--1845},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/29.45531}
    }
    
    El-Melegy, M.T. & Abdelbaset, A.A. Global features for offline recognition of handwritten Arabic literal amounts 2007 Proc. ITI 5th Int. Conf. Information and Communications Technology ICICT 2007, pp. 125-129  inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{El-Melegy2007,
      author = {El-Melegy, M. T. and Abdelbaset, A. A. },
      title = {Global features for offline recognition of handwritten Arabic literal amounts},
      booktitle = {Proc. ITI 5th Int. Conf. Information and Communications Technology ICICT 2007},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {125--129},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ITICT.2007.4475631}
    }
    
    El-Sadany, T.A. & Hashish, M.A. An Arabic morphological system 1989 IBM Systems Journal
    Vol. 28(4), pp. 600-612 
    article DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @article{El-Sadany1989,
      author = {El-Sadany, T. A. and Hashish, M. A. },
      title = {An Arabic morphological system},
      journal = {IBM Systems Journal},
      year = {1989},
      volume = {28},
      number = {4},
      pages = {600--612},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1147/sj.284.0600}
    }
    
    El-Shayeb, M.A., El-Beltagy, S.R. & Rafea, A. Comparative Analysis of Different Text Segmentation Algorithms on Arabic News Stories 2007 Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Information Reuse and Integration IRI 2007, pp. 441-446  inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{El-Shayeb2007,
      author = {El-Shayeb, M. A. and El-Beltagy, S. R. and Rafea, A. },
      title = {Comparative Analysis of Different Text Segmentation Algorithms on Arabic News Stories},
      booktitle = {Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Information Reuse and Integration IRI 2007},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {441--446},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IRI.2007.4296660}
    }
    
    El-Shishiny, H. Definite Clause Grammar for Arabic Syntax 1990
    Vol. 3#COLING90projnotes#, pp. 345-347 
    inproceedings URL 
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{El-ShishinyColing90,
      author = {H. El-Shishiny},
      title = { Definite Clause Grammar for Arabic Syntax },
      booktitle = {#COLING90projnotes#},
      year = {1990},
      volume = {3},
      pages = {345-347},
      url = {http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/C90-3068.pdf}
    }
    
    Elbeheri, Gad, Everatt & John Literacy ability and phonological processing skills amongst dyslexic and non-dyslexic speakers of Arabic 2007 Reading and Writing
    Vol. 20(3), pp. 273-294 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Elbeheri2007Literacy,
      author = {Elbeheri and Gad and Everatt and John},
      title = {Literacy ability and phonological processing skills amongst dyslexic and non-dyslexic speakers of Arabic},
      journal = {Reading and Writing},
      publisher = {Springer},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {20},
      number = {3},
      pages = {273--294},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11145-006-9031-0},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11145-006-9031-0}
    }
    
    Elbeheri, G., Everatt, J., Reid, G. & Mannai, H.A. Dyslexia assessment in Arabic 2006 Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs
    Vol. 6(3), pp. 143-152 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Despite advancements in empirical studies of developmental dyslexia, progress on methods of dyslexia assessment have been hampered by ongoing debate concerning diverse issues such as the role and validity of IQ in the assessment process, labelling and definitions (Miles, 1994; Stanovich, 1991, 1992). With the emergence of cross-linguistic studies of dyslexia came the realisation that the manifestation of dyslexia is different in different languages (Goulandris, 2003; Smythe, Everatt & Salter, 2004). It follows that the assessment of dyslexia should consider specific linguistic features of the language spoken by the individual to be assessed. This paper argues for the need of culture-fair assessment and calls for considerations to be given when assessing monolingual Arabic-speaking individuals with dyslexia which would take into account the specific linguistic feature of the Arabic language.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Elbeheri2006Dyslexia,
      author = {Elbeheri, Gad and Everatt, John and Reid, Gavin and Mannai, Haya A.},
      title = {Dyslexia assessment in Arabic},
      journal = {Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {6},
      number = {3},
      pages = {143--152},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-3802.2006.00072.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-3802.2006.00072.x}
    }
    
    Elbeltagy, S. & Rafea, A. KP-Miner: A keyphrase extraction system for English and Arabic documents 2009 Information Systems
    Vol. 34(1), pp. 132-144 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Automatic keyphrase extraction has many important applications including but not limited to summarization, cataloging/indexing, feature extraction for clustering and classification, and data mining. This paper presents the KP-Miner system, and demonstrates through experimentation and comparison with widely used systems that it is effective and efficient in extracting keyphrases from both English and Arabic documents of varied length. Unlike other existing keyphrase extraction systems, the KP-Miner system does not need to be trained on a particular document set in order to achieve its task. It also has the advantage of being configurable as the rules and heuristics adopted by the system are related to the general nature of documents and keyphrases. This implies that the users of this system can use their understanding of the document(s) being input into the system to fine-tune it to their particular needs.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Elbeltagy2009KPMiner,
      author = {Elbeltagy, S. and Rafea, A.},
      title = {KP-Miner: A keyphrase extraction system for English and Arabic documents},
      journal = {Information Systems},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {34},
      number = {1},
      pages = {132--144},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.is.2008.05.002},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.is.2008.05.002}
    }
    
    Elgammal, A.M. & Ismail, M.A. A graph-based segmentation and feature extraction framework for Arabic text recognition 2001 Document Analysis and Recognition, 2001. Proceedings. Sixth International Conference onDocument Analysis and Recognition, 2001. Proceedings. Sixth International Conference on, pp. 622-626  proceedings URL 
    Abstract: This paper presents a graph-based framework for the segmentation of Arabic text. The same framework is used to extract font independent structural features from the text that are used in the recognition. The major contribution of this paper is a new graph-based structural segmentation approach based on the topological relation between the baseline and the line adjacency graph representation of the text. The text is segmented to sub-character units that we call "scripts". A structure analysis approach is used for recognition of these units. A different classifier is used to recognize dots and diacritic signs. The final character recognition is achieved by using a regular grammar that describes how characters are composed from scripts
    BibTeX:
    @proceedings{Elgammal2001Graphbased,
      author = {Elgammal, A. M. and Ismail, M. A.},
      title = {A graph-based segmentation and feature extraction framework for Arabic text recognition},
      booktitle = {Document Analysis and Recognition, 2001. Proceedings. Sixth International Conference on},
      journal = {Document Analysis and Recognition, 2001. Proceedings. Sixth International Conference on},
      year = {2001},
      pages = {622--626},
      url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/absall.jsp?arnumber=953864}
    }
    
    Elghazaly, T. & Fahmy, A. Query Translation and Expansion for Searching Normal and OCR-Degraded Arabic Text 2009 Computational Linguistics and Intelligent Text Processing, pp. 481-497  incollection DOI URL 
    Abstract: This paper provides a novel model for English/Arabic Query Translation to search Arabic text, and then expands the Arabic query to handle Arabic OCR-Degraded Text. This includes detection and translation of word collocations, translating single words, transliterating names, and disambiguating translation and transliteration through different approaches. It also expands the query with the expected OCR-Errors that are generated from the Arabic OCR-Errors simulation model which proposed inside the paper. The query translation and expansion model has been supported by different libraries proposed in the paper like a Word Collocations Dictionary, Single Words Dictionaries, a Modern Arabic corpus, and other tools. The model gives high accuracy in translating the Queries from English to Arabic solving the translation and transliteration ambiguities and with orthographic query expansion; it gives high degree of accuracy in handling OCR errors.
    BibTeX:
    @incollection{Elghazaly2009Query,
      author = {Elghazaly, Tarek and Fahmy, Aly},
      title = {Query Translation and Expansion for Searching Normal and OCR-Degraded Arabic Text},
      journal = {Computational Linguistics and Intelligent Text Processing},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {481--497},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-00382-039},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-00382-0\_39}
    }
    
    Elkamchouchi, H. & Negm, M. Hiding English information in extended Arabic characters (HEMERAC) 2003 Proc. Twentieth National Radio Science Conf. NRSC 2003  inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Elkamchouchi2003,
      author = {Elkamchouchi, H. and Negm, M. },
      title = {Hiding English information in extended Arabic characters (HEMERAC)},
      booktitle = {Proc. Twentieth National Radio Science Conf. NRSC 2003},
      year = {2003},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/NRSC.2003.1217345}
    }
    
    Elkhafaifi, H. Listening Comprehension and Anxiety in the Arabic Language Classroom 2005 The Modern Language Journal
    Vol. 89(2), pp. 206-220 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Anxiety plays an important role in foreign language (FL) students' classroom performance. This study presents the results of the first empirical examination of the effect of general FL learning anxiety on students' achievement in an Arabic course and of listening anxiety on students' listening comprehension. The data came from 2 measures of anxiety and a background questionnaire administered to 233 postsecondary students of Arabic as a FL. Anxiety scores were correlated with final grades and listening comprehension scores. The results indicated that FL learning anxiety and listening anxiety are separate but related phenomena that both correlate negatively with achievement. The study also revealed significant negative correlations among FL learning anxiety, listening anxiety, and selected demographic variables. These results suggest that reducing student anxiety and providing a less stressful classroom environment might enable teachers and Arabic programs to help students improve both their listening comprehension proficiency as well as their overall course performance.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Elkhafaifi2005,
      author = {Elkhafaifi, Hussein},
      title = {Listening Comprehension and Anxiety in the Arabic Language Classroom},
      journal = {The Modern Language Journal},
      publisher = {Blackwell Publishing on behalf of the National Federation of Modern Language Teachers Associations},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {89},
      number = {2},
      pages = {206--220},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/3588681}
    }
    
    Elkhafaifi, H. Listening Comprehension and Anxiety in the Arabic Language Classroom 2005 The Modern Language Journal
    Vol. 89(2), pp. 206-220 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Elkhafaifi2005Listening,
      author = {Elkhafaifi, Hussei},
      title = {Listening Comprehension and Anxiety in the Arabic Language Classroom},
      journal = {The Modern Language Journal},
      publisher = {Blackwell Publishing},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {89},
      number = {2},
      pages = {206--220},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2005.00275.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2005.00275.x}
    }
    
    Elkhafaiti, H. Yasir Suleiman: The Arabic Language and National Identity: A Study in Ideology Language Problems & Language Planning
    Vol. 28(3), pp. 286+ 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{ElkhafaitiYasir,
      author = {Elkhafaiti, Hussein},
      title = {Yasir Suleiman: The Arabic Language and National Identity: A Study in Ideology},
      journal = {Language Problems & Language Planning},
      publisher = {John Benjamins Publishing Company},
      volume = {28},
      number = {3},
      pages = {286+},
      url = {http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/jbp/lplp/2004/00000028/00000003/art00005}
    }
    
    Elmahdy, M., Gruhn, R., Minker, W. & Abdennadher, S. Modern standard Arabic based multilingual approach for dialectal Arabic speech recognition 2009 Proc. Eighth Int. Symp. Natural Language Processing SNLP '09, pp. 169-174  inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Elmahdy2009,
      author = {Elmahdy, M. and Gruhn, R. and Minker, W. and Abdennadher, S. },
      title = {Modern standard Arabic based multilingual approach for dialectal Arabic speech recognition},
      booktitle = {Proc. Eighth Int. Symp. Natural Language Processing SNLP '09},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {169--174},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/SNLP.2009.5340923}
    }
    
    Elming, J. & Habash, N. Combination of Statistical Word Alignments Based on Multiple Preprocessing Schemes 2007 Human Language Technologies 2007: The Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics; Companion Volume, Short Papers, pp. 25-28  inproceedings URL 
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Elming2007Combination,
      author = {Elming, Jakob and Habash, Nizar},
      title = {Combination of Statistical Word Alignments Based on Multiple Preprocessing Schemes},
      booktitle = {Human Language Technologies 2007: The Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics; Companion Volume, Short Papers},
      publisher = {Association for Computational Linguistics},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {25--28},
      url = {http://www.aclweb.org/anthology-new/N/N07/N07-2007.bib}
    }
    
    Elnaggar, A. A Phrase-Structure Grammar for Arabic 1990
    Vol. 3#COLING90projnotes#, pp. 342-344 
    inproceedings URL 
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{ElnaggarColing90,
      author = {A. Elnaggar},
      title = { A Phrase-Structure Grammar for Arabic },
      booktitle = {#COLING90projnotes#},
      year = {1990},
      volume = {3},
      pages = {342-344},
      url = {http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/C90-3067.pdf}
    }
    
    Elshakry, M.S. Knowledge in Motion: The Cultural Politics of Modern Science Translations in Arabic 2008 Isis
    Vol. 99(4), pp. 701-730 
    article URL 
    Abstract: This essay looks at the problem of the global circulation of modern scientific knowledge by looking at science translations in modern Arabic. In the commercial centers of the late Ottoman Empire, emerging transnational networks lay behind the development of new communities of knowledge, many of which sought to break with old linguistic and literary norms to redefine the basis of their authority. Far from acting as neutral purveyors of "universal truths," scientific translations thus served as key instruments in this ongoing process of sociopolitical and epistemological transformation and mediation. Fierce debates over translators' linguistic strategies and choices involved deliberations over the character of language and the nature of "science" itself. They were also crucially shaped by such geopolitical factors as the rise of European imperialism and anticolonial nationalism in the region. The essay concludes by arguing for the need for greater attention to the local factors involved in the translation of scientific concepts across borders.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Elshakry2008,
      author = {Elshakry, Marwa S.},
      title = {Knowledge in Motion: The Cultural Politics of Modern Science Translations in Arabic},
      journal = {Isis},
      publisher = {The University of Chicago Press on behalf of The History of Science Society},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {99},
      number = {4},
      pages = {701--730},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/40207634}
    }
    
    Elshakry, M.S. Knowledge in motion: The cultural politics of modern science translations in Arabic. 2008 Isis
    Vol. 99(4), pp. 701-730 
    article  
    Abstract: This essay looks at the problem of the global circulation of modem scientific knowledge by looking at science translations in modern Arabic. In the commercial centers of the late Ottoman Empire, emerging transnational networks lay behind the development of new communities of knowledge, many of which sought to break with old linguistic and literary norms to redefine the basis of their authority. Far from acting as neutral purveyors of "universal truths," scientific translations thus served as key instruments in this ongoing process of sociopolitical and epistemological transformation and mediation. Fierce debates over translators' linguistic strategies and choices involved deliberations over the character of language and the nature of "science" itself. They were also crucially shaped by such geopolitical factors as the rise of European imperialism and anticolonial nationalism in the region. The essay concludes by arguing for the need for greater attention to the local factors involved in the translation of scientific concepts across borders.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Elshakry2008a,
      author = {Marwa S Elshakry},
      title = {Knowledge in motion: The cultural politics of modern science translations in Arabic.},
      journal = {Isis},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {99},
      number = {4},
      pages = {701--730}
    }
    
    Emeneau, M.B. & Taylor, A. Annamese, Arabic, and Panjabi Riddles 1945 The Journal of American Folklore
    Vol. 58(227), pp. 12-20 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Emeneau1945,
      author = {Emeneau, M. B. and Taylor, Archer},
      title = {Annamese, Arabic, and Panjabi Riddles},
      journal = {The Journal of American Folklore},
      publisher = {American Folklore Society},
      year = {1945},
      volume = {58},
      number = {227},
      pages = {12--20},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/535331}
    }
    
    Ennaji, M. A contrastive analysis of the complex sentence in English, Moroccan Arabic and Berber 1982 School: Dept. of Language and Linguistics, University of Essex  phdthesis URL 
    BibTeX:
    @phdthesis{Ennaji1982,
      author = {Moha Ennaji},
      title = {A contrastive analysis of the complex sentence in English, Moroccan Arabic and Berber},
      school = {Dept. of Language and Linguistics, University of Essex},
      year = {1982},
      url = {http://serlib0.essex.ac.uk/record=b1654165~S5}
    }
    
    Enstrom, D.H. Infant labial, apical and velar stop productions: a voice onset time analysis. 1982 Phonetica
    Vol. 39(1), pp. 47-60 
    article  
    Abstract: Initial prevocalic labial, apical and velar stops, as produced by eight 9- to 12-month-old Swiss-German infants, were examined spectrographically for voice onset time (VOT). Results indicate that VOTs for each place of articulation cluster in the 0- to + 30-ms voicing lag range. Comparisons of the present infant data with available results from adult Swiss-German stop productions show the VOT distributions to be very similar. The present infant data for apical stops are also compared with available data from 122-month-old American-English and Lebanese-Arabic infants. Since all three infant populations show similar VOT distributions, one might conclude that the forces of nature rather than nurture determine manner of infant apical stop production.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Enstrom1982,
      author = {D. H. Enstrom},
      title = {Infant labial, apical and velar stop productions: a voice onset time analysis.},
      journal = {Phonetica},
      year = {1982},
      volume = {39},
      number = {1},
      pages = {47--60}
    }
    
    Esseesy, M. The Arabic Language Today by BEESTON, ALFRED 2008 The Modern Language Journal
    Vol. 92(3), pp. 484-485 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Esseesy2008Arabic,
      author = {Esseesy, Mohssen},
      title = {The Arabic Language Today by BEESTON, ALFRED},
      journal = {The Modern Language Journal},
      publisher = {Blackwell Publishing},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {92},
      number = {3},
      pages = {484--485},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2008.0075910.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2008.00759\_10.x}
    }
    
    Ettobi & Mustapha Cultural Representation in Literary Translation: Translators as Mediators/Creators 2006 Journal of Arabic Literature
    Vol. 37(2), pp. 206-229 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ettobi2006Cultural,
      author = {Ettobi and Mustapha},
      title = {Cultural Representation in Literary Translation: Translators as Mediators/Creators},
      journal = {Journal of Arabic Literature},
      publisher = {BRILL},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {37},
      number = {2},
      pages = {206--229},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/157006406778660340},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/157006406778660340}
    }
    
    Everatt, J., Jeffries, S., Elbeheri, G., Smythe, I. & Veii, K. Cross language learning disabilities and verbal versus spatial memory 2006 Cognitive Processing
    Vol. 7(Supplement 5), pp. 32 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The research reported in this talk involves comparisons of verbal and spatial memory tasks across groups of children (and adults) with different types of learning difficulties. The research focuses on children with literacy acquisition problems and investigates whether such problems are related to specific areas of deficit. In the first piece of research, children with dyslexia (literacy learning problems) and dyspraxia (motor deficits) were contrasted on measures of memory (for example, tasks that required the retention of sequences of verbal material or spatial movements) and additional measures of literacy (reading and spelling), phonological (awareness of sounds within words) and motor (fine and gross motor tasks) functioning. The data were consistent with a dissociation between tasks/groups such that dyslexics showed weak phonological processing but intact visuo-spatial processing, whereas children with dyspraxia showed weaknesses on task involving visuo-spatial information, but average levels of performance on tasks that required phonological processing. Similar results were identified amongst adult groups, consistent with a deviant level of functioning rather than a developmental delay. A second line of research contrasted children with or without literacy problems across language backgrounds (English, Arabic, Chinese and bilingual children). Consistent with the dyslexia data, children with poor English literacy skills showed weaknesses in verbal/phonological memory tasks but not in visuo-spatial memory. However, for Chinese-language children, visuo-spatial memory differed between good and poor literacy learners, but there was little evidence for verbal memory differences. In contrast, the Arabic and bilingual children showed differences in both verbal and visuo-spatial areas, although the evidence was consistent with enhanced visual/spatial skills amongst the good literacy groups, rather than poor literacy children showing weaknesses in those tasks. These data suggest that the influence of memory skills on learning may vary with the language of instruction. A final line of enquiry considers whether teaching strategies to children with learning difficulties may overcome some of the identified memory deficits and lead to better levels of learning. English language children with learning difficulties were taught visual and verbal strategies to support retention of materials in short-term memory tasks. In the majority of cases, learning was improved when it focused on visuo-spatial strategies but not when verbal strategies were used. These data support the relationship between learning difficulties and different aspects of short-term memory that may lead to poor levels of learning. It also presents evidence that memory (particularly those related to visuo-spatial) processes are influenced by the context within which learning is taking place, both in terms of the language of instruction and the strategies used to support learning. For some children with educational difficulties based around language-related deficits, visuo-spatial strategies may support acquisition. [Journal Article; In English; Germany; In-Process]
    BibTeX:
    @article{Everatt2006Cross,
      author = {Everatt, John and Jeffries, Sharman and Elbeheri, Gad and Smythe, Ian and Veii, Kazuvire},
      title = {Cross language learning disabilities and verbal versus spatial memory},
      journal = {Cognitive Processing},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {7},
      number = {Supplement 5},
      pages = {32},
      url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6WVB-4KPFVPC-1HJ/2/122edaaa4778e49a39024ab93e388eae}
    }
    
    Eviatar, Z. Language experience and right hemisphere tasks: the effects of scanning habits and multilingualism. 1997 Brain Lang
    Vol. 58(1), pp. 157-173 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: This study explores the effects of multilingualism and reading scanning habits on right hemisphere (RH) abilities. Native Hebrew speakers and Arabic-Hebrew bilinguals performed three tasks. Experiment 1 employed an odd/even decision paradigm on lateralized displays of bar graphs. Both groups of subjects displayed the expected LVFA within the range previously reported for readers of English. Experiment 2 consisted of a chair identification task designed to tap asymmetry of hemispheric arousal and a chimeric face task designed to tap RH specialization for facial emotion. Neither scanning habits nor language experience affected performance on the chair task. Scanning habits seem to have affected performance on the chimeric faces task: there was no preference for the left smile in these right-to-left readers, as opposed to previous results in the literature using left-to-right readers. Correlations between measures from the three tasks and all the subject's scores on an English proficiency test and on a Hebrew test for the bilinguals reveal tentative relationships between proficiency in a second language and RH abilities. The results do not support the hypothesis that multilingualism can affect the manner in which these nonlanguage tasks are subserved by the RH. They do support the hypothesis that scanning habits particular to specific languages can affect performance asymmetries on some nonlanguage tasks that have been posited to reflect RH specialization.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Eviatar1997,
      author = {Z. Eviatar},
      title = {Language experience and right hemisphere tasks: the effects of scanning habits and multilingualism.},
      journal = {Brain Lang},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {58},
      number = {1},
      pages = {157--173},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/brln.1997.1863},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/brln.1997.1863}
    }
    
    Eviatar, Z. & Ibrahim, R. Morphological structure and hemispheric functioning: the contribution of the right hemisphere to reading in different languages. 2007 Neuropsychology
    Vol. 21(4), pp. 470-484 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: This study examined the relationship between morphological structure of languages and performance asymmetries of native speakers in lateralized tasks. In 2 experiments, native speakers of English (concatenative morphology stem plus affix) and of Hebrew and Arabic (nonconcatenative root plus word-form morphology) were presented with lateralized lexical decision tasks, in which the morphological structure of both words and nonwords was manipulated. In the 1st study, stimuli were presented unilaterally. In the 2nd study, 2 stimuli were presented bilaterally, and participants were cued to respond to 1 of them. Three different indexes of hemispheric integration were tested: processing dissociation, effects of distractor status, and the bilateral effect. Lateralization patterns in the 3 languages revealed both common and language-specific patterns. For English speakers, only the left hemisphere (LH) was sensitive to morphological structure, consistent with the hypothesis that the LH processes right visual field stimuli independently but that the right hemisphere uses LH abilities to process words in the left visual field. In Hebrew and Arabic, both hemispheres are sensitive to morphological structure, and interhemispheric transfer of information may be more symmetrical than in English. The relationship between universal and experience-specific effects on brain organization is discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Eviatar2007,
      author = {Zohar Eviatar and Raphiq Ibrahim},
      title = {Morphological structure and hemispheric functioning: the contribution of the right hemisphere to reading in different languages.},
      journal = {Neuropsychology},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {21},
      number = {4},
      pages = {470--484},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0894-4105.21.4.470},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0894-4105.21.4.470}
    }
    
    Eviatar, Z., Ibrahim, R. & Ganayim, D. Orthography and the hemispheres: visual and linguistic aspects of letter processing. 2004 Neuropsychology
    Vol. 18(1), pp. 174-184 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Hebrew and Arabic are Semitic languages with a similar morphological structure and orthographies that differ in visual complexity. Two experiments explored the interaction of the characteristics of orthography and hemispheric abilities on lateralized versions of a letter-matching task (Experiment 1) and a global-local task (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, native Hebrew readers and native Arabic readers fluent in Hebrew matched letters in the 2 orthographies. The results support the hypothesis that Arabic orthography is more difficult than Hebrew orthography for participants who can read both languages and that this difficulty has its strongest effects in the left visual field. In Experiment 2, native Arabic speakers performed a global-local letter detection task with Arabic letters with 2 types of inconsistent stimuli: different and similar. The results support the hypothesis that the right hemisphere of skilled Arabic readers cannot distinguish between similar Arabic letters, whereas the left hemisphere can.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Eviatar2004,
      author = {Zohar Eviatar and Raphiq Ibrahim and Deia Ganayim},
      title = {Orthography and the hemispheres: visual and linguistic aspects of letter processing.},
      journal = {Neuropsychology},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {18},
      number = {1},
      pages = {174--184},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0894-4105.18.1.174},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0894-4105.18.1.174}
    }
    
    Ewan, W.G. Can intrinsic vowel Fo be explained by source/tract coupling? 1979 J Acoust Soc Am
    Vol. 66(2), pp. 358-362 
    article  
    Abstract: There is extensive evidence that in the same phonetic environment the voice fundamental frequency (Fo) of vowels varies directly with vowel "height." This Fo difference between vowels could be caused by acoustic interaction between the first vowel formant and the vibrating vocal folds. Since higher vowels have lower first formants than low vowels the acoustic interaction should be greatest for high vowels whose first formant frequencies are closer in frequency to Fo. Ten speakers were used to see if acoustic interaction could cause the Fo differences. The consonant [m] was recorded in the utterances [umu] and [ama]. Although the formant structure of [m] in [umu] and [ama] should not differ significantly, the Fo of each [m] allophone was significantly different. However, the Fo of each [m] allophone did not differ significantly from the Fo of the following vowel. These results did not support acoustic interaction. However, it is quite reasonable to conclude that the Fo variation of [m] was caused by coarticulatory anticipation of the tongue and jaw for the following vowel. Another experiment is offered in order to help explain the physical causes of intrinsic vowel Fo. In this experiment Fo lowering was found at the beginning of vowels following Arabic pharyngeal approximants. This finding indicates that the Fo of pharyngeal constricting vowels, e.g., [ae] and [a], might be lowered as a result of similar articulary movements, viz. tongue compression and active pharyngeal constriction.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ewan1979,
      author = {W. G. Ewan},
      title = {Can intrinsic vowel Fo be explained by source/tract coupling?},
      journal = {J Acoust Soc Am},
      year = {1979},
      volume = {66},
      number = {2},
      pages = {358--362}
    }
    
    Ezzat, D., Abdeen, M. & Tolba, M.F. A Memory Efficient Approach for Crawling Language Specific Web: The Arabic Web as a Case Study 2009 Proc. Int. Conf. Information Management and Engineering ICIME '09, pp. 584-587  inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Ezzat2009,
      author = {Ezzat, D. and Abdeen, M. and Tolba, M. F. },
      title = {A Memory Efficient Approach for Crawling Language Specific Web: The Arabic Web as a Case Study},
      booktitle = {Proc. Int. Conf. Information Management and Engineering ICIME '09},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {584--587},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICIME.2009.105}
    }
    
    Fahmy, E.I. & Rifaat, N.M. Middle East information literacy awareness and indigenous Arabic content challenges 2010 The International Information & Library Review
    Vol. 42(2), pp. 111 - 123 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: This article reports on researching "Middle East: Information Literacy awareness and indigenous Arabic World Wide Web content challenges". The research reported upon was conducted in preparation for a training presentation which was delivered as a part of the UNESCO "Training the Trainers" (TTT) in Information Literacy workshop project that was held November 6-8, 2008 at the Bibliotheca Alexandrina in Alexandria, Egypt. Although the concept of Information Literacy is relatively new worldwide, by now it is fairly well understood, practiced and pedagogically supported in the developed world. But, it is still quite a mystery for developing countries, especially in the Middle East and North Africa regions. Therefore, the presentation the authors were invited to deliver at the workshop aimed at creating a much needed broader awareness concerning the concept of Information Literacy, including the somewhat differing definitions which are used in various world regions and cultures, and the concept's relevance to the advancement of knowledge, research, and the general level of education in the Arabic speaking world. Special attention was paid to these problems in the context of challenges faced by higher education institutions in the Middle East and North Africa regions. The authors discovered that the problem of the scarcity of indigenous Arabic content materials on the World Wide Web is inextricably related to the challenges of increasing the awareness of Middle East and North Africa audiences to the relevance of Information Literacy. The authors endeavor to explain in detail what this inter-relationship is, and why and how the increase of Arabic materials on the Web could then lead to an increase in the awareness of Information Literacy in those Arabic speaking regions. The workshop presentation aimed at explaining and promoting Information Literacy skills, not only to students and researchers, but also to future Information Literacy trainers (the participants at the UNESCO workshop). The language barrier, the Digital Divide, and the lack of adequate Arabic digital content/resources relating to Information Literacy, were all reviewed with the workshop participants, illustrated by real world case examples, and discussed, in an effort to simultaneously try to work toward a consensus approach to teaching and learning the IL concept, and at the same time create a heightened Information Literacy awareness. Rather than simply amplify in detail the technical contents of the workshop presentations the authors made in this article, and with the encouragement of the Review's editor and guest editor, the authors decided to "tell their story" in anecdotal fashion, sharing with the workshop participants tales of the many challenges they faced in just preparing materials for their presentations - and covering both the presentation format and the presentation content aspects, including explaining why they selected a specific teaching and learning approach, and how they dealt with various delivery and implementation challenges. By so doing, readers faced with similar teaching challenges might be better prepared to respond to the many challenges, both in the context of the preparations they will be required to make as well as in the context of their actual content delivery at their workshops.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Fahmy2010,
      author = {Engy I. Fahmy and Nermine M. Rifaat},
      title = {Middle East information literacy awareness and indigenous Arabic content challenges},
      journal = {The International Information & Library Review},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {42},
      number = {2},
      pages = {111 - 123},
      note = {International Perspectives on Information Literacy and e-skills},
      url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6WGP-506FT02-1/2/7374b77d36776bb4e3d3dd02d11290d8},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.iilr.2010.04.004}
    }
    
    Fahmy, E.I. & Rifaat, N.M. Middle East information literacy awareness and indigenous Arabic content challenges 2010 The International Information & Library Review  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: This article reports on researching ǽƒ'ª‹¨« Middle East: Information Literacy awareness and indigenous Arabic World Wide Web content challengesǽƒ'ª‹¨«. The research reported upon was conducted in preparation for a training presentation which was delivered as a part of the UNESCO ǽƒ'ª‹¨« Training the Trainersǽƒ'ª‹¨« (TTT) in Information Literacy workshop project that was held November 6ǽƒ'ªƒ_o8, 2008 at the Bibliotheca Alexandrina in Alexandria, Egypt. Although the concept of Information Literacy is relatively new worldwide, by now it is fairly well understood, practiced and pedagogically supported in the developed world. But, it is still quite a mystery for developing countries, especially in the Middle East and North Africa regions. Therefore, the presentation the authors were invited to deliver at the workshop aimed at creating a much needed broader awareness concerning the concept of Information Literacy, including the somewhat differing definitions which are used in various world regions and cultures, and the concept's relevance to the advancement of knowledge, research, and the general level of education in the Arabic speaking world. Special attention was paid to these problems in the context of challenges faced by higher education institutions in the Middle East and North Africa regions. The authors discovered that the problem of the scarcity of indigenous Arabic content materials on the World Wide Web is inextricably related to the challenges of increasing the awareness of Middle East and North Africa audiences to the relevance of Information Literacy. The authors endeavor to explain in detail what this inter-relationship is, and why and how the increase of Arabic materials on the Web could then lead to an increase in the awareness of Information Literacy in those Arabic speaking regions. The workshop presentation aimed at explaining and promoting Information Literacy skills, not only to students and researchers, but also to future Information Literacy trainers (the participants at the UNESCO workshop). The language barrier, the Digital Divide, and the lack of adequate Arabic digital content/resources relating to Information Literacy, were all reviewed with the workshop participants, illustrated by real world case examples, and discussed, in an effort to simultaneously try to work toward a consensus approach to teaching and learning the IL concept, and at the same time create a heightened Information Literacy awareness. Rather than simply amplify in detail the technical contents of the workshop presentations the authors made in this article, and with the encouragement of the Review's editor and guest editor, the authors decided to ǽƒ'ª‹¨« tell their storyǽƒ'ª‹¨« in anecdotal fashion, sharing with the workshop participants tales of the many challenges they faced in just preparing materials for their presentations ǽƒ'ªƒ_o and covering both the presentation format and the presentation content aspects, including explaining why they selected a specific teaching and learning approach, and how they dealt with various delivery and implementation challenges. By so doing, readers faced with similar teaching challenges might be better prepared to respond to the many challenges, both in the context of the preparations they will be required to make as well as in the context of their actual content delivery at their workshops.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Fahmy2010Middle,
      author = {Fahmy, Engy I. and Rifaat, Nermine M.},
      title = {Middle East information literacy awareness and indigenous Arabic content challenges},
      journal = {The International Information & Library Review},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.iilr.2010.04.004},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.iilr.2010.04.004}
    }
    
    Faingold, E.D. Variation in the application of natural processes: Language-dependent constraints in the phonological acquisition of bilingual children 1996 Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, pp. sycholinguistic-Research  article  
    Abstract: Studied the phonological processes and constraints on early phonological and lexical development, and the strategies used by a Spanish-, Portuguese-, and Hebrew-speaking 1 yr old, in the construction of her early lexicon, and compared with that of another similar speaking 1 yr old (E. D. Faingold, 1987, 1990). Their case is contrasted with that of an English- and Hebrew-speaking 1 yr old (R. Berman, 1977). One-word utterances produced by the Ss were quantified and analyzed with percentages. Results show that the simultaneous acquisition of similar languages, such as Spanish and Portuguese, vs that of unrelated languages, such as English and Hebrew, yields different outcomes. Children acquiring similar languages seem to prefer maintenance, while children exposed to nonrelated languages seem to prefer reduction, as a strategy for the construction of their early lexicon; and such variation seems to be language-dependent and systematic.
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Faingold, Eduardo D.},
      title = {Variation in the application of natural processes: Language-dependent constraints in the phonological acquisition of bilingual children},
      journal = {Journal of Psycholinguistic Research},
      year = {1996},
      pages = {sycholinguistic-Research}
    }
    
    Farghaly, A. & Shaalan, K. Arabic Natural Language Processing: Challenges and Solutions 2009 ACM Transactions on Asian Language Information Processing (TALIP)
    Vol. 8(4), pp. 1-22 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The Arabic language presents researchers and developers of natural language processing (NLP) applications for Arabic text and speech with serious challenges. The purpose of this article is to describe some of these challenges and to present some solutions that would guide current and future practitioners in the field of Arabic natural language processing (ANLP). We begin with general features of the Arabic language in Sections 1, 2, and 3 and then we move to more specific properties of the language in the rest of the article. In Section 1 of this article we highlight the significance of the Arabic language today and describe its general properties. Section 2 presents the feature of Arabic Diglossia showing how the sociolinguistic aspects of the Arabic language differ from other languages. The stability of Arabic Diglossia and its implications for ANLP applications are discussed and ways to deal with this problematic property are proposed. Section 3 deals with the properties of the Arabic script and the explosion of ambiguity that results from the absence of short vowel representations and overt case markers in contemporary Arabic texts. We present in Section 4 specific features of the Arabic language such as the nonconcatenative property of Arabic morphology, Arabic as an agglutinative language, Arabic as a pro-drop language, and the challenge these properties pose to ANLP. We also present solutions that have already been adopted by some pioneering researchers in the field. In Section 5 we point out to the lack of formal and explicit grammars of Modern Standard Arabic which impedes the progress of more advanced ANLP systems. In Section 6 we draw our conclusion.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Farghaly2009,
      author = {Farghaly, Ali and Shaalan, Khaled},
      title = {Arabic Natural Language Processing: Challenges and Solutions},
      journal = {ACM Transactions on Asian Language Information Processing (TALIP)},
      publisher = {ACM},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {8},
      number = {4},
      pages = {1--22},
      doi = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1644879.1644881}
    }
    
    Farid, M. & Grainger, J. How initial fixation position influences visual word recognition: a comparison of French and Arabic. 1996 Brain Lang
    Vol. 53(3), pp. 351-368 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: The position the eye initially fixates in a written word influences the ease with which this word is recognized. Prior research has shown that the function relating ease of word recognition and initial fixation position in the word is not symmetric. Word recognition is generally superior when the initial fixation is left rather than right of the center of the word. This asymmetry in the function relating initial fixation position to word identifiability could be due to (a) hemispheric specialization, (b) reading habits, or (c) variations in lexical constraint. The present experiments tested these alternative explanations by comparing the effects of initial fixation position in prefixed and suffixed words in French and Arabic. The results show that, contrary to both the hemispheric specialization and reading habit hypotheses, the average initial fixation curves for Arabic are asymmetric neither to the left nor to the right but depend on the morphological structure of the stimuli, thus lending support to the lexical constraint hypothesis.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Farid1996,
      author = {M. Farid and J. Grainger},
      title = {How initial fixation position influences visual word recognition: a comparison of French and Arabic.},
      journal = {Brain Lang},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {53},
      number = {3},
      pages = {351--368},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/brln.1996.0053},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/brln.1996.0053}
    }
    
    Farid, M. & Grainger, J. How initial fixation position influences visual word recognition: a comparison of French and Arabic. 1996 Brain and language
    Vol. 53(3), pp. 351-368 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: The position the eye initially fixates in a written word influences the ease with which this word is recognized. Prior research has shown that the function relating ease of word recognition and initial fixation position in the word is not symmetric. Word recognition is generally superior when the initial fixation is left rather than right of the center of the word. This asymmetry in the function relating initial fixation position to word identifiability could be due to (a) hemispheric specialization, (b) reading habits, or (c) variations in lexical constraint. The present experiments tested these alternative explanations by comparing the effects of initial fixation position in prefixed and suffixed words in French and Arabic. The results show that, contrary to both the hemispheric specialization and reading habit hypotheses, the average initial fixation curves for Arabic are asymmetric neither to the left nor to the right but depend on the morphological structure of the stimuli, thus lending support to the lexical constraint hypothesis.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Farid1996How,
      author = {Farid, M. and Grainger, J.},
      title = {How initial fixation position influences visual word recognition: a comparison of French and Arabic.},
      journal = {Brain and language},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {53},
      number = {3},
      pages = {351--368},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/brln.1996.0053},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/brln.1996.0053}
    }
    
    Farooq, F. & Govindaraju, V. Language identification in historical Afghan manuscripts 2007 Signal Processing and Its Applications, 2007. ISSPA 2007. 9th International Symposium onSignal Processing and Its Applications, 2007. ISSPA 2007. 9th International Symposium on, pp. 1-4  proceedings DOI URL 
    Abstract: Automatic language identification is an important step prior to optical character recognition (OCR). In this paper we present a system to discriminate between Arabic and Persian in historical Afghan manuscripts. The classification is performed at a sub-sentence level. We propose a feature extraction algorithm for a sub-sentence based on Gabor filters followed by classification using a support vector machine (SVM). An overall precision of 96.72% and 94.90% is obtained for Persian and Arabic respectively.
    BibTeX:
    @proceedings{Farooq2007Language,
      author = {Farooq, F. and Govindaraju, V.},
      title = {Language identification in historical Afghan manuscripts},
      booktitle = {Signal Processing and Its Applications, 2007. ISSPA 2007. 9th International Symposium on},
      journal = {Signal Processing and Its Applications, 2007. ISSPA 2007. 9th International Symposium on},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {1--4},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ISSPA.2007.4555588},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ISSPA.2007.4555588}
    }
    
    Faroqi-Shah, Y., Frymark, T., Mullen, R. & Wang, B. Effect of treatment for bilingual individuals with aphasia: A systematic review of the evidence 2010 Journal of Neurolinguistics
    Vol. 23(4), pp. 319 - 341 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Language proficiency in bilingualism, and hence bilingual aphasia, is a multifaceted phenomenon: influenced by variables such as age of onset, literacy, usage patterns, and emotional valence. Although the majority of the world and growing US population is bilingual, relatively little is known about the best practices for language therapy in bilingual aphasia. This systematic review was undertaken to examine three crucial questions faced by speech-language pathologists during clinical decision making: outcomes when language therapy is provided in the secondary (less-dominant) language (L2), extent of cross-language transfer (CLT) and variables that influence CLT, and outcomes when language therapy is mediated by a language broker. Data from 14 studies (NÇ'¶ÿ=Ç'¶ÿ45 aphasic individuals) indicate that treatment in L2 leads to positive outcomes (akin to L1 treatment); CLT was found to occur in most studies, especially when L1 was the language of treatment. Although limited by the methodological quality of included studies, this systematic review shows positive findings for unilingual aphasia treatment and CLT. Implications for clinical practice, models of language representation in bilinguals, and future research directions are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Faroqi-Shah2010,
      author = {Yasmeen Faroqi-Shah and Tobi Frymark and Robert Mullen and Beverly Wang},
      title = {Effect of treatment for bilingual individuals with aphasia: A systematic review of the evidence},
      journal = {Journal of Neurolinguistics},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {23},
      number = {4},
      pages = {319 - 341},
      url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6VDV-4Y9SKWR-1/2/38e6093eaa80b412244e59b3f87cbad8},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroling.2010.01.002}
    }
    
    Farrag, A.F., el Behary, A.A. & Kandil, M.R. Prevalence of specific reading disability in Egypt. 1988 Lancet
    Vol. 2(8615), pp. 837-839 
    article  
    Abstract: 2878 children from the 2nd and 3rd grades in elementary schools were assessed for their reading ability by means of standardised tests for linguistic ability and rate of letters identification. 84 children (3 with IQ 90 or more and no evidence of sensory or motor impairment were backward in their reading ability. They were left to proceed in their conventional educational programme for the next 3 years, then reassessed. 47 (2 children had attained satisfactory reading skills. The 37 (27 boys, 10 girls) who did not improve were diagnosed as having the syndrome of specific reading disability (SRD). The prevalence of SRD among the population surveyed was 1 and the male to female ratio was 2.7 to 1. The prevalence was far lower than that reported in western countries. How the Arabic language is written and read probably contributes to the low prevalence of SRD among Arabic speaking populations.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Farrag1988,
      author = {A. F. Farrag and A. A. el-Behary and M. R. Kandil},
      title = {Prevalence of specific reading disability in Egypt.},
      journal = {Lancet},
      year = {1988},
      volume = {2},
      number = {8615},
      pages = {837--839}
    }
    
    Farrag, A.F., el Behary, A.A. & Kandil, M.R. Prevalence of specific reading disability in Egypt. 1988 Lancet
    Vol. 2(8615), pp. 837-839 
    article URL 
    Abstract: 2878 children from the 2nd and 3rd grades in elementary schools were assessed for their reading ability by means of standardised tests for linguistic ability and rate of letters identification. 84 children (3 with IQ 90 or more and no evidence of sensory or motor impairment were backward in their reading ability. They were left to proceed in their conventional educational programme for the next 3 years, then reassessed. 47 (2 children had attained satisfactory reading skills. The 37 (27 boys, 10 girls) who did not improve were diagnosed as having the syndrome of specific reading disability (SRD). The prevalence of SRD among the population surveyed was 1 and the male to female ratio was 2.7 to 1. The prevalence was far lower than that reported in western countries. How the Arabic language is written and read probably contributes to the low prevalence of SRD among Arabic speaking populations.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Farrag1988Prevalence,
      author = {Farrag, A. F. and el-Behary, A. A. and Kandil, M. R.},
      title = {Prevalence of specific reading disability in Egypt.},
      journal = {Lancet},
      year = {1988},
      volume = {2},
      number = {8615},
      pages = {837--839},
      url = {http://view.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2902276}
    }
    
    Farrag, A.F., Khedr, E.M. & Abel-Naser, W. Impaired parvocellular pathway in dyslexic children. 2002 Eur J Neurol
    Vol. 9(4), pp. 359-363 
    article  
    Abstract: Recent studies report that some children with dyslexia have impaired visual processing, specifically in the fast-processing magnocellular pathway. The objective was to study the effect of varying luminance and temporal and spatial frequency on the latency and amplitude of the visual evoked potentials (VEPs) in normal and dyslexic Egyptian children who speak Arabic (a right-left reading and writing system). VEPs were recorded in 52 dyslexic and 41 normal children in the fourth grade using a black and white checkerboard pattern with different checkerboard sizes and different rates of stimuli at high- and low-contrast media. The peak of the major positive wave component (P100) of each waveform and the trough of the previous major negative wave component were identified, and the peak-to-trough amplitude was measured. The latency and amplitude of VEPs in response to different experimental conditions showed significant shortening of P100 latency under high-contrast media and under low spatial frequency in children with dyslexia compared with normal readers. Furthermore, dyslexia children showed prolonged P100 latency in response to high spatial frequency stimulation compared with the low spatial frequency (P=0.003) and significantly higher N1-P1 amplitude under high-contrast media compared with low-contrast media (P=0.02), whilst no such changes were observed in normal readers. These results are suggestive of deficiency within the parvocellular pathway rather than the magnocellular pathway. As reading apparently places demands primarily on the ability to discriminate fine details, which is to say, on the parvocellular system, we suggested that deficiency in this system, at least in Arabic speaking children, could be a predisposing factor in dyslexia.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Farrag2002,
      author = {A. F. Farrag and E. M. Khedr and W. Abel-Naser},
      title = {Impaired parvocellular pathway in dyslexic children.},
      journal = {Eur J Neurol},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {9},
      number = {4},
      pages = {359--363}
    }
    
    Fattah, M.A., Ren, F. & Kuroiwa, S. Sentence alignment using feed forward neural network. 2006 Int J Neural Syst
    Vol. 16(6), pp. 423-434 
    article  
    Abstract: Parallel corpora have become an essential resource for work in multi lingual natural language processing. However, sentence aligned parallel corpora are more efficient than non-aligned parallel corpora for cross language information retrieval and machine translation applications. In this paper, we present a new approach to align sentences in bilingual parallel corpora based on feed forward neural network classifier. A feature parameter vector is extracted from the text pair under consideration. This vector contains text features such as length, punctuate score, and cognate score values. A set of manually prepared training data has been assigned to train the feed forward neural network. Another set of data was used for testing. Using this new approach, we could achieve an error reduction of 60% over length based approach when applied on English-Arabic parallel documents. Moreover this new approach is valid for any language pair and it is quite flexible approach since the feature parameter vector may contain more/less or different features than that we used in our system such as lexical match feature.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Fattah2006,
      author = {Mohamed Abdel Fattah and Fuji Ren and Shingo Kuroiwa},
      title = {Sentence alignment using feed forward neural network.},
      journal = {Int J Neural Syst},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {16},
      number = {6},
      pages = {423--434}
    }
    
    Faulhaber, C. Semitica iberica : translations from Hebrew and Arabic into the medieval Romance vernaculars of the Iberian Peninsula Bulletin of Spanish Studies
    Vol. 81(7-8), pp. 873+ 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{FaulhaberSemitica,
      author = {Faulhaber, Charles},
      title = {Semitica iberica : translations from Hebrew and Arabic into the medieval Romance vernaculars of the Iberian Peninsula},
      journal = {Bulletin of Spanish Studies},
      publisher = {Carfax Publishing, part of the Taylor & Francis Group},
      volume = {81},
      number = {7-8},
      pages = {873+},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1475382042000297754},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1475382042000297754}
    }
    
    Fayed, Z.T. Utterance-based proposed spot diagnostic system of vocal tract malfunction. 2001 Biomed Sci Instrum
    Vol. 37, pp. 485-491 
    article  
    Abstract: It is not surprising that speech recognition by machine, has received a great deal of attention through the techniques of artificial intelligence (AI), like expert systems to support decisions in various intended fields. One proposal that is based on the expert system paradigm is to diagnose a malfunction of the vocal tract during uttering recommended utterances for this purpose. The choice of these utterances is achieved according to the position and the manner of articulation. Four important features of acoustic analysis of speech are, fundamental frequency, F0, Formants, (F1-F5), amplitude, and the harmonic structure (tone vs. noise). The most Candidate features in the proposed diagnostic system are both fundamental frequency and/or the formants. These are considered to be the Core of the intended work. The throat, mouth and nose as the resonating champers will support this attitude and will affect, negatively, the range of the mentioned frequencies when they are out of the anatomical and/or physical functions. The discrete speech (isolated words) as the most recognizable utterances. Will be considered to put aside the difficulties of both connected and continuous word-based recognition. In a diagnostic systems, the generality is an essential issue, that is to consider "Speaker independent" recognizer which needs more efforts during the system training phase. The paper presents a rough (initial) spotting diagnostic system to be the base for a future detailed system for specific defects of precised organs belonging to the vocal tract. Arabic Vowels as well as some Consonants would be the target, taking into account the age range, that is (20-25) years-aged matures. Different recommended utterances, Arabic segmented alphabetic, focused on various points through the vocal apparatus. Speech related waveforms, as well as the associated fundamental frequencies and formants have been considered in the normal and the Corresponding abnormal Cases. The deviations that appeared in the frequency pattern have indicated the defected articulator that is dominant in the intended utterance production. The results illustrated, would be the base for designing a dedicated hardware unit, which may be reliable for the physicians interesting in this field. Human beings communicate with one another primarily by speech, and speech brings human beings closer together speech sounds travel through the air at the rate of about 330 meter per second, whereas impulses travel a long nerve pathways in the body at a rate of about 60 meter per second. The time it takes for a spoken word to be heard and understood by a listener may be shorter than the time it takes as a neural message to travel to the brain, [1]. Speech not only for human Communication, but it also has many applications in different fields. Some of these applications are machine control commands base systems, speech-to-text, and Text-to-speech systems, natural language-based systems, and medical diagnosis systems for vocal tract malfunction, the issue of this paper. One difficulty of speech based-systems is the fact that not everyone speaks the same way, even those who supposedly speak the same language at the same way. The term dialect is used to refer to this variability and is emphasized in case of uttering with different languages. The above discussion is concerning with the social and emotional variability which can be modified with reasonable efforts. The great variabilities, which are difficulty to be manipulated, are belonging to the inheritance and anatomical aspects. So it is worthy and to propose a methodology that can be used globally inspite of different social communities.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Fayed2001,
      author = {Z. T. Fayed},
      title = {Utterance-based proposed spot diagnostic system of vocal tract malfunction.},
      journal = {Biomed Sci Instrum},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {37},
      pages = {485--491}
    }
    
    Fehri, A.F. Nominal classes, reference, and functional parameters, with particular reference to Arabic 2004 Linguistic Variation Yearbook
    Vol. 4(1), pp. 41-108 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Fehri2004Nominal,
      author = {Fehri, Abdelkader F.},
      title = {Nominal classes, reference, and functional parameters, with particular reference to Arabic},
      journal = {Linguistic Variation Yearbook},
      publisher = {John Benjamins Publishing Company},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {4},
      number = {1},
      pages = {41--108},
      url = {http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/jbp/livy/2004/00000004/00000001/art00003}
    }
    
    Feldman, L.B. Morphological aspects of language processing 1995   book  
    Abstract: This book focuses on the morphological aspects of word recognition and reading. It examines the crosslinguistic differences and similarities one finds in processing language and attempts to break away from the notion that what happens in English happens in every language.
    BibTeX:
    @book{,
      author = {Feldman, Laurie B.},
      title = {Morphological aspects of language processing},
      publisher = {Lawrence Erlbaum Associates},
      year = {1995}
    }
    
    Fellman, J. Language development in Tigrinya 1979 Language Problems and Language Planning Lingvaj Problemoj kaj Lingvo Planado, Plymouth, NH
    Vol. 3, pp. 25-27 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Fellman, Jack},
      title = {Language development in Tigrinya},
      journal = {Language Problems and Language Planning Lingvaj Problemoj kaj Lingvo Planado, Plymouth, NH},
      year = {1979},
      volume = {3},
      pages = {25-27}
    }
    
    Ferguson, C.A. Arabic baby talk 1956 For Roman Jakobson, pp. 121-128  incollection  
    BibTeX:
    @incollection{,
      author = {Ferguson, Charles A.},
      title = {Arabic baby talk},
      booktitle = {For Roman Jakobson},
      publisher = {Mouton},
      year = {1956},
      pages = {121-128}
    }
    
    Ferguson, C.A. Baby talk in six languages 1964 American Anthropologist
    Vol. 66, pp. 103 114 
    article  
    Abstract: (Reprinted in Ferguson, 1971.) Cross-cultural comparison of adult speech to infants ('baby talk') , based on already existing and new source material. Also in Gumperz & Hymes 'The ethnography of communication'. -
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Ferguson, Charles A.},
      title = {Baby talk in six languages},
      journal = {American Anthropologist},
      year = {1964},
      volume = {66},
      pages = {103 114}
    }
    
    Ferguson, C.A. The Arabic Koine 1959 Language
    Vol. 35(4), pp. 616-630 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ferguson1959,
      author = {Ferguson, Charles A.},
      title = {The Arabic Koine},
      journal = {Language},
      publisher = {Linguistic Society of America},
      year = {1959},
      volume = {35},
      number = {4},
      pages = {616--630},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/410601}
    }
    
    Ferguson, C.A. The Emphatic l in Arabic 1956 Language
    Vol. 32(3), pp. 446-452 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ferguson1956,
      author = {Ferguson, Charles A.},
      title = {The Emphatic l in Arabic},
      journal = {Language},
      publisher = {Linguistic Society of America},
      year = {1956},
      volume = {32},
      number = {3},
      pages = {446--452},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/410565}
    }
    
    Ferrando, I. The Phonology and Morphology of Arabic Journal of Semitic Studies
    Vol. 49(1), pp. 175+ 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{FerrandoPhonology,
      author = {Ferrando, Ignacio},
      title = {The Phonology and Morphology of Arabic},
      journal = {Journal of Semitic Studies},
      publisher = {Oxford University Press},
      volume = {49},
      number = {1},
      pages = {175+},
      url = {http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/oup/semitj/2004/00000049/00000001/art00175}
    }
    
    Ferrario, G. An Arabic Dictionary of Technical Alchemical Terms: MS Sprenger 1908 of the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin (fols. 3r6r) Ambix
    Vol. 56(1), pp. 36-48 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{FerrarioArabic,
      author = {Ferrario, Gabriele},
      title = {An Arabic Dictionary of Technical Alchemical Terms: MS Sprenger 1908 of the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin (fols. 3r6r)},
      journal = {Ambix},
      publisher = {Maney Publishing},
      volume = {56},
      number = {1},
      pages = {36--48},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/174582309X405219},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/174582309X405219}
    }
    
    Fias, W. Two routes for the processing of verbal numbers: evidence from the SNARC effect. 2001 Psychol Res
    Vol. 65(4), pp. 250-259 
    article  
    Abstract: The functional locus of the semantic system is an important issue in number processing. In the present article, the necessity of addressing a central semantic magnitude system in the processing of printed verbal number words is evaluated by looking at the presence of a spatial-numerical association of response codes or SNARC effect. This effect consists of an association of number magnitude and response-preference (preferred responses to small numbers with the left hand and to large numbers with the right hand) and reflects semantic access. Two experiments were run. In Experiment 1, participants performed a parity judgment task which requires access to number semantics. A SNARC effect was observed. In Experiment 2 a phoneme monitoring task was used, which can, in principle, be performed through direct asemantic transcoding. No SNARC effect occurred. Apparently, written number words access the semantic system only if this is necessary for correct task completion. Hence, a semantic and an asemantic route can be postulated for the processing of word numerals. These observations contrast with the processing of Arabic numerals for which semantic effects are omnipresent. Implications of this explicit demonstration of a dissimilarity between the processing of digits and of number words are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Fias2001,
      author = {W. Fias},
      title = {Two routes for the processing of verbal numbers: evidence from the SNARC effect.},
      journal = {Psychol Res},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {65},
      number = {4},
      pages = {250--259}
    }
    
    Fias, W., Reynvoet, B. & Brysbaert, M. Are Arabic numerals processed as pictures in a Stroop interference task? 2001 Psychol Res
    Vol. 65(4), pp. 242-249 
    article  
    Abstract: In a picture-word interference task, picture naming is interfered by an incongruent word, but word naming is hardly hindered by the presence of an incongruent picture. In this study, we investigated whether Arabic digits are processed more like pictures or like words. We report two experiments in which Arabic digits and verbal numerals were confronted in a Stroop task. Arabic digit naming is interfered by the presence of an incongruent verbal numeral, while naming the verbal numeral is not influenced by the presence of an incongruent Arabic digit. In a second experiment, we excluded the hypothesis that the results are due to ignoring the Arabic digits: interferences from an incongruent distracter were similar for both notations in a semantic classification task. It seems that an asemantic conversion for Arabic digits is too slow to influence naming times, and that Arabic digit naming, like picture naming, is semantically mediated.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Fias2001a,
      author = {W. Fias and B. Reynvoet and M. Brysbaert},
      title = {Are Arabic numerals processed as pictures in a Stroop interference task?},
      journal = {Psychol Res},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {65},
      number = {4},
      pages = {242--249}
    }
    
    Fischer, M.H., Shaki, S. & Cruise, A. It takes just one word to quash a SNARC. 2009 Exp Psychol
    Vol. 56(5), pp. 361-366 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Our directional reading habit seems to contribute to the widely reported association of small numbers with left space and larger numbers with right space (the spatial-numerical association of response codes, SNARC, effect). But how can this association be so flexible when reading habits are not? To address this question, we asked bilingual Russian-Hebrew readers to classify numbers by parity and alternated the number format from trial to trial between written words and Arabic digits. The number words were randomly printed in either Cyrillic or Hebrew script, thus inducing left-to-right or right-to-left reading, respectively. Classification performance indicated that the digits were spatially mapped when they followed a Russian word but not when they followed a Hebrew word. An auditory control experiment revealed left-to-right SNARC effects with different strengths in both languages. These results suggest that the SNARC effect reflects recent spatial experiences, cross-modal associations, and long-standing directional habits but not an attribute of the number concepts themselves.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Fischer2009,
      author = {Martin H Fischer and Samuel Shaki and Alexander Cruise},
      title = {It takes just one word to quash a SNARC.},
      journal = {Exp Psychol},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {56},
      number = {5},
      pages = {361--366},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1027/1618-3169.56.5.361},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1027/1618-3169.56.5.361}
    }
    
    Fodor & Alexander An Arabic Version of Sefer Ha-Razim 2006 Jewish Studies Quarterly
    Vol. 13(4), pp. 412-427 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Fodor2006Arabic,
      author = {Fodor and Alexander},
      title = {An Arabic Version of Sefer Ha-Razim},
      journal = {Jewish Studies Quarterly},
      publisher = {Mohr Siebeck},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {13},
      number = {4},
      pages = {412--427},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1628/094457006780130411},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1628/094457006780130411}
    }
    
    Foster, A.M., Wynn, L., Rouhana, A., Polis, C. & Trussell, J. Reproductive health, the Arab world and the internet: usage patterns of an Arabic-language emergency contraception web site. 2005 Contraception
    Vol. 72(2), pp. 130-137 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Emergency contraception (EC) has the potential to reduce significantly the incidence of unintended pregnancy worldwide. In May 2003, the first Arabic-language web site dedicated to disseminating information about and increasing awareness of EC was launched. This paper examines patterns of web site use and user profiles over a 19-month period. Analysis of use shows that the Arabic web site users are interested in different aspects of EC than the English web site users, suggesting the importance of creating culturally specific content when adapting and translating health education materials. Arabic web site users demonstrate significant interest in general reproductive health issues not specific to EC, suggesting a need for greater availability of Arabic-language health education resources through the Internet.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Foster2005,
      author = {Angel M Foster and Lisa Wynn and Aida Rouhana and Chelsea Polis and James Trussell},
      title = {Reproductive health, the Arab world and the internet: usage patterns of an Arabic-language emergency contraception web site.},
      journal = {Contraception},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {72},
      number = {2},
      pages = {130--137},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.contraception.2005.03.003},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.contraception.2005.03.003}
    }
    
    Fraj, F.B., Zribi, C. & Ahmed, M.B. ArabTAG: A Tree Adjoining Grammar for Arabic Syntactic Structures 2008 Proceedings of the International Arab Conference on Information Technology  inproceedings  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{ArabTAG2008a,
      author = {Fériel Ben Fraj and Chiraz Zribi and Mohamed Ben Ahmed},
      title = {ArabTAG: A Tree Adjoining Grammar for Arabic Syntactic Structures},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Arab Conference on Information Technology},
      year = {2008}
    }
    
    Frankel, D.G., Amir, M., Frenkel, E. & Arbel, T. A developmental study of the role of word order in comprehending Hebrew 1980 Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
    Vol. 29, pp. 23-35 
    article  
    Abstract: Monolingual Hebrew-speaking subjects, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 11 years old and adults interpreted utterances consisting of 2 nouns and a verb. Some utterances included only word order cues, while others included direct object marker and subject-verb gender agreement cues.There was no evidence of a developmental sequence for word order strategies.
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Frankel, Daniel G. and Amir, Marianne and Frenkel, Etha and Arbel, Tali},
      title = {A developmental study of the role of word order in comprehending Hebrew},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Child Psychology},
      year = {1980},
      volume = {29},
      pages = {23-35}
    }
    
    Frankel, D.G. & Arbel, T. Developmental changes in assigning agent relations in Hebrew: The interaction between word order and structural cues 1981 Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
    Vol. 32, pp. 102-114 
    article  
    Abstract: Hebrew-speaking children between 4 and 10 years of age interpreted NVN utterances. Word order and structural cues affected interpretations. The likelihood of assigning the agent relation to the first or second noun systematically varied with the relative weights of cues that supported and opposed each assignment
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Frankel, Daniel G. and Arbel, Tali},
      title = {Developmental changes in assigning agent relations in Hebrew: The interaction between word order and structural cues},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Child Psychology},
      year = {1981},
      volume = {32},
      pages = {102-114}
    }
    
    Freeman, A., Condon, S. & Ackerman, C. Cross Linguistic Name Matching in English and Arabic 2006 Proceedings of the Human Language Technology Conference of the NAACL, Main Conference, pp. 471-478  inproceedings URL 
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{freeman-condon-ackerman:2006:HLT-NAACL06-Main,
      author = {Freeman, Andrew and Condon, Sherri and Ackerman, Christopher},
      title = {Cross Linguistic Name Matching in English and Arabic},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the Human Language Technology Conference of the NAACL, Main Conference},
      publisher = {Association for Computational Linguistics},
      year = {2006},
      pages = {471--478},
      url = {http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/N/N06/N06-1060}
    }
    
    Friedmann, N. Young Children and A-chains: The Acquisition of Hebrew Unaccusatives 2007 Language Acquisition
    Vol. 14(4), pp. 377-422 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Friedmann, N.},
      title = {Young Children and A-chains: The Acquisition of Hebrew Unaccusatives},
      journal = {Language Acquisition},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {14},
      number = {4},
      pages = {377-422}
    }
    
    Friedmann, N. Question production in agrammatism: the tree pruning hypothesis. 2002 Brain Lang
    Vol. 80(2), pp. 160-187 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: This study investigated question production in agrammatic aphasia, focusing on the comparison between Wh questions and yes/no questions and on the interaction between the question production deficit and language-specific properties. A total of 16 agrammatic aphasics (13 Hebrew speakers, 2 Palestinian Arabic speakers, and 1 English speaker) participated in the study, which included sentence elicitation and repetition tasks. In addition, the patients' spontaneous speech, containing 2272 utterances, was analyzed. The main findings were that Hebrew- and Arabic-speaking agrammatics encounter severe difficulties in Wh question production but retain the ability to produce yes/no questions. English-speaking agrammatics do not show this dissociation and can form neither Wh nor yes/no questions. These dissociations as well as the error pattern, are explained by reference to the Tree Pruning Hypothesis, according to which the highest nodes of the syntactic tree, which are required for Wh questions in Hebrew, Arabic, and English and for yes/no questions in English, are impaired or inaccessible in agrammatism.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Friedmann2002,
      author = {Naama Friedmann},
      title = {Question production in agrammatism: the tree pruning hypothesis.},
      journal = {Brain Lang},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {80},
      number = {2},
      pages = {160--187},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/brln.2001.2587},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/brln.2001.2587}
    }
    
    Friedmann, N. Agrammatism and the psychological reality of the syntactic tree. 2001 J Psycholinguist Res
    Vol. 30(1), pp. 71-90 
    article  
    Abstract: Syntactic trees, or phrase markers, have originally been suggested as a representation of syntax in the mind based on purely linguistic grounds. In this paper, the psychological reality of syntactic trees and hierarchical ordering is explored from another perspective--that of the neuropsychology of language breakdown. The study reported here examined several syntactic domains that rely on different nodes in the tree--tense and agreement verb inflection, subordinations, interrogatives, and verb movement, through a study of 14 Hebrew- and Palestinian Arabic-speaking agrammatic aphasics and perusal of the cross-linguistic literature. The results show that the impairment in agrammatic production is highly selective and lends itself to characterization in terms of a deficit in the syntactic tree. The complex pattern of dissociations follows from one underlying deficit--the inaccessibility of high nodes of the syntactic tree to agrammatic speakers. Structures that relate to high nodes of the tree are impaired, while "lower" structures are spared.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Friedmann2001,
      author = {N. Friedmann},
      title = {Agrammatism and the psychological reality of the syntactic tree.},
      journal = {J Psycholinguist Res},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {30},
      number = {1},
      pages = {71--90}
    }
    
    Frost, R., Kugler, T., Deutsch, A. & Forster, K.I. Orthographic structure versus morphological structure: principles of lexical organization in a given language. 2005 J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn
    Vol. 31(6), pp. 1293-1326 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Most models of visual word recognition in alphabetic orthographies assume that words are lexically organized according to orthographic similarity. Support for this is provided by form-priming experiments that demonstrate robust facilitation when primes and targets share similar sequences of letters. The authors examined form-orthographic priming effects in Hebrew, Arabic, and English. Hebrew and Arabic have an alphabetic writing system but a Semitic morphological structure. Hebrew morphemic units are composed of noncontiguous phonemic (and letter) sequences in a given word. Results demonstrate that form-priming effects in Hebrew or Arabic are unreliable, whereas morphological priming effects with minimal letter overlap are robust. Hebrew bilingual subjects, by contrast, showed robust form-priming effects with English material, suggesting that Semitic words are lexically organized by morphological rather than orthographic principles. The authors conclude that morphology can constrain lexical organization even in alphabetic orthographies and that visual processing of words is first determined by morphological characteristics.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Frost2005,
      author = {Ram Frost and Tamar Kugler and Avital Deutsch and Kenneth I Forster},
      title = {Orthographic structure versus morphological structure: principles of lexical organization in a given language.},
      journal = {J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {31},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1293--1326},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-7393.31.6.1293},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-7393.31.6.1293}
    }
    
    Gadalla, H.A.H. Syntactic classes of the Arabic passive participle and how they should be rendered into English Babel
    Vol. 56(1), pp. 1-18 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{GadallaSyntactic,
      author = {Gadalla, Hassan A. H.},
      title = {Syntactic classes of the Arabic passive participle and how they should be rendered into English},
      journal = {Babel},
      publisher = {John Benjamins Publishing Company},
      volume = {56},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1--18},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/babel.56.1.01gad},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/babel.56.1.01gad}
    }
    
    Gafos, A.I. Greenberg's Asymmetry in Arabic: A Consequence of Stems in Paradigms 2003 Language
    Vol. 79(2), pp. 317-355 
    article URL 
    Abstract: How different is the phonology and morphology of nontemplatic (concatenative) word formation from that of templatic (nonconcatenative) word forma? In this article, I focus on the Arabic verbal system, the prototypical example of templatic morphology, with the aim of deriving some of its distinctly special traits from basic principles. The key novel aspect of the approach is its focus on paradigms. The main result is that the paradigm coupled with general phonotactic constraints sets limits on the theoretically possible diversity of stems within that paradigm. As a consequence of its generality, the proposed approach obviates a range of highly specific tools and postulates. Broader implications are developed for the phonological and morphological prerequisites of templatic (nonconcatenative) word formation.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gafos2003,
      author = {Gafos, Adamantios I.},
      title = {Greenberg's Asymmetry in Arabic: A Consequence of Stems in Paradigms},
      journal = {Language},
      publisher = {Linguistic Society of America},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {79},
      number = {2},
      pages = {317--355},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/4489421}
    }
    
    Garcia-Arenal, M. The Religious Identity of the Arabic Language and the Affair of the Lead Books of the Sacromonte of Granada Arabica
    Vol. 56(6), pp. 495-528 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{GarciaArenalReligious,
      author = {Garcia-Arenal, Mercedes},
      title = {The Religious Identity of the Arabic Language and the Affair of the Lead Books of the Sacromonte of Granada},
      journal = {Arabica},
      publisher = {BRILL},
      volume = {56},
      number = {6},
      pages = {495--528},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/057053909X12544602282277},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/057053909X12544602282277}
    }
    
    GarcÇŸ¶ða-SÇŸ¶­nchez, I.M. The politics of Arabic language education: Moroccan immigrant children's language socialization into ethnic and religious identities 2010 Linguistics and Education
    Vol. In Press, Corrected Proof, pp. -  
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: This paper focuses on issues of reproduction and the manufacturing of national/ethnic and religious identities in the deterritorialized space of the Moroccan immigrant diaspora. More specifically, this paper examines Moroccan immigrant children's language socialization into pan-Arabic and Islamic identities in relation to the teaching of the Arabic language to these younger generations of Moroccans, who have either already been born in Spain, or who immigrated to Spain with their parents when they were toddlers. Moroccan immigrant children in this study attend Arabic language classes in a Spanish public school--a relatively new program jointly funded by the Spanish and Moroccan Ministries of Education--and in after-school religious classes in a small oratory-mosque run by a local Islamic cultural organization. In this paper, I address similarities and differences in linguistic and literacy practices between these two contexts, paying particular attention to how the internal dynamism of the Moroccan community itself organizes adults' socializing efforts in relation to language education, especially where there may be some conflicting interests in achieving literacy by religious and secular elements of the children's communities of origin. Comparing language and literacy practices in the fields of Arabic language classes at the school and in the mosque allows us to trace homologies, or similarity of organization in linguistic and cultural (re)production, across these two settings, but also to uncover different kinds of strategies teachers engage in and the differential effect pursued by putting these strategies to use in the classroom. Outlining both, processes of homology and heterogeneity, is particularly important to understand the degree of redundancy in language socialization practices, as well as the possible areas of disjuncture that may impinge upon children's ability to negotiate commonality of belonging in their multiple communities.
    BibTeX:
    @article{GarcA¶ða-SA¶­nchez2010,
      author = {Inmaculada M. GarcÇŸ¶ða-SÇŸ¶­nchez},
      title = {The politics of Arabic language education: Moroccan immigrant children's language socialization into ethnic and religious identities},
      journal = {Linguistics and Education},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {In Press, Corrected Proof},
      pages = { - },
      url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6W5S-50BKDV8-1/2/7ee6e3b7718f56af9753af910b583623},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.linged.2010.04.003}
    }
    
    Gazzah, S. & Amara, B.N. Arabic Handwriting Texture Analysis for Writer Identification Using the DWT-Lifting Scheme 2007 Document Analysis and Recognition, 2007. ICDAR 2007 Vol. 2. Ninth International Conference on
    Vol. 2Document Analysis and Recognition, 2007. ICDAR 2007 Vol. 2. Ninth International Conference on, pp. 1133-1137 
    proceedings URL 
    Abstract: In this paper, we present an approach for writer identification using off-line Arabic handwriting. The proposed method explores the handwriting texture analysis by 2D Discrete Wavelet Transforms using lifting scheme. A comparative evaluation between textural features extracted by 9 different wavelet transform functions was done. A modular Multilayer Perceptron classifier was used. Experiments have shown that writer identification accuracies reach best performance levels with an average rate of 95.68&x025;. Experiments have been carried out using a database of 180 text samples. The chosen text was made to guarantee the involvement of the various internal shapes and letter locations within an Arabic subword.
    BibTeX:
    @proceedings{Gazzah2007Arabic,
      author = {Gazzah, S. and Amara, Ben N.},
      title = {Arabic Handwriting Texture Analysis for Writer Identification Using the DWT-Lifting Scheme},
      booktitle = {Document Analysis and Recognition, 2007. ICDAR 2007 Vol. 2. Ninth International Conference on},
      journal = {Document Analysis and Recognition, 2007. ICDAR 2007 Vol. 2. Ninth International Conference on},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {2},
      pages = {1133--1137},
      url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/absall.jsp?arnumber=4377092}
    }
    
    Gehman, H.S. The Arabic Bible in Spain 1926 Speculum
    Vol. 1(2), pp. 219-221 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gehman1926,
      author = {Gehman, Henry S.},
      title = {The Arabic Bible in Spain},
      journal = {Speculum},
      publisher = {Medieval Academy of America},
      year = {1926},
      volume = {1},
      number = {2},
      pages = {219--221},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/2847547}
    }
    
    Geldmacher, D.S. & Alhaj, M. Spatial aspects of letter cancellation performance in Arabic readers. 1999 Int J Neurosci
    Vol. 97(1-2), pp. 29-39 
    article  
    Abstract: Studies of visuospatial and directed attention that used subjects drawn from cultures with left-to-right reading patterns have suggested a slight performance bias toward left space. This pattern could reflect an intrinsic, organic, bias in spatial processing or the confounding effect of overlearned reading patterns. We studied the spatial distribution of errors on random array letter cancellation tasks obtained from 128 healthy Syrians who were native readers of Arabic. Fifty-eight of the 128 subjects (45.3 made a total of 91 errors in which they omitted cancelling a target. The distribution of errors was not spatially biased. This differs from the error pattern reported for native readers of English on a similar task. The findings, consistent with results of other approaches, suggest that reading patterns influence visuospatial attention, but are not the sole cause of spatial biases observed in readers of Indo-European languages.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Geldmacher1999,
      author = {D. S. Geldmacher and M. Alhaj},
      title = {Spatial aspects of letter cancellation performance in Arabic readers.},
      journal = {Int J Neurosci},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {97},
      number = {1-2},
      pages = {29--39}
    }
    
    Genesee, F. & Lambert, W.E. Trilingual education for majority-language children 1983 Child Development
    Vol. 54(1), pp. 105-14 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Genesee, Fred and Lambert, W. E.},
      title = {Trilingual education for majority-language children},
      journal = {Child Development},
      year = {1983},
      volume = {54},
      number = {1},
      pages = {105-14}
    }
    
    Gerrish, K., Chau, R., Sobowale, A. & Birks, E. Bridging the language barrier: the use of interpreters in primary care nursing. 2004 Health Soc Care Community
    Vol. 12(5), pp. 407-413 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Language barriers present a major obstacle to minority ethnic communities accessing primary healthcare. Whereas it is recognised that interpreting services are generally inadequate and inappropriate reliance is placed on family members to interpret, little is known about how nurses working in primary care utilise interpreters to overcome language barriers. The present paper reports on a study examining the utilisation of interpreting services by a range of primary care nurses from the perspectives of the nurses, interpreters and minority ethnic communities. Focus groups were undertaken with five separate groups of district nurses, health visitors, practice nurses, community midwives and specialist nurses, three groups of interpreters from different interpreting services, and five groups of participants from the main community languages in the locality where the study was undertaken (i.e. Arabic, Bengali, Cantonese, Somali and Urdu). Focus group discussions were tape-recorded and subsequently transcribed. Data analysis drew upon the principles of 'framework' analysis. The use of interpreters by primary care nurses varied considerably. Nurses who had received training in using interpreters and who had most control over the timing of patient visits were more likely to use interpreting services. Inadequate training of both nurses and interpreters adversely affected the quality of interaction where interpreters were used. Primary care nurses acted as gatekeepers to interpreting services. Whereas interpreting services were generally perceived to be inadequate, many nurses were accepting of the status quo and prepared to rely on family members to interpret rather than champion the need to improve services.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gerrish2004,
      author = {Kate Gerrish and Ruby Chau and Abi Sobowale and Elizabeth Birks},
      title = {Bridging the language barrier: the use of interpreters in primary care nursing.},
      journal = {Health Soc Care Community},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {12},
      number = {5},
      pages = {407--413},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2524.2004.00510.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2524.2004.00510.x}
    }
    
    Geva, E. & Wade Woolley, L. Component processes in becoming English-Hebrew biliterate 1998   article  
    Abstract: (from the chapter) This chapter addresses a number of issues fundamental to the development of literacy skills in first (L1) and second (L2) language. The chapter begins by situating these issues in a discussion of reading theory that has been associated primarily with the development of reading in L1. The authors then discuss them in the context of language-specific and orthography-specific parameters. The chapter continues with a description of the sociocultural milieu in which the research reported here was carried out, specifically, children acquiring their primary literacy education concurrently in English (their L1) and Hebrew (their L2). The study was conducted in a Jewish day school among 45 children. Measures were administered in the middle of kindergarten when the Ss had not been exposed to any systematic instruction of Hebrew. In the middle of Grade 1 and Grade 2, Ss were tested again on a number of parallel English and Hebrew literacy measures. The authors address the longitudinal development of 3 literacy components in L1 and L2: word recognition, spelling, and reading fluency. The chapter ends with a discussion on how central processing and orthography-specific demands are interrelated.
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Geva, Esther and Wade Woolley, Lesly},
      title = {Component processes in becoming English-Hebrew biliterate},
      year = {1998},
      note = {development of word recognition and spelling and reading fluency in first and second language and orthography specific processes, English speaking kindergarten students learning Hebrew, 3 yr study}
    }
    
    Ghabban, A. & Hoyland, R. The inscription of Zuhayr, the oldest Islamic inscription (24 AHAD 644645), the rise of the Arabic script and the nature of the early Islamic state 2008 Arabian archaeology and epigraphy
    Vol. 19(2), pp. 210-237 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ghabban2008Inscription,
      author = {Ghabban, Ali and Hoyland, Robert},
      title = {The inscription of Zuhayr, the oldest Islamic inscription (24 AHAD 644645), the rise of the Arabic script and the nature of the early Islamic state},
      journal = {Arabian archaeology and epigraphy},
      publisher = {Blackwell Publishing},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {19},
      number = {2},
      pages = {210--237},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0471.2008.00297.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0471.2008.00297.x}
    }
    
    Ghwanmeh, S., Kanaan, G., Al-Shalabi, R. & Ababneh, A. Enhanced Arabic Information Retrieval System based on Arabic Text Classification 2007 Proc. 4th Int. Conf. Innovations in Information Technology IIT '07, pp. 461-465  inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Ghwanmeh2007,
      author = {Ghwanmeh, S. and Kanaan, G. and Al-Shalabi, R. and Ababneh, A. },
      title = {Enhanced Arabic Information Retrieval System based on Arabic Text Classification},
      booktitle = {Proc. 4th Int. Conf. Innovations in Information Technology IIT '07},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {461--465},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IIT.2007.4430469}
    }
    
    Gialabouki, L. Political Discourse in the Media: Fetzer, Anita, Lauerbach, Gerda E., Eds., John Benjamins, Amsterdam, 2007, viiii + 379 pages 2010 Journal of Pragmatics
    Vol. 42(9), pp. 2601 - 2603 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gialabouki2010,
      author = {Lena Gialabouki},
      title = {Political Discourse in the Media: Fetzer, Anita, Lauerbach, Gerda E., Eds., John Benjamins, Amsterdam, 2007, viiii + 379 pages},
      journal = {Journal of Pragmatics},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {42},
      number = {9},
      pages = {2601 - 2603},
      note = {How people talk to Robots and Computers},
      url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6VCW-4YYVCP7-2/2/038344111e7c2460bb0dc96c7a22eec2},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2010.03.007}
    }
    
    Gillies, A., Erlandson, E., Trenkle, J. & Schlosser, S. Arabic Text Recognition System 1999   misc URL 
    Abstract: This paper describes a system for the recognition of Arabic text in document images.
    The system is designed to perform well on low resolution and low quality document
    images. On a set of 138 page images digitized at 200x200 dpi the system achieved a
    93% correct character recognition rate. On the same pages digitized at 100x200 dpi, the
    system achieved an 89% character recognition rate. The systems processes a typical
    page with simple layout and 45 lines of text in 90 seconds on a 400 Mhz...
    BibTeX:
    @misc{Gillies1999Arabic,
      author = {Gillies, A. and Erlandson, E. and Trenkle, J. and Schlosser, S.},
      title = {Arabic Text Recognition System},
      year = {1999},
      url = {http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/gillies99arabic.html}
    }
    
    Gilliot & Claude Eight-century Iraqi grammar. A critical exploration of pre-Halilian Arabic linguistics 2007 Arabica
    Vol. 54(4), pp. 595-596 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gilliot2007Eightcentury,
      author = {Gilliot and Claude},
      title = {Eight-century Iraqi grammar. A critical exploration of pre-Halilian Arabic linguistics},
      journal = {Arabica},
      publisher = {BRILL},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {54},
      number = {4},
      pages = {595--596},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/157005807782322391},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/157005807782322391}
    }
    
    Girgis, S. & Ward, J. Arabic speakers with diabetes mellitus. A study of their care. 2004 Aust Fam Physician
    Vol. 33(8), pp. 670-672 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Girgis2004,
      author = {Seham Girgis and Jeanette Ward},
      title = {Arabic speakers with diabetes mellitus. A study of their care.},
      journal = {Aust Fam Physician},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {33},
      number = {8},
      pages = {670--672}
    }
    
    Gispert-Saǧch, M.M., Gil-SaladiǸ, D. & Delgado-Gonzǭlez, M. [Aphasia in a polyglot: description and neuropsychological course] 1997 Rev Neurol
    Vol. 25(140), pp. 562-565 
    article  
    Abstract: We present a case of aphasia due to an ischaemic lesion in the left temporo-occipital region of the brain of a 60 year old right-handed polyglot. Mother tongues: French, Italian, Arabic. Educated at school in English. Languages learnt as an adult: German, Portuguese, Spanish. Language habitually spoken prior to illness: Spanish. His language disorder was of non-fluent type and progressed to an anomic disorder. The non-parallel recovery of languages led to an initial and predominant recovery of English (language at school) followed by French (his first language). This type of non-parallel recovery may be compatible with the inhibition-disinhibition mechanism hypothesis. This would mean that the languages of least recovery are inhibited by raising the threshold of some circuits while still permitting comprehension.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gispert-Sauch1997,
      author = {M. Martinell-Gispert-Saǧch and D. Gil-SaladiǸ and M. Delgado-Gonzǭlez},
      title = {[Aphasia in a polyglot: description and neuropsychological course]},
      journal = {Rev Neurol},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {25},
      number = {140},
      pages = {562--565}
    }
    
    Goddard, C. The lexical semantics of language (with special reference to words) 2010 Language Sciences
    Vol. In Press, Corrected Proof, pp. -  
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Language can be regarded as one of the key words of English, as well as the foundational term of the discourse of linguistics. It is well to remember, however, that the concept of a language lacks precise semantic equivalents in many languages. This study presents a semantic-lexicographic analysis of several meanings of the word language in contemporary English, using the Natural Semantic Metalanguage method of semantic description ([Wierzbicka, 1996], [Wierzbicka, 1997], [Goddard, 1998] and [Goddard, 2008]). The study is similar in scope and approach to an earlier study (Goddard, 2005) of the word culture, which resembles language in several important respects. One distinctive aspect of the explications for language is their reliance on the proposed semantic prime words, which is discussed at some length. Though primarily focused on English, the study makes reference to Yankunytjatjara, Chinese, and Russian, among other languages.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Goddard2010,
      author = {Cliff Goddard},
      title = {The lexical semantics of language (with special reference to words)},
      journal = {Language Sciences},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {In Press, Corrected Proof},
      pages = { - },
      url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6VD2-5045DSF-1/2/cf632f18abefd20b34d281990ebe7ecf},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.langsci.2010.03.003}
    }
    
    Goddard, H. Review: Muslims and Christians in Norman Sicily: Arabic Speakers and the End of Islam 2004 Journal of Semitic Studies
    Vol. 49(2), pp. 378-379 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Goddard2004Review,
      author = {Goddard, Hugh},
      title = {Review: Muslims and Christians in Norman Sicily: Arabic Speakers and the End of Islam},
      journal = {Journal of Semitic Studies},
      publisher = {Oxford University Press},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {49},
      number = {2},
      pages = {378--379},
      url = {http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/oup/semitj/2004/00000049/00000002/art00378}
    }
    
    Goldberg, Y., Adler, M. & Elhadad, M. Noun Phrase Chunking in Hebrew: Influence of Lexical and Morphological Features 2006 Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Computational Linguistics and 44th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, pp. 689-696  inproceedings URL 
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{goldberg-adler-elhadad:2006:COLACL,
      author = {Goldberg, Yoav and Adler, Meni and Elhadad, Michael},
      title = {Noun Phrase Chunking in Hebrew: Influence of Lexical and Morphological Features},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Computational Linguistics and 44th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics},
      publisher = {Association for Computational Linguistics},
      year = {2006},
      pages = {689--696},
      url = {http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/P/P06/P06-1087}
    }
    
    Goldberg, Y. & Elhadad, M. SVM Model Tampering and Anchored Learning: A Case Study in Hebrew NP Chunking 2007 Proceedings of the 45th Annual Meeting of the Association of Computational Linguistics, pp. 224-231  inproceedings URL 
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{goldberg-elhadad:2007:ACLMain,
      author = {Goldberg, Yoav and Elhadad, Michael},
      title = {SVM Model Tampering and Anchored Learning: A Case Study in Hebrew NP Chunking},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 45th Annual Meeting of the Association of Computational Linguistics},
      publisher = {Association for Computational Linguistics},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {224--231},
      url = {http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/P/P07/P07-1029}
    }
    
    Goldstein, B.R. & Pingree, D. The Astronomical Tables of al-KhwÇ"‹¨«rizmÇ"¶® in a Nineteenth Century Egyptian Text 1978 Journal of the American Oriental Society
    Vol. 98(1), pp. 96-99 
    article URL 
    Abstract: A fragment from the Cairo Geniza now at the John Rylands Library (Gaster Arabic, Ms. 345) demonstrates for the first time that the Astronomical Tables of al-KhwÇ"‹¨«rizmÇ"¶® (ninth century) were still available in their original form in Egypt in the nineteenth century (no copy has yet been found). These tables represent an Indian tradition in early Islamic astronomy that was largely displaced by Greek methods. The text contains two horoscopes on the obverse for 7 January 1861 and 19 March 1863, and a computation for a lunar eclipse possibility for 22 July 1861 on the reverse.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Goldstein1978,
      author = {Goldstein, Bernard R. and Pingree, David},
      title = {The Astronomical Tables of al-KhwÇ"‹¨«rizmÇ"¶® in a Nineteenth Century Egyptian Text},
      journal = {Journal of the American Oriental Society},
      publisher = {American Oriental Society},
      year = {1978},
      volume = {98},
      number = {1},
      pages = {96--99},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/600155}
    }
    
    Goldstein, Z. & Moore, M. A model predicting the vocabulary of children by written or spoken text 1991 Hebrew Linguistics: A Journal for Hebrew Formal, Computational, Applied Linguistics, and Modern Hebrew  article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Goldstein, Zahava and Moore, Michael},
      title = {A model predicting the vocabulary of children by written or spoken text},
      journal = {Hebrew Linguistics: A Journal for Hebrew Formal, Computational, Applied Linguistics, and Modern Hebrew},
      year = {1991},
      note = {In Heb.; Eng. sum., v vi}
    }
    
    Goraine, H., Usher, M. & Al-Emami, S. Off-line Arabic character recognition 1992 Computer
    Vol. 25(7)Computer, pp. 71-74 
    article URL 
    Abstract: A personal computer-based Arabic character recognition system that performs three preprocessing stages sequentially, thinning, stroke segmentation, and sampling, is described. The eight-direction code used for stroke representation and classification, the character classification done at primary and secondary levels, and the contextual postprocessor used for error detection and correction are described. Experimental results obtained using samples of handwritten and typewritten Arabic words are presented
    BibTeX:
    @article{Goraine1992Offline,
      author = {Goraine, H. and Usher, M. and Al-Emami, S.},
      title = {Off-line Arabic character recognition},
      booktitle = {Computer},
      journal = {Computer},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {25},
      number = {7},
      pages = {71--74},
      url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/absall.jsp?arnumber=144444}
    }
    
    Gouda, A.M. & Rashwan, M.A. Segmentation of connected Arabic characters using hidden Markov models 2004 Proc. CIMSA Computational Intelligence for Measurement Systems and Applications 2004 IEEE Int. Conf, pp. 115-119  inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Gouda2004,
      author = {Gouda, A. M. and Rashwan, M. A. },
      title = {Segmentation of connected Arabic characters using hidden Markov models},
      booktitle = {Proc. CIMSA Computational Intelligence for Measurement Systems and Applications 2004 IEEE Int. Conf},
      year = {2004},
      pages = {115--119},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/CIMSA.2004.1397244}
    }
    
    Gouda, A.M. & Rashwan, M.A. Segmentation of connected Arabic characters using hidden Markov models 2004 Computational Intelligence for Measurement Systems and Applications, 2004. CIMSA. 2004 IEEE International Conference onComputational Intelligence for Measurement Systems and Applications, 2004. CIMSA. 2004 IEEE International Conference on, pp. 115-119  proceedings URL 
    Abstract: Because the Arabic text is connected by nature, segmentation of Arabic text into characters is a very important task for building an Arabic OCR. Although a lot of work has been done in this area, there is no perfect technique for segmentation has been used until now. In this paper, discrete hidden Markov models are used for segmentation of Arabic words into letters. The results are very encouraging. A system has been built and used for testing the proposed algorithm and the segmentation results achieved 99
    BibTeX:
    @proceedings{Gouda2004Segmentation,
      author = {Gouda, A. M. and Rashwan, M. A.},
      title = {Segmentation of connected Arabic characters using hidden Markov models},
      booktitle = {Computational Intelligence for Measurement Systems and Applications, 2004. CIMSA. 2004 IEEE International Conference on},
      journal = {Computational Intelligence for Measurement Systems and Applications, 2004. CIMSA. 2004 IEEE International Conference on},
      year = {2004},
      pages = {115--119},
      url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/absall.jsp?arnumber=1397244}
    }
    
    Goyanes, J.J.B. [Persian terminology in Arabic anatomical texts.] 1995 Asclepio
    Vol. 47(1), pp. 23-31 
    article  
    Abstract: The article explains the meaning of some Iranian technical words, which appear in anatomical Arab works. They are interesting, not only because they are nearly unknown, but also because they are evidence of the influence of Iranian culture on the rise of Arabian scientific medicine, and so an encouragement to further investigation on this subject.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Goyanes1995,
      author = {J. J. Barcia Goyanes},
      title = {[Persian terminology in Arabic anatomical texts.]},
      journal = {Asclepio},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {47},
      number = {1},
      pages = {23--31}
    }
    
    Grailu, H., Lotfizad, M. & Sadoghi-Yazdi, H. Farsi and Arabic document images lossy compression based on the mixed raster content model International Journal on Document Analysis and Recognition  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Abstract  Recently, the mixed raster content model was proposed for compound document image compression. Most state-of-the-art document image compression methods, such as DjVu, work on the basis of this model but they have some disadvantages, especially for Farsi and Arabic document images. First, the Farsi/Arabic script has some characteristics which can be used to further improve the compression performance. Second, existing segmentation methods have focused on well-separating the textual objects from the background and/or optimizing the rate-distortion trade-off; nevertheless, they have not considered the text readability and OCR facility. Third, these methods usually suffer from the undesired jaggy artifact and misclassifying the important textual details. In this paper, MRC-based document image compression method is proposed which compromises rate-distortion trade-off better than the existing state-of-the-art document compression methods. The proposed method has higher performance in the aspects of segmentation, bi-level mask layer compression, OCR facility, and the overall compression. It uses a 1D pattern matching technique for compression of mask layer. It also uses a segmentation method which is sensitive enough to the small textual objects. Experimental results show that the proposed method has considerably higher compression performance than that of the state-of-the-art compression method DjVu, as high as 1.75ǽƒ'ªƒ_o2.3.
    BibTeX:
    @article{GrailuFarsi,
      author = {Grailu, Hadi and Lotfizad, Mojtaba and Sadoghi-Yazdi, Hadi},
      title = {Farsi and Arabic document images lossy compression based on the mixed raster content model},
      journal = {International Journal on Document Analysis and Recognition},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10032-009-0088-6},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10032-009-0088-6}
    }
    
    Grenat, M.H. Argument structure and the Arabic masdar 1996 School: Dept of Language and Linguistics, University of Essex  phdthesis URL 
    BibTeX:
    @phdthesis{Grenat1996,
      author = {Mohamed Hasan Grenat},
      title = {Argument structure and the Arabic masdar},
      school = {Dept of Language and Linguistics, University of Essex},
      year = {1996},
      url = {http://serlib0.essex.ac.uk/record=b1289396~S5}
    }
    
    Griffith, S.H. Theodore AbÇ.¶® Qurrah's Arabic Tract on the Christian Practice of Venerating Images 1985 Journal of the American Oriental Society
    Vol. 105(1), pp. 53-73 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Between the years 795 and 812 A. D., Theodore AbÇ.¶® Qurrah served as the Melkite bishop of Ç­¶÷¶ÏarrÇ"‹¨«n. During this period he composed in Arabic a pamphlet in which he justified the Christian practice of venerating images of Christ and the saints, against objections coming from Jews and Muslims. He wrote the pamphlet in response to a request from an individual named Yannah, who was an official at the "Church of the Image of Christ" in Edessa. The review of AbÇ.¶® Qurrah's arguments in this pamphlet provides evidence for the study of contemporary Jewish and Islamic attitudes to public Christian devotional observances, as well as to pictorial artwork in the religious milieu in general. Furthermore, the consideration of the socio-historical context of the tract allows one to gain a new perspective on the progress of the public promotion of Islam in the territories of the caliphate during the early Islamic centuries. And it offers yet another perspective from which to consider the relationship of Islamic attitudes concerning religious art to iconoclasm in Byzantium.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Griffith1985,
      author = {Griffith, Sidney H.},
      title = {Theodore AbÇ.¶® Qurrah's Arabic Tract on the Christian Practice of Venerating Images},
      journal = {Journal of the American Oriental Society},
      publisher = {American Oriental Society},
      year = {1985},
      volume = {105},
      number = {1},
      pages = {53--73},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/601539}
    }
    
    Grodzinsky, Y. & Kave, G. Do children really know Condition A? 1994 Language Acquisition: A Journal of Developmental Linguistics
    Vol. 3(1), pp. 41-45 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Grodzinsky, Yosef and Kave, Gitit},
      title = {Do children really know Condition A?},
      journal = {Language Acquisition: A Journal of Developmental Linguistics},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {3(1)},
      pages = {41-45}
    }
    
    Gronke, M. The Arabic YÇ"‹¨«rkand Documents 1986 Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London
    Vol. 49(3), pp. 454-507 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gronke1986,
      author = {Gronke, Monika},
      title = {The Arabic YÇ"‹¨«rkand Documents},
      journal = {Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London},
      publisher = {Cambridge University Press on behalf of School of Oriental and African Studies},
      year = {1986},
      volume = {49},
      number = {3},
      pages = {454--507},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/617827}
    }
    
    Grossman, P.F. & Scholes, R.J. The role of grammaticality and intonation in imitations of word strings by Hebrew-speaking children 1971 Communication Science Laboratory, Quarterly Progress Report (University of Florida)
    Vol. 9 (l) , pp. 21-32 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Grossman, P. F. and Scholes, R. J.},
      title = {The role of grammaticality and intonation in imitations of word strings by Hebrew-speaking children},
      journal = {Communication Science Laboratory, Quarterly Progress Report (University of Florida) },
      year = {1971},
      volume = {9 (l) },
      pages = {21-32}
    }
    
    Guermazi, M., Mezganni, M., Yahia, M., Poiraudeau, S., Fermanian, J., Elleuch, M.H., Revel, M. & Elleuch, M. [Translation and construct validity of the Lequesne index for Arab speaking North African patients with osteoarthritis of the knee] 2004 Ann Readapt Med Phys
    Vol. 47(5), pp. 195-203 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To translate in Arabic and validate the Lequesne index for use in Tunisian. BACKGROUND: No instrument wording in Arabic language and validated in an Arab population to measure lower limb functional disability caused by OA. DESIGN: Arab translation was obtained using the "forward translation/backward translation" method. Adaptations were made after a pilot study. Patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis fulfilling the revised criteria of the American College of Rheumatology were included. Impairment outcome measures (VAS pain; knee mobility; Kellgren's radiological score); disability (the maximum distance walked; WOMAC index) and Beck depression scale were recorded. Inter rater reliability was assessed using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and the Bland and Altman method. Construct validity was investigated using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient (convergent and divergent validities) and a factor analysis was performed. Internal consistency of each factor was assessed by Crohnbach alpha coefficient. RESULTS: One hundred and three patients were included. All questions were acceptable and retained. Inter rater reliability was excellent with ICC = 0.91. The Bland and Altman method showed distribution of differences homogenous and no systematic trend. Expected divergent validity and convergent validity were observed, suggested good construct validity. Two main factors were extracted by factor analysis of the Lequesne, and explained more than 55% of the cumulative variance, the first factor represents disability and the second represents pain and stiffness. Crohnbach alpha coefficient was, respectively, 0.68 for factor 1 and 0.54 for factor 2. In conclusion, we translated and adapted the Lequesne index into Arabic to suit Tunisian people. Translated questionnaire is reliable and valid. Although the scale was validated in a Tunisian population, we expect that it can suit other Arab populations especially North Africans. Further studies are needed to confirm such hypothesis.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Guermazi2004a,
      author = {M. Guermazi and M. Mezganni and M. Yahia and S. Poiraudeau and J. Fermanian and M. H. Elleuch and M. Revel and M. Elleuch},
      title = {[Translation and construct validity of the Lequesne index for Arab speaking North African patients with osteoarthritis of the knee]},
      journal = {Ann Readapt Med Phys},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {47},
      number = {5},
      pages = {195--203},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.annrmp.2004.02.008},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.annrmp.2004.02.008}
    }
    
    Guermazi, M., Yahia, M., Kessomtini, W., Elleuch, M., Ghroubi, S., Ould, S.A., Mrabet, F., Fki, H., Fermanian, J., Poiraudeau, S., Revel, M., Baklouti, S. & Elleuch, M.H. [Functional disability indexes: translation difficulties and cross cultural adaptation problems] 2005 Tunis Med
    Vol. 83(5), pp. 279-283 
    article  
    Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To summarize the difficulties involved in translating tests in Arabic and to describe the translation methods and to apply those to functional indexes. METHOD: Four functional indexes were translated and then subjected to the following test validation methods: back translation, pre-test, and review by an expert committee. RESULTS: Translation problems were underlined. These include in particular the different types of equivalence between the source language and the target language (semantics, idioms, conceptual... equivalences). Problems related to comprehensive literal words were the most observed. CONCLUSION: The current method combining translation with back translation is not sufficient and must be used with, a pre-test and a review committee.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Guermazi2005,
      author = {Mohammad Guermazi and Monem Yahia and Wassia Kessomtini and Mohamed Elleuch and Sameh Ghroubi and Sidya Abderrahman Ould and Fouzia Mrabet and Hbib Fki and Jacques Fermanian and Serge Poiraudeau and Michel Revel and SofiÇùne Baklouti and Mohamed Habib Elleuch},
      title = {[Functional disability indexes: translation difficulties and cross cultural adaptation problems]},
      journal = {Tunis Med},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {83},
      number = {5},
      pages = {279--283}
    }
    
    Guessoum, A. & Zantout, R. A Methodology for Evaluating Arabic Machine Translation Systems 2004 Machine Translation
    Vol. 18(4), pp. 299-335 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Guessoum2004Methodology,
      author = {Guessoum, Ahmed and Zantout, Rached},
      title = {A Methodology for Evaluating Arabic Machine Translation Systems},
      journal = {Machine Translation},
      publisher = {Kluwer Academic Publishers},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {18},
      number = {4},
      pages = {299--335},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10590-005-2412-3},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10590-005-2412-3}
    }
    
    Gully, A. TaÇ­¶÷‹¨«mÇ"¶®n, "Implication of Meaning," in Medieval Arabic 1997 Journal of the American Oriental Society
    Vol. 117(3), pp. 466-480 
    article URL 
    Abstract: This paper assesses the importance of taÇ­¶÷‹¨«mÇ"¶®n, "implication of meaning," in medieval Arabic literature, and also reflects on its significance for the language today. What is particularly interesting about the term is that once its usage became fully established it was employed not only by some of the grammarians but also a number of scholars of rhetoric and legal theory. A further important aspect of taÇ­¶÷‹¨«mÇ"¶®n addressed by this essay is its relationship to other syntactic and rhetorical devices.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gully1997,
      author = {Gully, Adrian},
      title = {TaÇ­¶÷‹¨«mÇ"¶®n, "Implication of Meaning," in Medieval Arabic},
      journal = {Journal of the American Oriental Society},
      publisher = {American Oriental Society},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {117},
      number = {3},
      pages = {466--480},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/605246}
    }
    
    Gutas, D. On Graeco-Arabic Epistolary 'Novels' 2009 Middle Eastern Literatures
    Vol. 12(1), pp. 59-70 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gutas2009GraecoArabic,
      author = {Gutas, Dimitri},
      title = {On Graeco-Arabic Epistolary 'Novels'},
      journal = {Middle Eastern Literatures},
      publisher = {Routledge, part of the Taylor & Francis Group},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {12},
      number = {1},
      pages = {59--70},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14752620902760590},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14752620902760590}
    }
    
    GÇŸ¶¬nther, S. Assessing the Sources of Classical Arabic Compilations: The Issue of Categories and Methodologies 2005 British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies
    Vol. 32(1), pp. 75-98 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The complex nature of medieval Arabic compilations, with their evidence of manifold pieces and layers of diverse (older) text material, has been puzzling to many scholars of Islam. It has even caused some researchers to question the authenticity and credibility of information contained in these texts-and their value as historical sources-altogether. An inquiry into the theoretical controversies at issue here constitutes the starting point of this article. Additionally, we will look at the categories and terms more frequently used in Western studies of the sources of Arabic compilations from about the eighth to the eleventh century Common Era (CE). The second part of the article offers an extensively annotated catalogue of categories and terms. This terminology, it is hoped, will help advance the assessment of classical Arabic compilations, for it takes the actual circumstances of the transmission of knowledge and the working techniques of compilers in medieval Islam into proper consideration. In conclusion, the paper illustrates how the proposed categories and terms are to be applied. It will become clear that the application of this kind of refined source-critical examination of individual classical Arabic texts is instrumental to a better understanding of medieval Muslim scholarship in general.
    BibTeX:
    @article{GA¶¬nther2005,
      author = {GÇŸ¶¬nther, Sebastian},
      title = {Assessing the Sources of Classical Arabic Compilations: The Issue of Categories and Methodologies},
      journal = {British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies},
      publisher = {Taylor & Francis, Ltd.},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {32},
      number = {1},
      pages = {75--98},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/30037662}
    }
    
    Habash, N. & Rambow, O. MAGEAD: A Morphological Analyzer and Generator for the Arabic Dialects 2006 Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Computational Linguistics and 44th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, pp. 681-688  inproceedings URL 
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{habash-rambow:2006:COLACL,
      author = {Habash, Nizar and Rambow, Owen},
      title = {MAGEAD: A Morphological Analyzer and Generator for the Arabic Dialects},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Computational Linguistics and 44th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics},
      publisher = {Association for Computational Linguistics},
      year = {2006},
      pages = {681--688},
      url = {http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/P/P06/P06-1086}
    }
    
    Habash, N. & Rambow, O. MAGEAD: A Morphological Analyzer and Generator for the Arabic Dialects 2006 Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Computational Linguistics and 44th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, pp. 681-688  inproceedings URL 
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{habash-rambow:2006:COLACL,
      author = {Habash, Nizar and Rambow, Owen},
      title = {MAGEAD: A Morphological Analyzer and Generator for the Arabic Dialects},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Computational Linguistics and 44th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics},
      publisher = {Association for Computational Linguistics},
      year = {2006},
      pages = {681--688},
      url = {http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/P/P06/P06-1086}
    }
    
    Habash, N. & Rambow, O. MAGEAD: A Morphological Analyzer and Generator for the Arabic Dialects 2006 Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Computational Linguistics and 44th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, pp. 681-688  inproceedings URL 
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{habash-rambow:2006:COLACL,
      author = {Habash, Nizar and Rambow, Owen},
      title = {MAGEAD: A Morphological Analyzer and Generator for the Arabic Dialects},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Computational Linguistics and 44th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics},
      publisher = {Association for Computational Linguistics},
      year = {2006},
      pages = {681--688},
      url = {http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/P/P06/P06-1086}
    }
    
    Habash, N. & Rambow, O. MAGEAD: a morphological analyzer and generator for the Arabic dialects 2006 ACL '06: Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Computational Linguistics and the 44th annual meeting of the ACL, pp. 681-688  inproceedings DOI URL 
    Abstract: We present MAGEAD, a morphological analyzer and generator for the Arabic language family. Our work is novel in that it explicitly addresses the need for processing the morphology of the dialects. MAGEAD performs an on-line analysis to or generation from a root+pattern+features representation, it has separate phonological and orthographic representations, and it allows for combining morphemes from different dialects. We present a detailed evaluation of MAGEAD.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Habash2006MAGEAD,
      author = {Habash, Nizar and Rambow, Owen},
      title = {MAGEAD: a morphological analyzer and generator for the Arabic dialects},
      booktitle = {ACL '06: Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Computational Linguistics and the 44th annual meeting of the ACL},
      publisher = {Association for Computational Linguistics},
      year = {2006},
      pages = {681--688},
      url = {http://acl.ldc.upenn.edu/P/P06/P06-1086.pdf},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3115/1220175.1220261}
    }
    
    Habash, N. & Rambow, O. Arabic Tokenization, Part-of-Speech Tagging and Morphological Disambiguation in One Fell Swoop 2005 Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL'05), pp. 573-580  inproceedings URL 
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{habash-rambow:2005:ACL,
      author = {Habash, Nizar and Rambow, Owen},
      title = {Arabic Tokenization, Part-of-Speech Tagging and Morphological Disambiguation in One Fell Swoop},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL'05)},
      publisher = {Association for Computational Linguistics},
      year = {2005},
      pages = {573--580},
      url = {http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/P/P05/P05-1071}
    }
    
    Habash, N. & Sadat, F. Arabic Preprocessing Schemes for Statistical Machine Translation 2006 Proceedings of the Human Language Technology Conference of the NAACL, Companion Volume: Short Papers, pp. 49-52  inproceedings URL 
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{habash-sadat:2006:HLT-NAACL06-Short,
      author = {Habash, Nizar and Sadat, Fatiha},
      title = {Arabic Preprocessing Schemes for Statistical Machine Translation},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the Human Language Technology Conference of the NAACL, Companion Volume: Short Papers},
      publisher = {Association for Computational Linguistics},
      year = {2006},
      pages = {49--52},
      url = {http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/N/N06/N06-2013}
    }
    
    Haddad, F.S. New Arabic transliteration system for computer use and for printing. 2001 J Med Liban
    Vol. 49(4), pp. 238 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Haddad2001,
      author = {F. S. Haddad},
      title = {New Arabic transliteration system for computer use and for printing.},
      journal = {J Med Liban},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {49},
      number = {4},
      pages = {238}
    }
    
    Hadjidemetriou, C. The consequences of language contact : Armenian and Maronite Arabic in contact with Cypriot Greek 2009 School: Dept. of Language and Linguistics, University of Essex  phdthesis URL 
    BibTeX:
    @phdthesis{Hadjidemetriou2009,
      author = {Chryso Hadjidemetriou},
      title = {The consequences of language contact : Armenian and Maronite Arabic in contact with Cypriot Greek},
      school = {Dept. of Language and Linguistics, University of Essex},
      year = {2009},
      url = {http://serlib0.essex.ac.uk/record=b1708468~S5}
    }
    
    Haeri, N. Form and Ideology: Arabic Sociolinguistics and beyond   article URL 
    Abstract: The aim of this review is to contribute to a dialogue between anthropologists and sociolinguists who work on the Arab world. One of the most distinctive features of the Arab world is that Classical Arabic co-exists with national vernaculars such as Egyptian, Syrian, Jordanian, and so on. The first is the language of writing, education, and administration, whereas the latter are the media of oral exchanges, nonprint media, poetry, and plays. The proximity or distance between the "Classical" and the "colloquials," whether the latter are also "Arabic" or have been so accepting of foreign borrowings that they ceased to be so, whether they are languages or "inferior dialects" are all contentious issues that continue to be debated within the Arab world. In fact, such debates have become inseparable from the central concerns and dilemmas of social and intellectual movements in this century. After providing a broad outline of work in Arabic sociolinguistics, the review moves to the literature on education. Debates on education are intimately linked with larger questions regarding colonialism, nationalism, and modernization. The last part of the review is devoted to anthropological works on the region. The complexities of the sociolinguistic settings in the Arab world provide promising and challenging grounds for contributions to anthropological theory.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HaeriForm,
      author = {Haeri, Niloofar},
      title = {Form and Ideology: Arabic Sociolinguistics and beyond},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/223415}
    }
    
    Haeri, N. Form and Ideology: Arabic Sociolinguistics and beyond 2000 Annual Review of Anthropology
    Vol. 29, pp. 61-87 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The aim of this review is to contribute to a dialogue between anthropologists and sociolinguists who work on the Arab world. One of the most distinctive features of the Arab world is that Classical Arabic co-exists with national vernaculars such as Egyptian, Syrian, Jordanian, and so on. The first is the language of writing, education, and administration, whereas the latter are the media of oral exchanges, nonprint media, poetry, and plays. The proximity or distance between the "Classical" and the "colloquials," whether the latter are also "Arabic" or have been so accepting of foreign borrowings that they ceased to be so, whether they are languages or "inferior dialects" are all contentious issues that continue to be debated within the Arab world. In fact, such debates have become inseparable from the central concerns and dilemmas of social and intellectual movements in this century. After providing a broad outline of work in Arabic sociolinguistics, the review moves to the literature on education. Debates on education are intimately linked with larger questions regarding colonialism, nationalism, and modernization. The last part of the review is devoted to anthropological works on the region. The complexities of the sociolinguistic settings in the Arab world provide promising and challenging grounds for contributions to anthropological theory.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Haeri2000,
      author = {Haeri, Niloofar},
      title = {Form and Ideology: Arabic Sociolinguistics and beyond},
      journal = {Annual Review of Anthropology},
      publisher = {Annual Reviews},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {29},
      pages = {61--87},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/223415}
    }
    
    Hajjar, M., Al Hajjar, A.E.S., Zreik, K. & Gallinari, P. An Improved Structured and Progressive Electronic Dictionary for the Arabic Language: iSPEDAL 2010 Proc. Fifth Int Internet and Web Applications and Services (ICIW) Conf, pp. 489-495  inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Hajjar2010,
      author = {Hajjar, Mohammad and Al Hajjar, Abd El Salam and Zreik, Khaldoun and Gallinari, Patrick},
      title = {An Improved Structured and Progressive Electronic Dictionary for the Arabic Language: iSPEDAL},
      booktitle = {Proc. Fifth Int Internet and Web Applications and Services (ICIW) Conf},
      year = {2010},
      pages = {489--495},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICIW.2010.80}
    }
    
    Hakansson, G., Salameh, E. & Nettelbladt, U. Measuring language development in bilingual children: Swedish-Arabic children with and without language impairment 2003 Linguistics
    Vol. 41, pp. 255-288 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hakanssonetal2003,
      author = {Hakansson, G and Salameh, E and Nettelbladt, U},
      title = {Measuring language development in bilingual children: Swedish-Arabic children with and without language impairment},
      journal = {Linguistics},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {41},
      pages = {255--288}
    }
    
    Hall, I.H. A New Arabic-French Dictionary 1885 Journal of the Society of Biblical Literature and Exegesis
    Vol. 5(1/2), pp. 108 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hall1885,
      author = {Hall, Isaac H.},
      title = {A New Arabic-French Dictionary},
      journal = {Journal of the Society of Biblical Literature and Exegesis},
      publisher = {The Society of Biblical Literature},
      year = {1885},
      volume = {5},
      number = {1/2},
      pages = {108},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/3268644}
    }
    
    Hallum, B.C. The Tome of Images: an Arabic Compilation of Texts by Zosimos of Panopolis and a Source of the Turba Philosophorum Ambix
    Vol. 56(1), pp. 76-88 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{HallumTome,
      author = {Hallum, B. C.},
      title = {The Tome of Images: an Arabic Compilation of Texts by Zosimos of Panopolis and a Source of the Turba Philosophorum},
      journal = {Ambix},
      publisher = {Maney Publishing},
      volume = {56},
      number = {1},
      pages = {76--88},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/174582309X405255},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/174582309X405255}
    }
    
    Halpern, E., Corrigan, R.L. & Aviezer, O. In, an, and under: Examining the relationship between cognitive and language skills 1983 International Journal of Behavioral Development
    Vol. 6, pp. 153-166 
    article  
    Abstract: Scalogram analyses of the construction, comprehension, and production tasks indicated that 'in' space developed earlier than 'on' space, which developed before 'under' space. Subjects were Israeli children 14-30 months old. - Adapted from authors' abstract.
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Halpern, Esther and Corrigan, Roberta L. and Aviezer, Ora},
      title = {In, an, and under: Examining the relationship between cognitive and language skills},
      journal = {International Journal of Behavioral Development},
      year = {1983},
      volume = {6},
      pages = {153-166}
    }
    
    Hamad, H.A.A. & Zitar, R.A. Development of an efficient neural-based segmentation technique for Arabic handwriting recognition 2010 Pattern Recognition
    Vol. 43(8), pp. 2773 - 2798 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Off-line Arabic handwriting recognition and segmentation has been a popular field of research for many years. It still remains an open problem. The challenging nature of handwriting recognition and segmentation has attracted the attention of researchers from industry and academic circles. Recognition and segmentation of Arabic handwritten script is a difficult task because the Arabic handwritten characters are naturally both cursive and unconstrained. The analysis of Arabic script is more complicated in comparison with English script. It is believed, good segmentation is one reason for high accuracy character recognition. This paper proposes and investigates four main segmentation techniques. First, a new feature-based Arabic heuristic segmentation AHS technique is proposed for the purpose of partitioning Arabic handwritten words into primitives (over-segmentations) that may then be processed further to provide the best segmentation. Second, a new feature extraction technique (modified direction features--MDF) with modifications in accordant with the characteristics of Arabic scripts is also investigated for the purpose of segmented character classification. Third, a novel neural-based technique for validating prospective segmentation points of Arabic handwriting is proposed and investigated based on direction features. In particular, the vital process of handwriting segmentation is examined in great detail. The classifier chosen for segmentation point validation is a feed-forward neural network trained with the back-propagation algorithm. Many experiments were performed, and their elapsed CPU times and accuracies were reported. Fourth, new fusion equations are proposed and investigation to examine and evaluate a prospective segmentation points by obtaining a fused value from three neural confidence values obtained from right and center character recognition outputs in addition to the segmentation point validation (SPV) output. Confidence values are assigned to each segmentation point located through feature detection. All techniques components are tested on a local benchmark database. High segmentation accuracy is reported in this research along with comparable results for character recognition and segmentation.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hamad2010,
      author = {Husam A. Al Hamad and Raed Abu Zitar},
      title = {Development of an efficient neural-based segmentation technique for Arabic handwriting recognition},
      journal = {Pattern Recognition},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {43},
      number = {8},
      pages = {2773 - 2798},
      url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6V14-4YKGJ19-4/2/b6ac08b4a8fa49cc6b125b0e459d64a3},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.patcog.2010.03.005}
    }
    
    Hamadou, A.B. A Compression Technique for Arabic Dictionaries: The Affix Analysis 1986 #coling86#, pp. 286-288  inproceedings  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Hamadou86,
      author = {A. Ben Hamadou},
      title = {A Compression Technique for Arabic Dictionaries: The Affix Analysis},
      booktitle = {#coling86#},
      year = {1986},
      pages = {286-288}
    }
    
    Hamarneh, S. Arabic medicine and its impact on teaching and practice of the healing arts in the west. 1971 Accad Naz Lincei Rome, pp. 395-425  article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hamarneh1971,
      author = {S. Hamarneh},
      title = {Arabic medicine and its impact on teaching and practice of the healing arts in the west.},
      journal = {Accad Naz Lincei Rome},
      year = {1971},
      pages = {395--425}
    }
    
    Hamdan, J.M. & Amayreh, M.M. Consonant profile of Arabic-speaking school-age children in Jordan. 2007 Folia Phoniatr Logop
    Vol. 59(2), pp. 55-64 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: The paper provides a detailed consonant profile of 100 Jordanian children at the onset of formal schooling. The data were elicited through a modified version of Amayreh's (1994) articulation test. The findings showed that all consonants of Jordanian Spoken Arabic were acquired. The six consonants that were not acquired in Standard Arabic have dialectal forms. The accuracy rates of these consonants were discussed in the light of frequency of occurrence of consonants and diglossia. The study recommended an earlier targeting of consonants that have dialectal variants. It also suggested that knowledge of the diglossic nature of Arabic is important for literacy development as well as for diagnosis and treatment of articulation problems.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hamdan2007,
      author = {Jihad M Hamdan and Mousa M Amayreh},
      title = {Consonant profile of Arabic-speaking school-age children in Jordan.},
      journal = {Folia Phoniatr Logop},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {59},
      number = {2},
      pages = {55--64},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000098338},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000098338}
    }
    
    Hamdi, R., Bouchareb, F. & Bedda, M. Handwritten Arabic character recognition based on SVM Classifier 2008 Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. Information and Communication Technologies: From Theory to Applications ICTTA 2008, pp. 1-4  inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Hamdi2008,
      author = {Hamdi, R. and Bouchareb, F. and Bedda, M. },
      title = {Handwritten Arabic character recognition based on SVM Classifier},
      booktitle = {Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. Information and Communication Technologies: From Theory to Applications ICTTA 2008},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {1--4},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICTTA.2008.4530088}
    }
    
    Hamid, A. & Haraty, R. A neuro-heuristic approach for segmenting handwritten Arabic text 2001 Proc. ACS/IEEE Int Computer Systems and Applications Conf. . 2001, pp. 110-113  inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Hamid2001,
      author = {Hamid, A. and Haraty, R. },
      title = {A neuro-heuristic approach for segmenting handwritten Arabic text},
      booktitle = {Proc. ACS/IEEE Int Computer Systems and Applications Conf. . 2001},
      year = {2001},
      pages = {110--113},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/AICCSA.2001.933960}
    }
    
    Hammack, P.L. Narrating hyphenated selves: Intergroup contact and configurations of identity among young Palestinian citizens of Israel 2010 International Journal of Intercultural Relations
    Vol. 34(4), pp. 368 - 385 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Contemporary Palestinian citizens of Israel must negotiate disparate identities as they construct a "hyphenated" self. Their status as a national indigenous minority places them in a particular location of subordination and existential insecurity within Israeli society, which has been accentuated during the intensification of conflict between Israel and the Palestinians in the occupied territories since 2000. This study examines processes of identity negotiation and reconciliation in the personal narratives of young Palestinian citizens of Israel who participate in intergroup contact with Jewish Israelis and Palestinians from the occupied territories. An interpretive thematic analysis of personal narratives reveals the discursive strategies youth employ as they traverse the limits of hyphenation, constructing configurations of identity that reconcile conflicting discourses. Pre-contact narratives suggested considerable variability in processes of identity negotiation. Post-contact narratives were characterized by three patterns: (1) Palestinian identity accentuation, in which youth came to identify more strongly with their Palestinian national identity over their Israeli civic identity; (2) temporal stability, in which youth whose pre-contact narrative was already characterized by Palestinian identity accentuation maintained that configuration; and (3) life at the hyphen, in which youth actively struggled with and vacillated between states of conflict and integration of their disparate identities.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hammack2010,
      author = {Phillip L. Hammack},
      title = {Narrating hyphenated selves: Intergroup contact and configurations of identity among young Palestinian citizens of Israel},
      journal = {International Journal of Intercultural Relations},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {34},
      number = {4},
      pages = {368 - 385},
      url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6V7R-4YXS7XX-1/2/e16a2a52ce4fec0c38f459a38aa6b74f},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2010.03.002}
    }
    
    Hammo, B. Towards enhancing retrieval effectiveness of search engines for diacritisized Arabic documents Information Retrieval  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Abstract  The majority of Arabic text available on the web is written without short vowels (diacritics). Diacritics are commonly used in religious scripts such as the holy Quran (the book of Islam), Al-Hadith (the teachings of Prophet Mohammad (PBUH)), children's literature, and in some words where ambiguity of articulation might arise. Internet Arabic users might lose credible sources of Arabic text to be retrieved if they could not match the correct diacritical marks attached to the words in the collection. However, typing the diacritical marks is very annoying and time consuming. The other way around, is to ignore these marks and fall into the problem of ambiguity. Previous work suggested pre-processing of Arabic text to remove these diacritical marks before indexing. Consequently, there are noticeable discrepancies when searching the web for Arabic text using international search engines such as Google and yahoo. In this article, we propose a framework to enhance the retrieval effectiveness of search engines to search for diacritic and diacritic-less Arabic text through query expansion techniques. We used a rule-based stemmer and a semantic relational database compiled in an experimental thesaurus to do the expansion. We tested our approach on the scripts of the Quran. We found that query expansion for searching Arabic text is promising and it is likely that the efficiency can be further improved by advanced natural language processing tools.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HammoTowards,
      author = {Hammo, Bassam},
      title = {Towards enhancing retrieval effectiveness of search engines for diacritisized Arabic documents},
      journal = {Information Retrieval},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10791-008-9081-9},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10791-008-9081-9}
    }
    
    Hanlon, D. A Sociolinguistic View of "hazl" in the Andalusian Arabic "muwashshaÇ­¶÷¶¾" 1997 Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London
    Vol. 60(1), pp. 35-46 
    article URL 
    Abstract: This paper accepts the view that in many muwashshaÇ­¶÷¶¾Ç"‹¨«t the kharja is an example of an Andalusian literary genre, known as hazl, which was characterized by an obscene and frivolous thematic content, the optional use of a vernacular and a freedom from the constraints of literary tradition. It argues that the use of vernacular Arabic and/or Romance in the kharja is consistent with the aims of hazl by examining the degree to which al-Andalus was a diglossic and bilingual speech community, and the degree to which bilingualism and diglossia influenced attitudes towards the linguistic varieties used in the muwashshaÇ­¶÷¶¾.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hanlon1997,
      author = {Hanlon, David},
      title = {A Sociolinguistic View of "hazl" in the Andalusian Arabic "muwashshaÇ­¶÷¶¾"},
      journal = {Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London},
      publisher = {Cambridge University Press on behalf of School of Oriental and African Studies},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {60},
      number = {1},
      pages = {35--46},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/620768}
    }
    
    Harrag, F. & El-Qawasmah, E. Neural Network for Arabic text classification 2009 Proc. Second Int. Conf. the Applications of Digital Information and Web Technologies ICADIWT '09, pp. 778-783  inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Harrag2009,
      author = {Harrag, F. and El-Qawasmah, E. },
      title = {Neural Network for Arabic text classification},
      booktitle = {Proc. Second Int. Conf. the Applications of Digital Information and Web Technologies ICADIWT '09},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {778--783},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICADIWT.2009.5273841}
    }
    
    Harrison, A. Arabic pain words. 1988 Pain
    Vol. 32(2), pp. 239-250 
    article  
    Abstract: The initial stages in the development of an Arabic pain inventory are described. 279 Kuwaiti adults were asked to nominate as many words as they could think of to describe pain. A dictionary translation of the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) was prepared, and subjects judged which of these represent acceptable pain descriptions in Arabic. From these sources, a list of Arabic pain adjectives was compiled. 67 university undergraduates classified each word as sensory, evaluative or affective, and rated the pain intensity connoted. Over 100 Arabic pain words were identified. Ratings revealed that, just as in English, pain is a multidimensional concept. The pain intensity rank ordering of many groupings in the MPQ was preserved when the Arabic translations were rated, even though the Arabic adjectives were not presented in the format of the MPQ. Theoretical and practical problems encountered in producing a fully equivalent pain inventory in another language are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Harrison1988,
      author = {A. Harrison},
      title = {Arabic pain words.},
      journal = {Pain},
      year = {1988},
      volume = {32},
      number = {2},
      pages = {239--250}
    }
    
    Harrison, A., Busabir, A.A., al Kaabi, A.O. & al Awadi, H.K. Does sharing a mother-tongue affect how closely patients and nurses agree when rating the patient's pain, worry and knowledge? 1996 J Adv Nurs
    Vol. 24(2), pp. 229-235 
    article  
    Abstract: A convenience sample of 50 hospitalized patients who had experienced major care from two nurses, one of whom shared their mother-tongue (Arabic) and one of whom did not, were asked to rate, using 10-point visual analogue scales, their current pain, worry about their medical condition, and knowledge about the medical investigations carried out. The two nurses nominated by each patient were asked to rate their patient's pain, worry and knowledge using the same scales. Pain assessments by the three respondent groups did not differ significantly; but only nurses sharing a mother-tongue with the patient provided pain ratings which correlated significantly with those of their patients. Both groups of nurses consistently rated patients as being more worried and more knowledgable than patients rated themselves. Nurses, unlike patients, associated greater knowledge with greater worry. The limitations of the study undertaken are reviewed. Discussion centres on the implications of these findings for optimizing nursing care, including situations where nurse and patient do not share a cultural background and cannot converse readily.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Harrison1996,
      author = {A. Harrison and A. A. Busabir and A. O. al-Kaabi and H. K. al-Awadi},
      title = {Does sharing a mother-tongue affect how closely patients and nurses agree when rating the patient's pain, worry and knowledge?},
      journal = {J Adv Nurs},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {24},
      number = {2},
      pages = {229--235}
    }
    
    Haupt, P. Arabic Doublets 1923 Journal of the American Oriental Society
    Vol. 43, pp. 422-423 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Haupt1923,
      author = {Haupt, Paul},
      title = {Arabic Doublets},
      journal = {Journal of the American Oriental Society},
      publisher = {American Oriental Society},
      year = {1923},
      volume = {43},
      pages = {422--423},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/593379}
    }
    
    Haupt, P. Arabic uÇO¶î = r 1923 Journal of the American Oriental Society
    Vol. 43, pp. 423-424 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Haupt1923a,
      author = {Haupt, Paul},
      title = {Arabic uÇO¶î = r},
      journal = {Journal of the American Oriental Society},
      publisher = {American Oriental Society},
      year = {1923},
      volume = {43},
      pages = {423--424},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/593380}
    }
    
    Hayes-Harb & Rachel Native Speakers of Arabic and ESL Texts: Evidence for the Transfer of Written Word Identification Processes 2006 TESOL Quarterly
    Vol. 40(2), pp. 321-339 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{HayesHarb2006Native,
      author = {Hayes-Harb and Rachel},
      title = {Native Speakers of Arabic and ESL Texts: Evidence for the Transfer of Written Word Identification Processes},
      journal = {TESOL Quarterly},
      publisher = {Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {40},
      number = {2},
      pages = {321--339},
      url = {http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/tesol/tq/2006/00000040/00000002/art00003}
    }
    
    Heath, R., Mahmasanni, O., Rouhana, A. & Nassif, N. Comparison of aesthetic preferences among Roman and Arabic script readers 2005 Laterality: Asymmetries of Body, Brain, and Cognition
    Vol. 10(5), pp. 399-411 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Heath2005Comparison,
      author = {Heath, Robin and Mahmasanni, Oula and Rouhana, Aida and Nassif, Nader},
      title = {Comparison of aesthetic preferences among Roman and Arabic script readers},
      journal = {Laterality: Asymmetries of Body, Brain, and Cognition},
      publisher = {Psychology Press, part of the Taylor & Francis Group},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {10},
      number = {5},
      pages = {399--411},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13576500442000166},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13576500442000166}
    }
    
    Heath, R.L., Mahmasanni, O., Rouhana, A. & Nassif, N. Comparison of aesthetic preferences among Roman and Arabic script readers. 2005 Laterality
    Vol. 10(5), pp. 399-411 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: The systemic bias for aesthetic preferences demonstrated by prior research is thought to reflect neural organisation. Research on aesthetic preference and laterality has usually been conducted with participants who read a left-to-right Roman script, e.g., English. In order to determine if the aesthetic judgments were influenced by habitual scanning direction, we administered a geometric aesthetic preference test to 578 right-handed adults who represented a range of script experience, i.e., left-to-right Roman script readers (English); right-to-left Arabic script readers; bi-directional readers of Roman and Arabic scripts; and illiterates. We also administered an asymmetric chimeric faces test. Our findings showed that biases in aesthetic preference were influenced by script direction and pictorial dimensions. In a laterally balanced composition, participants preferred to begin their scan with the object representing Interest and terminate with the object representing Weight, the direction being determined by the script. In an unbalanced composition, participants tended to fixate on content, whether Interest or Weight, and move in a direction consistent with the script.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Heath2005,
      author = {Robin L Heath and Oula Mahmasanni and Aida Rouhana and Nader Nassif},
      title = {Comparison of aesthetic preferences among Roman and Arabic script readers.},
      journal = {Laterality},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {10},
      number = {5},
      pages = {399--411},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13576500442000166},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13576500442000166}
    }
    
    Heath, R.L., Rouhana, A. & Ghanem, D.A. Asymmetric bias in perception of facial affect among Roman and Arabic script readers. 2005 Laterality
    Vol. 10(1), pp. 51-64 
    article  
    Abstract: The asymmetric chimeric faces test is used frequently as an indicator of right hemisphere involvement in the perception of facial affect, as the test is considered free of linguistic elements. Much of the original research with the asymmetric chimeric faces test was conducted with subjects reading left-to-right Roman script, i.e., English. As readers of right-to-left scripts, such as Arabic, demonstrated a mixed or weak rightward bias in judgements of facial affect, the influence of habitual scanning direction was thought to intersect with laterality. We administered the asymmetric chimeric faces test to 1239 adults who represented a range of script experience, i.e., Roman script readers (English and French), Arabic readers, bidirectional readers of Roman and Arabic scripts, and illiterates. Our findings supported the hypothesis that the bias in facial affect judgement is rooted in laterality, but can be influenced by script direction. Specifically, right-handed readers of Roman script demonstrated the greatest mean leftward score, and mixed-handed Arabic script readers demonstrated the greatest mean rightward score. Biliterates showed a gradual shift in asymmetric perception, as their scores fell between those of Roman and Arabic script readers, basically distributed in the order expected by their handedness and most often used script. Illiterates, whose only directional influence was laterality, showed a slight leftward bias.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Heath2005a,
      author = {Robin L Heath and Aida Rouhana and Dana Abi Ghanem},
      title = {Asymmetric bias in perception of facial affect among Roman and Arabic script readers.},
      journal = {Laterality},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {10},
      number = {1},
      pages = {51--64}
    }
    
    Hegyi, O. Minority and Restricted Uses of the Arabic Alphabet: The Aljamiado Phenomenon 1979 Journal of the American Oriental Society
    Vol. 99(2), pp. 262-269 
    article URL 
    Abstract: In the course of the expansion of its geographic range, the Arabic alphabet became applied to a great number of languages belonging to the most diverse linguistic families. Especially in border areas, and in the cases of Islamic minorities, we find its frequent co-existence with other alphabetic systems for the transcription of minor variants of the same language, giving rise to what could be termed the alijamiado phenomenon-a term originally connected with the socalled morisco literature of AragÇŸ¶ün, i.e., the sixteenth century Islamic minority in Spain. In view of the rather widespread occurrence of such regionally limited uses of the Arabic alphabet both in Europe and elsewhere, rather than regarding this usage as a means to conceal the content of the texts from hostile outsiders-as has been at times suggested-the practice should instead be interpreted as the exteriorization of religious cohesion and an outward sign of cultural affinity with the World of Islam.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hegyi1979,
      author = {Hegyi, O.},
      title = {Minority and Restricted Uses of the Arabic Alphabet: The Aljamiado Phenomenon},
      journal = {Journal of the American Oriental Society},
      publisher = {American Oriental Society},
      year = {1979},
      volume = {99},
      number = {2},
      pages = {262--269},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/602662}
    }
    
    Helani, F. The topic transition sequence and the management of topic change in mundane Arabic conversation 2008 School: Dept. of Language and Linguistics, University of Essex  phdthesis URL 
    BibTeX:
    @phdthesis{Helani2008,
      author = {Fadi Helani},
      title = {The topic transition sequence and the management of topic change in mundane Arabic conversation},
      school = {Dept. of Language and Linguistics, University of Essex},
      year = {2008},
      url = {http://serlib0.essex.ac.uk/record=b1678851~S5}
    }
    
    Helli, B. & Moghaddam, M.E. A text-independent Persian writer identification based on feature relation graph (FRG) 2010 Pattern Recognition
    Vol. 43(6), pp. 2199 - 2209 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: The style of people's handwriting is a biometric feature that is used in person authentication. In this paper, we have proposed a text independent method for Persian writer identification. In the proposed method, pattern based features are extracted from data using Gabor and XGabor filter. The extracted features are represented for each person by using a graph that is called FRG (feature relation graph). This graph is constructed using relations between extracted features by employing a fuzzy method. The fuzzy method determines the similarity between features extracted from different handwritten instances of each person. In the identification phase, a graph similarity approach is employed to determine the similarity of the FRG generated from the test data and the FRGs generated by training data. The experimental results were satisfactory and the proposed method got about 100% accuracy on a dataset with 100 writers when enough training data was used. However, this method has been applied on Persian handwritings but we believe it can be extended on other languages especially in data representation and classification parts.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Helli2010,
      author = {Behzad Helli and Mohsen Ebrahimi Moghaddam},
      title = {A text-independent Persian writer identification based on feature relation graph (FRG)},
      journal = {Pattern Recognition},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {43},
      number = {6},
      pages = {2199 - 2209},
      url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6V14-4XX23JW-1/2/1ca34b27609292a00901cc641bf21c55},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.patcog.2009.11.026}
    }
    
    Hirschfeld, H. Some Judaeo-Arabic Legal Documents 1926 The Jewish Quarterly Review
    Vol. 16(3), pp. 279-286 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hirschfeld1926,
      author = {Hirschfeld, Hartwig},
      title = {Some Judaeo-Arabic Legal Documents},
      journal = {The Jewish Quarterly Review},
      publisher = {University of Pennsylvania Press},
      year = {1926},
      volume = {16},
      number = {3},
      pages = {279--286},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/1451484}
    }
    
    Hoffman, J. Now in Arabic... Science classics get translated. 2007 Nature
    Vol. 450(7170), pp. 591 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hoffman2007,
      author = {Jascha Hoffman},
      title = {Now in Arabic... Science classics get translated.},
      journal = {Nature},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {450},
      number = {7170},
      pages = {591},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/450591b},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/450591b}
    }
    
    Holdstein, I. & Borus, J.F. Kibbutz and city children: A comparative study of syntactic and articulatory abilities 1976 Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders
    Vol. 41, pp. 10-15 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Holdstein, Ilana and Borus, Judith F.},
      title = {Kibbutz and city children: A comparative study of syntactic and articulatory abilities},
      journal = {Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders},
      year = {1976},
      volume = {41},
      pages = {10-15}
    }
    
    Holdstein, I. & Borus, J.F. Kibbutz and city children: A comparative study of syntactic and articulatory abilities 1976 Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders
    Vol. 41, pp. 10-15 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Holdstein, Ilana and Borus, Judith F.},
      title = {Kibbutz and city children: A comparative study of syntactic and articulatory abilities},
      journal = {Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders},
      year = {1976},
      volume = {41},
      pages = {10-15}
    }
    
    Homeidi, M.A. Arabic translation across cultures Babel
    Vol. 50(1), pp. 13+ 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{HomeidiArabic,
      author = {Homeidi, M. A.},
      title = {Arabic translation across cultures},
      journal = {Babel},
      publisher = {John Benjamins Publishing Company},
      volume = {50},
      number = {1},
      pages = {13+},
      url = {http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/jbp/bab/2004/00000050/00000001/art00003}
    }
    
    Homeidi, M.A. Modality in government and binding evidence from Arabic and English 1986 School: Dept. of Language and Linguistics  phdthesis URL 
    BibTeX:
    @phdthesis{Homeidi1986,
      author = {Moheiddin A. Homeidi},
      title = {Modality in government and binding evidence from Arabic and English},
      school = {Dept. of Language and Linguistics},
      year = {1986},
      url = {http://serlib0.essex.ac.uk/record=b1093750~S5}
    }
    
    Honig, A.S. & Park, K.-J. Family factors associated with language competence among toddlers in French, North African, and African families in France 1989 Early Child Development and Care
    Vol. 50, pp. 31-49 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Honig, Alice S. and Park, Kyung-Ja},
      title = {Family factors associated with language competence among toddlers in French, North African, and African families in France},
      journal = {Early Child Development and Care},
      year = {1989},
      volume = {50},
      pages = {31-49}
    }
    
    Honigmann, E. The Arabic Translation of Aratus' Phaenomena 1950 Isis
    Vol. 41(1), pp. 30-31 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Honigmann1950,
      author = {Honigmann, Ernest},
      title = {The Arabic Translation of Aratus' Phaenomena},
      journal = {Isis},
      publisher = {The University of Chicago Press on behalf of The History of Science Society},
      year = {1950},
      volume = {41},
      number = {1},
      pages = {30--31},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/226385}
    }
    
    Hoyt, F.M. Negative Concord and Restructuring in Palestinian Arabic: A Comparison of TAG and CCG Analyses 2006 Proceedings of the Eighth International Workshop on Tree Adjoining Grammar and Related Formalisms, pp. 49-56  inproceedings URL 
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{hoyt:2006:TAG,
      author = {Hoyt, Frederick M.},
      title = {Negative Concord and Restructuring in Palestinian Arabic: A Comparison of TAG and CCG Analyses},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the Eighth International Workshop on Tree Adjoining Grammar and Related Formalisms},
      publisher = {Association for Computational Linguistics},
      year = {2006},
      pages = {49--56},
      url = {http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/W/W06/W06-1507}
    }
    
    Huang, F., Emami, A. & Zitouni, I. When Harry Met Harri: Cross-lingual Name Spelling Normalization 2008 Proceedings of the 2008 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, pp. 391-399  inproceedings URL 
    Abstract: Foreign name translations typically include multiple spelling variants. These variants cause data sparseness problems, increase Out-of-Vocabulary (OOV) rate, and present challenges for machine translation, information extraction and other NLP tasks. This paper aims to identify name spelling variants in the target language using the source name as an anchor. Based on wordto- word translation and transliteration probabilities, as well as the string edit distance metric, target name translations with similar spellings are clustered. With this approach tens of thousands of high precision name translation spelling variants are extracted from sentence-aligned bilingual corpora. When these name spelling variants are applied to Machine Translation and Information Extraction tasks, improvements over strong baseline systems are observed in both cases.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Huang2008When,
      author = {Huang, Fei and Emami, Ahmad and Zitouni, Imed},
      title = {When Harry Met Harri: Cross-lingual Name Spelling Normalization},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2008 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing},
      publisher = {Association for Computational Linguistics},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {391--399},
      url = {http://www.aclweb.org/anthology-new/D/D08/D08-1041.bib}
    }
    
    Huffman, Henry R., J. Two Examples of Influence of Arabic Syntax on Spanish 1977 Journal of the American Oriental Society
    Vol. 97(1), pp. 27-34 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Extended Arab occupation of Spain influenced not only the vocabulary, but also, to a small degree, the syntax of medieval and later Spanish. This article demonstrates two influences: the formula 'no... sino' (< lÇ"‹¨«... illÇ"‹¨«), and what is here called "multiple possession" ('el caballo del rey y su espada'). Research involved comparison of Old Spanish translations with Arabic originals; comparison of Latin-derived with Arabic-derived sections of Alfonsine chronicles; and a corpus of later original Spanish works. The few previous studies in this field have not provided statistical data; this study examines both the influence and its extent.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Huffman1977,
      author = {Huffman, Henry R., Jr.},
      title = {Two Examples of Influence of Arabic Syntax on Spanish},
      journal = {Journal of the American Oriental Society},
      publisher = {American Oriental Society},
      year = {1977},
      volume = {97},
      number = {1},
      pages = {27--34},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/600270}
    }
    
    Hussain, A.A.A. An experimental investigation of some aspects of the sound system of the Gulf Arabic dialect, with special reference to duration 1985 School: Dept. of Language and Linguistics, University of Essex  phdthesis URL 
    BibTeX:
    @phdthesis{Hussain1985,
      author = {Abdulla Ahmad Abdulla Hussain},
      title = {An experimental investigation of some aspects of the sound system of the Gulf Arabic dialect, with special reference to duration},
      school = {Dept. of Language and Linguistics, University of Essex},
      year = {1985},
      url = {http://serlib0.essex.ac.uk/record=b1006032~S5}
    }
    
    Hussain, S.A. A list of Unani medical printed books in Arabic language preserved in different libraries of Hyderabad. 1977 Bull Indian Inst Hist Med Hyderabad
    Vol. 7(3-4), pp. 144-153 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hussain1977,
      author = {S. A. Hussain},
      title = {A list of Unani medical printed books in Arabic language preserved in different libraries of Hyderabad.},
      journal = {Bull Indian Inst Hist Med Hyderabad},
      year = {1977},
      volume = {7},
      number = {3-4},
      pages = {144--153}
    }
    
    Hyassat, H. & AbuÇ'¶ÿzitar, R. Arabic speech recognition using SPHINX engine International Journal of Speech Technology  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Abstract&nbsp;&nbsp;Although the Arab world has an estimated number of 250 million Arabic speakers, there has been little research on Arabic speech recognition when compared to other languages of similar importance (e.g. Mandarin). Due to the lack of diacritic Arabic text and the lack of Pronunciation Dictionary (PD), most of previous work on Arabic Automatic Speech Recognition has been concentrated on developing recognizers using Romanized characters i.e. let the system recognizes the Arabic word as an English one, then map it to Arabic word from lookup table that maps the Arabic word to its Romanized pronunciation. In this work, we introduce the first SPHINX-IV-based Arabic recognizer and propose an automatic toolkit, which is capable of producing (PD) for both Holly Qura'an and standard Arabic language. Three corpuses are completely developed in this work, namely the Holly Qura'an Corpus HQC-1 about 18.5&nbsp;hours, the command and control corpus CAC-1 about 1.5 hours and Arabic digits corpus ADC less than one hour of speech. The building process is completely described. Fully diacritic Arabic transcriptions, for all the three corpuses were developed too. SPHINX-IV engine was customized and trained, for both the language model and the lexicon modules shown in the frame work architecture block diagram on next page. Using the three mentioned corpuses; the (PD) developed by our automatic tool with the transcripts, SPHINX-IV engine is trained and tuned in order to develop three acoustic models, one for each corpus. Training is based on an HMM model that is built on statistical information and random variables distributions extracted from the training data itself. New algorithm is proposed to add unlabeled data to the training corpus in order to increase the corpus size. This algorithm is based on Neural Network confidence scorer and then is used to annotate the decoded speech in order to decide whether the proposed transcript is accepted and can be added to the seed corpus or not. The model parameters were fine-tuned using simulated annealing algorithm; optimum values were tested and reported. Our major contribution is mainly using the open source SPHINX-IV model in Arabic speech recognition by building our own language and acoustic models without Romanization for the Arabic speech. The system is fine-tuned and data are refined for training and validation. Optimum values for number of Gaussian mixtures distributions and number of states in HMM's have been found according to specified performance measures. Optimum values for confidence scores were found for the training data. Although much more work need to be done to complete the work with this size, we consider the corpus used in our system is enough to validate our approach. SPHINX has never been used before in this manner for Arabic speech recognition. The work is an invitation for all open source speech recognition developers and groups to take over and capitalize on what we have started.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HyassatArabic,
      author = {Hyassat, Hussein and AbuÇ'¶ÿzitar, Raed},
      title = {Arabic speech recognition using SPHINX engine},
      journal = {International Journal of Speech Technology},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10772-008-9009-1},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10772-008-9009-1}
    }
    
    Ibrahim, R. How do bilinguals handle interhemispheric integration? Evidence from a cross-language study. 2009 J Integr Neurosci
    Vol. 8(4), pp. 503-523 
    article  
    Abstract: The focus on interhemispheric interaction and integration has become a prominent aspect of laterality research. The aim of the present behavioral study was to determine whether hemisphere advantage differs between language groups. This was done by comparing how hemisphere advantage affects interhemispheric integration in monolingual and in bilingual individuals. Sixty university students (20 English monolinguals, 20 Hebrew bilinguals, and 20 balanced Arabic bilinguals) participated in two experiments, in which a lexical decision task was performed in the left and/or right visual field. Stimuli were presented unilaterally and bilaterally, whereby participants were cued to respond to the stimuli. In Experiment 1, all three groups showed an effect of lexicality, that is, participants responded to word stimuli faster than to non-word stimuli, with the Hebrew and Arabic groups showing a word advantage in spotting errors. In addition, all groups except the Hebrew group showed the expected right visual field advantage in accuracy, and the English group demonstrated this advantage in reaction time as well. In Experiment 2, responses to non-word stimuli were equally accurate in the left and right visual fields, but reaction time were faster for stimuli presented in the left visual field. The performance of balanced bilingual Arabic and unbalanced bilingual Hebrew reading groups was significantly better in the bilateral condition than in the unilateral condition. The results supported the notion that bilingual individuals show more effective interhemispheric communication and that they enjoy relative superiority in their interhemispheric processing in response to task demands.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ibrahim2009,
      author = {Raphiq Ibrahim},
      title = {How do bilinguals handle interhemispheric integration? Evidence from a cross-language study.},
      journal = {J Integr Neurosci},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {8},
      number = {4},
      pages = {503--523}
    }
    
    Ibrahim, R. Selective deficit of second language: a case study of a brain-damaged Arabic-Hebrew bilingual patient. 2009 Behav Brain Funct
    Vol. 5, pp. 17 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: An understanding of how two languages are represented in the human brain is best obtained from studies of bilingual patients who have sustained brain damage. The primary goal of the present study was to determine whether one or both languages of an Arabic-Hebrew bilingual individual are disrupted following brain damage. I present a case study of a bilingual patient, proficient in Arabic and Hebrew, who had sustained brain damage as a result of an intracranial hemorrhage related to herpes encephalitis. METHODS: The patient's performance on several linguistic tasks carried out in the first language (Arabic) and in the second language (Hebrew) was assessed, and his performance in the two languages was compared. RESULTS: The patient displayed somewhat different symptomatologies in the two languages. The results revealed dissociation between the two languages in terms of both the types and the magnitude of errors, pointing to aphasic symptoms in both languages, with Hebrew being the more impaired. Further analysis disclosed that this dissociation was apparently caused not by damage to his semantic system, but rather by damage at the lexical level. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the principles governing the organization of lexical representations in the brain are not similar for the two languages.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ibrahim2009a,
      author = {Raphiq Ibrahim},
      title = {Selective deficit of second language: a case study of a brain-damaged Arabic-Hebrew bilingual patient.},
      journal = {Behav Brain Funct},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {5},
      pages = {17},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1744-9081-5-17},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1744-9081-5-17}
    }
    
    Ibrahim, R. Selective deficit of second language: a case study of a brain-damaged Arabic-Hebrew bilingual patient 2009 Behavioral and Brain Functions
    Vol. 5(1), pp. 17+ 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: BACKGROUND:An understanding of how two languages are represented in the human brain is best obtained from studies of bilingual patients who have sustained brain damage. The primary goal of the present study was to determine whether one or both languages of an Arabic-Hebrew bilingual individual are disrupted following brain damage. I present a case study of a bilingual patient, proficient in Arabic and Hebrew, who had sustained brain damage as a result of an intracranial hemorrhage related to herpes encephalitis.METHODS:The patient's performance on several linguistic tasks carried out in the first language (Arabic) and in the second language (Hebrew) was assessed, and his performance in the two languages was compared.RESULTS:The patient displayed somewhat different symptomatologies in the two languages. The results revealed dissociation between the two languages in terms of both the types and the magnitude of errors, pointing to aphasic symptoms in both languages, with Hebrew being the more impaired. Further analysis disclosed that this dissociation was apparently caused not by damage to his semantic system, but rather by damage at the lexical level.CONCLUSION:The results suggest that the principles governing the organization of lexical representations in the brain are not similar for the two languages.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ibrahim2009Selective,
      author = {Ibrahim, Raphiq},
      title = {Selective deficit of second language: a case study of a brain-damaged Arabic-Hebrew bilingual patient},
      journal = {Behavioral and Brain Functions},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {5},
      number = {1},
      pages = {17+},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1744-9081-5-17},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1744-9081-5-17}
    }
    
    Ibrahim, R. & Aharon-Peretz, J. Is literary Arabic a second language for native Arab speakers?: Evidence from semantic priming study. 2005 J Psycholinguist Res
    Vol. 34(1), pp. 51-70 
    article  
    Abstract: The mother tongue of the absolute majority of native Arabic speakers is Spoken Arabic (SA), which is a local dialect that does not have a written form. For reading and writing, as well as for formal communication Literary Arabic (LA) is used For the literate Arabs, these two languages are extensively inter-twined in every day life. Consequently, it is possible that, despite the difference between them, LA is not processed like a regular second language by the cognitive system of the native Arabic speakers but rather as an enhancement of the spoken lexicon. In the present study we examined this possibility comparing semantic priming effects in auditory lexical decision within SA (L1), with the effects found across languages with LA or in Hebrew (L2). Hebrew is doubtlessly a second language for native Arabic speakers. In this study we have manipulated semantic priming In Experiment 1 the targets were in Spoken Arabic and the primes in any of the three languages. The semantic priming effect was twice as large within L1 as between languages and there was no difference between Hebrew and LA. In Experiment 2, all primes were in SA whereas the targets were in any of the three languages. The priming effects in that experiment were doubled relative to the previous experiment, but the inter-language relationships were the same. For both language pairings, the semantic priming was larger when the primes were presented in SA (and the targets in either Hebrew or LA) than when the primes were presented in one of the second languages and the targets in SA. The conclusion is that, despite the intensive daily use adult native Arabic speakers make of SA and LA, and despite their shared origin, the two languages retain their status as first and second languages in the cognitive system.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ibrahim2005,
      author = {Raphiq Ibrahim and Judith Aharon-Peretz},
      title = {Is literary Arabic a second language for native Arab speakers?: Evidence from semantic priming study.},
      journal = {J Psycholinguist Res},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {34},
      number = {1},
      pages = {51--70}
    }
    
    Ibrahim, R. & Aharon-Peretz, J. Is Literary Arabic a Second Language for Native Arab Speakers?: Evidence from Semantic Priming Study 2005 Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
    Vol. 34(1), pp. 51-70 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ibrahim2005Literary,
      author = {Ibrahim, Raphiq and Aharon-Peretz, Judith},
      title = {Is Literary Arabic a Second Language for Native Arab Speakers?: Evidence from Semantic Priming Study},
      journal = {Journal of Psycholinguistic Research},
      publisher = {Kluwer Academic Publishers},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {34},
      number = {1},
      pages = {51--70},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10936-005-3631-8},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10936-005-3631-8}
    }
    
    Ibrahim, R. & Eviatar, Z. Language status and hemispheric involvement in reading: evidence from trilingual Arabic speakers tested in Arabic, Hebrew, and English. 2009 Neuropsychology
    Vol. 23(2), pp. 240-254 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: This study explores the effects of language status on hemispheric involvement in lexical decision. The authors looked at the responses of native Arabic speakers in Arabic (L1 for reading) and in two second languages (L2): Hebrew, which is similar to L1 in morphological structure, and English, which is very different from L1. Two groups of Arabic speakers performed lateralized lexical decision tasks in the three languages, using unilateral presentations and bilateral presentations. These paradigms allowed us to infer both hemispheric specialization and interhemispheric communication in the three languages, and the effects of language status (native vs. nonnative) and similarity on hemispheric patterns of responses. In general the authors show an effect of language status in the right visual field (RVF), reflecting the greater facility of the left hemisphere (LH) in recognizing words in the participant's native Arabic than in their other languages. The participants revealed similar patterns of interhemispheric integration across the languages, with more integration occurring for words than for nonwords. Both hemispheres revealed sensitivity to morphological complexity, a pattern similar to that of native Hebrew readers and different from that of native English readers.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ibrahim2009b,
      author = {Raphiq Ibrahim and Zohar Eviatar},
      title = {Language status and hemispheric involvement in reading: evidence from trilingual Arabic speakers tested in Arabic, Hebrew, and English.},
      journal = {Neuropsychology},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {23},
      number = {2},
      pages = {240--254},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0014193},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0014193}
    }
    
    Ibrahim, R., Eviatar, Z. & Aharon-Peretz, J. Metalinguistic awareness and reading performance: a cross language comparison. 2007 J Psycholinguist Res
    Vol. 36(4), pp. 297-317 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: The study examined two questions: (1) do the greater phonological awareness skills of billinguals affect reading performance; (2) to what extent do the orthographic characteristics of a language influence reading performance and how does this interact with the effects of phonological awareness. We estimated phonological metalinguistic abilities and reading measures in three groups of first graders: monolingual Hebrew speakers, bilingual Russian-Hebrew speakers, and Arabic-speaking children. We found that language experience affects phonological awareness, as both Russian-Hebrew bilinguals and the Arabic speakers achieved higher scores on metalinguistic tests than Hebrew speakers. Orthography affected reading measures and their correlation with phonological abilitites. Children reading Hebrew showed better text reading ability and significant correlations between phonological awareness and reading scores. Children reading Arabic showed a slight advantage in single word and nonword reading over the two Hebrew reading groups, and very weak relationships between phonological abilities and reading performance. We conclude that native Arabic speakers have more difficulty in processing Arabic orthography than Hebrew monolinguals and bilinguals have in processing Hebrew orthography, and suggest that this is due to the additional visual complexity of Arabic orthography.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ibrahim2007,
      author = {Raphiq Ibrahim and Zohar Eviatar and Judith Aharon-Peretz},
      title = {Metalinguistic awareness and reading performance: a cross language comparison.},
      journal = {J Psycholinguist Res},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {36},
      number = {4},
      pages = {297--317},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10936-006-9046-3},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10936-006-9046-3}
    }
    
    Ibrahim, R., Eviatar, Z. & Aharon-Peretz, J. The characteristics of arabic orthography slow its processing. 2002 Neuropsychology
    Vol. 16(3), pp. 322-326 
    article  
    Abstract: The present study was designed to evaluate whether the complexity of Arabic orthography increases its perceptual load, thus slowing word identification. Adolescent Arabic speakers who mastered Hebrew as a second language completed oral and visual versions of the Trail Making Test (TMT; J. E. Parington & R. G. Lieter, 1949) in both languages. Oral TMT required declaiming consecutive numbers or alternation between numbers and letters. Visual TMT required connecting Arabic or Indian numbers and alternation between letters and numbers. Performance in Hebrew and Arabic oral TMT did not differ. Performance was significantly slower in Arabic visual TMT. These results indicate that Arabic speakers process Arabic orthography (1st language) slower than Hebrew orthography (2nd language) and suggest that this is due to the complexity of Arabic orthography.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ibrahim2002a,
      author = {Raphiq Ibrahim and Zohar Eviatar and Judith Aharon-Peretz},
      title = {The characteristics of arabic orthography slow its processing.},
      journal = {Neuropsychology},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {16},
      number = {3},
      pages = {322--326}
    }
    
    Ibrahim, R., Israeli, N. & Eviatar, Z. Hemispheric involvement in reading: The effects of language experience 2010 Journal of Neurolinguistics
    Vol. 23(4), pp. 427 - 442 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: The goal of this study was to examine whether readers of Hebrew generalize their native-language processing strategies to the representation of English words. To this end, we examined lateralization patterns in the lexical decisions of native English and Hebrew readers to English stimuli, and compared the performance of native Hebrew speakers in English and in Hebrew. We used both unilateral and bilateral presentation modes, which allowed us to assess interhemispheric communications, and manipulated the morphological complexity of the stimuli. The results showed the following pattern: English speakers showed an RVFA for words and not for nonwords, with interhemispheric patterns suggesting independent LH processing and dependent RH processing of words. Hebrew speakers showed no visual field advantage in English, whereas they show an RVFA when they read Hebrew. Findings suggest that the division of labor between the two hemispheres is determined by linguistic experience, whereas the effects of morphological manipulations reflect the structure of the language of the test.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ibrahim2010,
      author = {Raphiq Ibrahim and Naftally Israeli and Zohar Eviatar},
      title = {Hemispheric involvement in reading: The effects of language experience},
      journal = {Journal of Neurolinguistics},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {23},
      number = {4},
      pages = {427 - 442},
      url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6VDV-4YYVCRS-1/2/3e2990f73da95eee81a14c852455e6cb},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroling.2010.04.002}
    }
    
    Idrissi, A. & Kehayia, E. Morphological units in the Arabic mental lexicon: evidence from an individual with deep dyslexia. 2004 Brain Lang
    Vol. 90(1-3), pp. 183-197 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: An ongoing debate in Arabic morphology concerns the nature of the smallest unit governing lexical organization and representation in this language. A standard model maintains that Arabic words are typically analyzable into a three-consonantal root morpheme carrying the core meaning of words and a prosodic template responsible mostly for grammatical information. This view has been largely supported by research in both theoretical linguistics and psycholinguistics. An alternative theory holds that the meaning of words in Arabic is, rather, encoded in the 'etymon' comprising two unordered consonants of the root only. Results from a recent priming experiment have shown that the etymon induces strong morphological priming effects, supporting its morphological/lexical status. In this paper we present data from a patient with deep dyslexia questioning the role of the etymon as a psychologically real representational unit in Arabic and arguing, instead, for the central role of the root in both morphological and lexical representation in this language.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Idrissi2004,
      author = {Ali Idrissi and Eva Kehayia},
      title = {Morphological units in the Arabic mental lexicon: evidence from an individual with deep dyslexia.},
      journal = {Brain Lang},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {90},
      number = {1-3},
      pages = {183--197},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0093-934X(03)00431-0},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0093-934X(03)00431-0}
    }
    
    Ikome, O.M. Language 'nativization' in West Africa: Acculturation and acquisition of 'native' speakers in Cameroon 1998   article  
    Abstract: (from the chapter) Labelling in the scientific discourse of sociolinguistics is fast becoming an art but hopefully not an end in itself. West Africa, where myriad indigenous languages, as well as European and Arabic colonizer languages, are spoken, may serve as a contemporary laboratory for reviewing a range of descriptive labels for language variation. We use 'nativeness' and 'acculturation' in English as the focus of our illustration. This illustration is based on the reconstruction and definition of a speech community--a plausible social construct through which claims about language ownership, the sharing of grammaticality and metalinguistic judgements, language attitudes and motivation, linguistic acceptability and discrimination, can all be reasonably measured, discussed or debated. We argue that 'nativeness' must be harnessed to a well-defined functional context for it to have any real meaning; for it to deserve the attention of scientific scrutiny. We discuss the issue of labelling, contextualize some definitions and draw conclusions as they apply, from a multilinguistic perspective, to the so-called 'New Englishes' or 'non-native speaker' varieties of English in West Africa.
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Ikome, Otto M.},
      title = {Language 'nativization' in West Africa: Acculturation and acquisition of 'native' speakers in Cameroon},
      year = {1998},
      note = {multilingual perspective on acculturation and acquisition of language 'nativization'}
    }
    
    Ioup, G., Boustagui, E., El Tigi, M. & Moselle, M. Reexamining the critical period hypothesis: A case study of successful adult SLA in a naturalistic environment 1994 Studies in Second Language Acquisition
    Vol. 16(1), pp. 73-98 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Ioup, Georgette and Boustagui, Elizabeth and El Tigi, Manal and Moselle, Martha},
      title = {Reexamining the critical period hypothesis: A case study of successful adult SLA in a naturalistic environment},
      journal = {Studies in Second Language Acquisition},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {16},
      number = {1},
      pages = {73-98}
    }
    
    Irving, T.B. Teaching the Dialects in Arabic 1960 The Modern Language Journal
    Vol. 44(7), pp. 313-314 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Irving1960,
      author = {Irving, T. B.},
      title = {Teaching the Dialects in Arabic},
      journal = {The Modern Language Journal},
      publisher = {Blackwell Publishing on behalf of the National Federation of Modern Language Teachers Associations},
      year = {1960},
      volume = {44},
      number = {7},
      pages = {313--314},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/320097}
    }
    
    Irving, T.B. How Hard Is Arabic? 1957 The Modern Language Journal
    Vol. 41(6), pp. 289-291 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Irving1957,
      author = {Irving, Thomas B.},
      title = {How Hard Is Arabic?},
      journal = {The Modern Language Journal},
      publisher = {Blackwell Publishing on behalf of the National Federation of Modern Language Teachers Associations},
      year = {1957},
      volume = {41},
      number = {6},
      pages = {289--291},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/321527}
    }
    
    Ittycheriah, A. & Roukos, S. A Maximum Entropy Word Aligner for Arabic-English Machine Translation 2005 Proceedings of Human Language Technology Conference and Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, pp. 89-96  inproceedings URL 
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{ittycheriah-roukos:2005:HLTEMNLP,
      author = {Ittycheriah, Abraham and Roukos, Salim},
      title = {A Maximum Entropy Word Aligner for Arabic-English Machine Translation},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of Human Language Technology Conference and Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing},
      publisher = {Association for Computational Linguistics},
      year = {2005},
      pages = {89--96},
      url = {http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/H/H05/H05-1012}
    }
    
    Ittycheriah, A. & Roukos, S. A maximum entropy word aligner for Arabic-English machine translation 2005 HLT '05: Proceedings of the conference on Human Language Technology and Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, pp. 89-96  inproceedings DOI URL 
    Abstract: This paper presents a maximum entropy word alignment algorithm for Arabic-English based on supervised training data. We demonstrate that it is feasible to create training material for problems in machine translation and that a mixture of supervised and unsupervised methods yields superior performance. The probabilistic model used in the alignment directly models the link decisions. Significant improvement over traditional word alignment techniques is shown as well as improvement on several machine translation tests. Performance of the algorithm is contrasted with human annotation performance.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Ittycheriah2005Maximum,
      author = {Ittycheriah, Abraham and Roukos, Salim},
      title = {A maximum entropy word aligner for Arabic-English machine translation},
      booktitle = {HLT '05: Proceedings of the conference on Human Language Technology and Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing},
      publisher = {Association for Computational Linguistics},
      year = {2005},
      pages = {89--96},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3115/1220575.1220587},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3115/1220575.1220587}
    }
    
    Ivanyi, T. Grammarians and Grammatical Theory in the Medieval Arabic Tradition.Ramzi Baalbaki (Aldershot, Hants: Ashgate/Variorum, 2004), 354 pp. Price HB 59.50 ISBN 0-860-78948-9 2005 Journal of Islamic Studies
    Vol. 16(3), pp. 366-371 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ivanyi2005Grammarians,
      author = {Ivanyi, Tamas},
      title = {Grammarians and Grammatical Theory in the Medieval Arabic Tradition.Ramzi Baalbaki (Aldershot, Hants: Ashgate/Variorum, 2004), 354 pp. Price HB 59.50 ISBN 0-860-78948-9},
      journal = {Journal of Islamic Studies},
      publisher = {Oxford University Press},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {16},
      number = {3},
      pages = {366--371},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jis/eti157},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jis/eti157}
    }
    
    Jaensch, C. & Sarko, G. Sources of fluctuation in article choice in English and German by Syrian Arabic and Japanese native speakers EUROSLA Yearbook
    Vol. 9(1), pp. 33-55 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{JaenschSources,
      author = {Jaensch, Carol and Sarko, Ghisseh},
      title = {Sources of fluctuation in article choice in English and German by Syrian Arabic and Japanese native speakers},
      journal = {EUROSLA Yearbook},
      publisher = {John Benjamins Publishing Company},
      volume = {9},
      number = {1},
      pages = {33--55},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/eurosla.9.04jae},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/eurosla.9.04jae}
    }
    
    Jarbou, S.O. Accessibility vs. physical proximity: An analysis of exophoric demonstrative practice in Spoken Jordanian Arabic 2010 Journal of Pragmatics
    Vol. In Press, Corrected Proof, pp. -  
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: The aim of this article is to discover the determining factors for the use of exophoric, nominal demonstratives in Spoken Jordanian Arabic (SJA). The focus is on demonstratives that are used to encode perceptible referents. Contrary to traditional view, it has been found here that physical distance between a speaker and a referent is not the decisive factor for the selection of [`]proximal' or [`]distal' demonstratives. Demonstrative practice in SJA is a multifunctional process that is governed by the degree of perceived [`]accessibility' which the addressee, in particular, has in relation to referents. Within the perceptibility domain, [`]accessibility' is determined on basis of the addressee's ability, as perceived by the speaker, to identify referents in relation to one of two possible modes of access: high or low perceptibility of the intended referent. Degree of perceptibility is calculated based on the availability of prominent sensory features related to the referent. [`]Proximals' are used when referents have high perceptibility while [`]distals' are used when referents have low perceptibility in context. Since demonstrative practice in SJA is context-dependent, exophoric nominal demonstratives do not have a permanent [`]distance' feature fixedly correlated with the two specific degrees of proximity or distance as part of their semantic repertoire.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Jarbou2010,
      author = {Samir Omar Jarbou},
      title = {Accessibility vs. physical proximity: An analysis of exophoric demonstrative practice in Spoken Jordanian Arabic},
      journal = {Journal of Pragmatics},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {In Press, Corrected Proof},
      pages = { - },
      url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6VCW-505FHRC-4/2/cad1a4bca47299b7568c544ba298d942},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2010.04.014}
    }
    
    Jarrah, M.A.S. The phonology of Madina Hijazi Arabic : a non-linear analysis 1993 School: Dept. of Language and Linguistics, University of Essex  phdthesis URL 
    BibTeX:
    @phdthesis{Jarrah1993,
      author = {Mohamed Ali Saleh Jarrah},
      title = {The phonology of Madina Hijazi Arabic : a non-linear analysis},
      school = {Dept. of Language and Linguistics, University of Essex},
      year = {1993},
      url = {http://serlib0.essex.ac.uk/record=b1020887~S5}
    }
    
    Jarrah, O.A. & Halawani, A. Recognition of gestures in Arabic sign language using neuro-fuzzy systems 2001 Artif. Intell.
    Vol. 133(1-2), pp. 117-138 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Hand gestures play an important role in communication between people during their daily lives. But the extensive use of hand gestures as a mean of communication can be found in sign languages. Sign language is the basic communication method between deaf people. A translator is usually needed when an ordinary person wants to communicate with a deaf one. The work presented in this paper aims at developing a system for automatic translation of gestures of the manual alphabets in the Arabic sign language. In doing so, we have designed a collection of ANFIS networks, each of which is trained to recognize one gesture. Our system does not rely on using any gloves or visual markings to accomplish the recognition job. Instead, it deals with images of bare hands, which allows the user to interact with the system in a natural way. An image of the hand gesture is processed and converted into a set of features that comprises of the lengths of some vectors which are selected to span the fingertips' region. The extracted features are rotation, scale, and translation invariat, which makes the system more flexible. The subtractive clustering algorithm and the least-squares estimator are used to identify the fuzzy inference system, and the training is achieved using the hybrid learning algorithm. Experiments revealed that our system was able to recognize the 30 Arabic manual alphabets with an accuracy of 93.55
    BibTeX:
    @article{Jarrah2001Recognition,
      author = {Jarrah, Omar A. and Halawani, Alaa},
      title = {Recognition of gestures in Arabic sign language using neuro-fuzzy systems},
      journal = {Artif. Intell.},
      publisher = {Elsevier Science Publishers Ltd.},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {133},
      number = {1-2},
      pages = {117--138},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0004-3702(01)00141-2},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0004-3702(01)00141-2}
    }
    
    Jawad & Hisham, A. Paraphrase, parallelism and chiasmus in Literary Arabic: Norms and translation strategies 2007 Babel
    Vol. 53(3), pp. 196-215 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Jawad2007Paraphrase,
      author = {Jawad and Hisham, A.},
      title = {Paraphrase, parallelism and chiasmus in Literary Arabic: Norms and translation strategies},
      journal = {Babel},
      publisher = {John Benjamins Publishing Company},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {53},
      number = {3},
      pages = {196--215},
      url = {http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/jbp/bab/2007/00000053/00000003/art00001}
    }
    
    Jesry, M.M. Some cognitively controlled coarticulatory effects in Arabic and English, with particular reference to voice onset time 1996 School: Dept. of Language and Linguistics, University of Essex  phdthesis URL 
    BibTeX:
    @phdthesis{Jesry1996,
      author = {Mohammad Maher Jesry},
      title = {Some cognitively controlled coarticulatory effects in Arabic and English, with particular reference to voice onset time},
      school = {Dept. of Language and Linguistics, University of Essex},
      year = {1996},
      url = {http://serlib0.essex.ac.uk/record=b1289380~S5}
    }
    
    Jewett, J.R. Arabic Proverbs and Proverbial Phrases 1893 Journal of the American Oriental Society
    Vol. 15, pp. 28-120 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Jewett1893,
      author = {Jewett, James Richard},
      title = {Arabic Proverbs and Proverbial Phrases},
      journal = {Journal of the American Oriental Society},
      publisher = {American Oriental Society},
      year = {1893},
      volume = {15},
      pages = {28--120},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/592351}
    }
    
    Jiyad, M. Language maintenance/development among Arab-American high school students 1996 Understanding Arabic: Essays in contemporary Arabic linguistics in honor of El Said Badawi, pp. 251-57  incollection  
    BibTeX:
    @incollection{,
      author = {Jiyad, Mohammed},
      title = {Language maintenance/development among Arab-American high school students},
      booktitle = {Understanding Arabic: Essays in contemporary Arabic linguistics in honor of El Said Badawi},
      publisher = {American U in Cairo P},
      year = {1996},
      pages = {251-57}
    }
    
    Johns, A.M. John M. Swales, Incidents in an Educational Life: A Memoir (of Sorts) , University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, MI (2009) 280 pp. $19.95. 978-0-472-03358-4. 2010 English for Specific Purposes
    Vol. 29(3), pp. 210 - 212 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Johns2010,
      author = {Ann M. Johns},
      title = {John M. Swales, Incidents in an Educational Life: A Memoir (of Sorts) , University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, MI (2009) 280 pp. $19.95. 978-0-472-03358-4.},
      journal = {English for Specific Purposes},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {29},
      number = {3},
      pages = {210 - 212},
      url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6VDM-4YFDW29-5/2/82e5904ae970020046cc257d244ec291},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.esp.2009.11.003}
    }
    
    Johns, J. Arabic 'June' (bruÇ­¶û¶ðuyÇ.¶®n) and 'July' (isÇ­¶û¶ðiriyÇ.¶®n) in Norman Sicily 2001 Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London
    Vol. 64(1), pp. 98-100 
    article URL 
    Abstract: In Arabic documents issued by the dÇ"¶®wÇ"‹¨«n of the Norman kings of Sicily during the twelfth century, bruÇ­¶û¶ðuyÇ.¶®n and isÇ­¶û¶ð iriyÇ.¶®n mean, respectively, 'June' and 'July'. The geographer al-IdrÇ"¶®sÇ"¶®, who completed the KitÇ"‹¨«b nuzhat al-mushtÇ"‹¨«q in Palermo in 1154, also uses isÇ­¶û¶ðiriyÇ.¶®n for 'July'. These month-names are derived from Greek *ÇZ¶ÿÇ_‹¨«Ç_ƒ_ø Ç_ƒ_zoÇ_?ÿoÇ_‹¨«ÇZ¶« ÇZ¶úÇ_ƒ_s, literally 'first June', i.e. June, and *'ÇZ¶¾Ç_’'Ç_ƒ_z Ç_¶æÇ_‹¨«oÇ_?ÿoÇ_‹¨«ÇZ¶« ÇZ¶úÇ_ƒ_s, literally 'second June', i.e. July. The linguistic circumstances in which the coining may have occurred are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Johns2001,
      author = {Johns, Jeremy},
      title = {Arabic 'June' (bruÇ­¶û¶ðuyÇ.¶®n) and 'July' (isÇ­¶û¶ðiriyÇ.¶®n) in Norman Sicily},
      journal = {Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London},
      publisher = {Cambridge University Press on behalf of School of Oriental and African Studies},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {64},
      number = {1},
      pages = {98--100},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/3657543}
    }
    
    Johnson, W.L., Beal, C., Fowles-Winkler, A., Lauper, U., Marsella, S., Narayanan, S., Papachristou, D. & Vilhj a!`lmsson, H. Tactical Language Training System: An Interim Report 2004 Lecture Notes in Computer Science
    Vol. 3220, pp. 336-345 
    book URL 
    BibTeX:
    @book{Johnson2004Tactical,
      author = {Johnson, W. Lewis and Beal, Carole and Fowles-Winkler, Anna and Lauper, Ursula and Marsella, Stacy and Narayanan, Shrikanth and Papachristou, Dimitra and Vilhjã!`lmsson, Hannes},
      title = {Tactical Language Training System: An Interim Report},
      journal = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {3220},
      pages = {336--345},
      url = {http://www.metapress.com/content/UXQPERQ0ULJVPUB4}
    }
    
    Kabel, A.H., Mesallam, T. & Ghandour, H.H. Follow up of P1 peak amplitude and peak latency in a group of specific language-impaired children. 2009 Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol
    Vol. 73(11), pp. 1525-1531 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: This project investigated the maturation of P1 of 32 native Arabic speaking children; all had a primary diagnosis of SLI. The study group had a mean age 60.25 (+/-6.4) months (range 50-80 months) at the time of the primary diagnosis. The control group consisted of 69 children matched for age, language level and academic skills, with no history of language disability. 30 children of the SLI group were re-examined 28 months after primary diagnosis. The test battery included basic audiological evaluation and P(1)/N(2) complex evoked by speech syllable /da/ and presented binaurally through sound field. RESULTS: Stepwise regression analysis of variables showed significant shortening of P1 peak latency in both control and SLI group showed proportional to the natural logarithm of the chronological age (r=-.414 &r(2)=.418). P1 peak amplitude showed significant decrease in amplitude in both control and SLI group proportional to the square of the chronological age (r=-.375 & r(2)=.140). However, no significant difference could be detected between the SLI group and the control group as regards P1 peak latency and peak amplitude. Moreover, the study showed no statistical significant difference between the control group and the study group as regards the correlation between P1 and language age (P1 latency t=.153, while significant t=.879 and P1 amplitude (t=-.37) significant t=.712). The partial correlation coefficient was .04 for P1 latency and .088 for P1 amplitude. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the heterogeneity of the SLI group, P1 peak amplitude and peak latency may be valuable to follow up the maturation of the auditory system on individual basis rather than for differential diagnosis of SLI patient from normal. P1 does not show dramatic developmental change in the age range 5-10 years to be used clinically. Further researches are needed to standardize statistical method for analyzing P1 waveform.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kabel2009,
      author = {Abdelmagied Hasn Kabel and Tamer Mesallam and Hassan H Ghandour},
      title = {Follow up of P1 peak amplitude and peak latency in a group of specific language-impaired children.},
      journal = {Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {73},
      number = {11},
      pages = {1525--1531},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijporl.2009.07.008},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijporl.2009.07.008}
    }
    
    Kahle, P.E. The Arabic Readers of the Koran 1949 Journal of Near Eastern Studies
    Vol. 8(2), pp. 65-71 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kahle1949,
      author = {Kahle, Paul E.},
      title = {The Arabic Readers of the Koran},
      journal = {Journal of Near Eastern Studies},
      publisher = {The University of Chicago Press},
      year = {1949},
      volume = {8},
      number = {2},
      pages = {65--71},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/542138}
    }
    
    Kahn, M. Arabic emphatics: the evidence for cultural determinants of phonetic sex-typing. 1975 Phonetica
    Vol. 31(1), pp. 38-50 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kahn1975,
      author = {M. Kahn},
      title = {Arabic emphatics: the evidence for cultural determinants of phonetic sex-typing.},
      journal = {Phonetica},
      year = {1975},
      volume = {31},
      number = {1},
      pages = {38--50}
    }
    
    Kanaan, G., Al-Shalabi, R., Jaam, J.M., Al-Kabi, M.N. & Hasnah, A. A new stemming algorithm to extract quadri-literal Arabic roots 2004 Proc. Int Information and Communication Technologies: From Theory to Applications Conf  inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Kanaan2004,
      author = {Kanaan, G. and Al-Shalabi, R. and Jaam, J. M. and Al-Kabi, M. N. and Hasnah, A. },
      title = {A new stemming algorithm to extract quadri-literal Arabic roots},
      booktitle = {Proc. Int Information and Communication Technologies: From Theory to Applications Conf},
      year = {2004},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICTTA.2004.1307872}
    }
    
    Kandil, A.H. & El-Bialy, A. Arabic OCR: a centerline independent segmentation technique 2004 Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, 2004. ICEEC '04. 2004 International Conference onElectrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, 2004. ICEEC '04. 2004 International Conference on, pp. 412-415  proceedings URL 
    BibTeX:
    @proceedings{Kandil2004Arabic,
      author = {Kandil, A. H. and El-Bialy, A.},
      title = {Arabic OCR: a centerline independent segmentation technique},
      booktitle = {Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, 2004. ICEEC '04. 2004 International Conference on},
      journal = {Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, 2004. ICEEC '04. 2004 International Conference on},
      year = {2004},
      pages = {412--415},
      url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/absall.jsp?arnumber=1374482}
    }
    
    Kane, T.L. Arabic Translations into Amharic 1974 Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London
    Vol. 37(3), pp. 608-627 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kane1974,
      author = {Kane, Thomas L.},
      title = {Arabic Translations into Amharic},
      journal = {Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London},
      publisher = {Cambridge University Press on behalf of School of Oriental and African Studies},
      year = {1974},
      volume = {37},
      number = {3},
      pages = {608--627},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/613803}
    }
    
    Kanoun, S., Alimi, A.M. & LeCourtier, Y. Affixal approach for Arabic decomposable vocabulary recognition a validation on printed word in only one font 2005 Proc. Eighth Int Document Analysis and Recognition Conf, pp. 1025-1029  inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Kanoun2005,
      author = {Kanoun, S. and Alimi, A. M. and LeCourtier, Y. },
      title = {Affixal approach for Arabic decomposable vocabulary recognition a validation on printed word in only one font},
      booktitle = {Proc. Eighth Int Document Analysis and Recognition Conf},
      year = {2005},
      pages = {1025--1029},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICDAR.2005.44}
    }
    
    Kanoun, S., Ennaji, A., Lecourtier, Y. & Alimi, A.M. Linguistic integration information in the AABATAS Arabic text analysis system 2002 Proc. Eighth Int Frontiers in Handwriting Recognition Workshop, pp. 389-394  inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Kanoun2002,
      author = {Kanoun, S. and Ennaji, A. and Lecourtier, Y. and Alimi, A. M. },
      title = {Linguistic integration information in the AABATAS Arabic text analysis system},
      booktitle = {Proc. Eighth Int Frontiers in Handwriting Recognition Workshop},
      year = {2002},
      pages = {389--394},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IWFHR.2002.1030941}
    }
    
    Kanoun, S., Slimane, F., Guesmi, H., Ingold, R., Alimi, A.M. & Hennebert, J. Affixal Approach versus Analytical Approach for Off-Line Arabic Decomposable Vocabulary Recognition 2009 Proc. 10th Int. Conf. Document Analysis and Recognition ICDAR '09, pp. 661-665  inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Kanoun2009,
      author = {Kanoun, S. and Slimane, F. and Guesmi, H. and Ingold, R. and Alimi, A. M. and Hennebert, J. },
      title = {Affixal Approach versus Analytical Approach for Off-Line Arabic Decomposable Vocabulary Recognition},
      booktitle = {Proc. 10th Int. Conf. Document Analysis and Recognition ICDAR '09},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {661--665},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICDAR.2009.264}
    }
    
    Karniol, R. Second language acquisition via immersion in daycare 1990 Journal of Child Language
    Vol. 17, pp. 147-170 
    article  
    Abstract: A report of a program of second language acquisition via immersion by children aged 1:0-3:0. Following a period of silence there was a rapid onset of L2 production and many references to language itself. 8 types of language awareness were identified and it appeared that some of them were necessary precursors of L2 acquisition. Children appear to rely upon contingencies between speech and subsequent behavior to bootstrap the semantics of the second language.
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Karniol, Rachel},
      title = {Second language acquisition via immersion in daycare},
      journal = {Journal of Child Language},
      year = {1990},
      volume = {17},
      pages = {147-170}
    }
    
    Kashani, M.M., Joanis, E., Kuhn, R., Foster, G. & Popowich, F. Integration of an Arabic Transliteration Module into a Statistical Machine Translation System 2007 Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation, pp. 17-24  inproceedings URL 
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{kashani-EtAl:2007:WMT,
      author = {Kashani, Mehdi M. and Joanis, Eric and Kuhn, Roland and Foster, George and Popowich, Fred},
      title = {Integration of an Arabic Transliteration Module into a Statistical Machine Translation System},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation},
      publisher = {Association for Computational Linguistics},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {17--24},
      url = {http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/W/W07/W07-0703}
    }
    
    Kaya, C. & Mehmet The Cambridge Companion to Arabic Philosophy - Edited by Peter Adamson and Richard C. Taylor 2008 The Muslim World
    Vol. 98(1), pp. 151-155 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kaya2008Cambridge,
      author = {Kaya, Cuneyt and Mehmet},
      title = {The Cambridge Companion to Arabic Philosophy - Edited by Peter Adamson and Richard C. Taylor},
      journal = {The Muslim World},
      publisher = {Blackwell Publishing},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {98},
      number = {1},
      pages = {151--155},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1478-1913.2008.2144.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1478-1913.2008.214\_4.x}
    }
    
    Kayali, R.A.-R.H. The syntax of various elements with adverbial function in standard Arabic : a comparison with English 1998 School: Dept. of Language and Linguistics, University of Essex  phdthesis URL 
    BibTeX:
    @phdthesis{Kayali1998,
      author = {Rafah Abdur-Rahman Hashem Kayali},
      title = {The syntax of various elements with adverbial function in standard Arabic : a comparison with English},
      school = {Dept. of Language and Linguistics, University of Essex},
      year = {1998},
      url = {http://serlib0.essex.ac.uk/record=b1366932~S5}
    }
    
    Kaye, A. s. Eckehard Schulz, A Student Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic 2009 Journal of Near Eastern Studies
    Vol. 68(3), pp. 233-234 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: doi: 10.1086/614032
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kaye2009Eckehard,
      author = {Kaye, Alan s},
      title = {Eckehard Schulz, A Student Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic},
      journal = {Journal of Near Eastern Studies},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {68},
      number = {3},
      pages = {233--234},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/614032},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/614032}
    }
    
    Kaye, A.S. Two Alleged Arabic Etymologies 2005 Journal of Near Eastern Studies
    Vol. 64(2), pp. 109-111 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kaye2005,
      author = {Kaye, Alan S.},
      title = {Two Alleged Arabic Etymologies},
      journal = {Journal of Near Eastern Studies},
      publisher = {The University of Chicago Press},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {64},
      number = {2},
      pages = {109--111},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/3701221}
    }
    
    Kaye, A.S. An Arabic creole in Africa: The Nubi language of Uganda. By Ineke Wellens. 2003. 2005 Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages
    Vol. 20(2), pp. 382-387 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kaye2005Arabic,
      author = {Kaye, Alan S.},
      title = {An Arabic creole in Africa: The Nubi language of Uganda. By Ineke Wellens. 2003.},
      journal = {Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages},
      publisher = {John Benjamins Publishing Company},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {20},
      number = {2},
      pages = {382--387},
      url = {http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/jbp/jpcl/2005/00000020/00000002/art00011}
    }
    
    Kaye, A.S. The Hamzat al-WaÇ­¶û¶œl in Contemporary Modern Standard Arabic 1991 Journal of the American Oriental Society
    Vol. 111(3), pp. 572-574 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Contemporary Modern Standard Arabic has a good illustration of linguistic change in progress. The glottal stop in the word ÇS¶óism 'name, noun' has shifted to a hamzat al-qaÇ­¶û¶ðÇS¶¨ (cf. Classical Arabic ÇS¶óism, the glottal stop of which is a hamzat al-waÇ­¶û¶œl) both in allugha al-wusÇ­¶û¶ða, or Educated Standard Spoken Arabic, and in Modern Written Arabic. The main reason for this linguistic change is Systemzwang.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kaye1991,
      author = {Kaye, Alan S.},
      title = {The Hamzat al-WaÇ­¶û¶œl in Contemporary Modern Standard Arabic},
      journal = {Journal of the American Oriental Society},
      publisher = {American Oriental Society},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {111},
      number = {3},
      pages = {572--574},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/604273}
    }
    
    Kayyal & Mahmoud Salim al Dawudi and the beginnings of translation into Arabic of Modern Hebrew Literature 2008 Target
    Vol. 20(1), pp. 52-78 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kayyal2008Salim,
      author = {Kayyal and Mahmoud},
      title = {Salim al Dawudi and the beginnings of translation into Arabic of Modern Hebrew Literature},
      journal = {Target},
      publisher = {John Benjamins Publishing Company},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {20},
      number = {1},
      pages = {52--78},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/target.20.1.04kay},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/target.20.1.04kay}
    }
    
    Kayyal, M. Intercultural relations between Arabs and Israeli Jews as reflected in Arabic translations of modern Hebrew literature 2004 Target
    Vol. 16(1), pp. 53-68 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kayyal2004Intercultural,
      author = {Kayyal, Mahmoud},
      title = {Intercultural relations between Arabs and Israeli Jews as reflected in Arabic translations of modern Hebrew literature},
      journal = {Target},
      publisher = {John Benjamins Publishing Company},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {16},
      number = {1},
      pages = {53--68},
      url = {http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/jbp/targ/2004/00000016/00000001/art00003}
    }
    
    Kechaou & Salah Reduction in language: The case of Arabic 2006 Linguisticae Investigationes
    Vol. 29(2), pp. 219-250 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kechaou2006Reduction,
      author = {Kechaou and Salah},
      title = {Reduction in language: The case of Arabic},
      journal = {Linguisticae Investigationes},
      publisher = {John Benjamins Publishing Company},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {29},
      number = {2},
      pages = {219--250},
      url = {http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/jbp/li/2006/00000029/00000002/art00002}
    }
    
    Keith, R.W., Katbamna, B., Tawfik, S. & Smolak, L.H. The effect of linguistic background on staggered spondaic word and dichotic consonant vowel scores. 1987 Br J Audiol
    Vol. 21(1), pp. 21-26 
    article  
    Abstract: This study was undertaken to determine the effect of linguistic background on scores obtained by native and non-native subjects on two dichotic speech tests in American English, the staggered spondaic word (SSW) and the dichotic consonant-vowel (CV) tests. Thirty subjects whose native languages were either Hindi or Arabic were tested. Test findings were compared to results obtained from 10 native English-speaking subjects. The non-native English speakers showed abnormally high error scores on the SSW test while the native speakers performed with no errors on that test. Performance on the dichotic CV test was comparable for both the native English and the Hindi subjects, while the Arabic subjects performed significantly worse than the two other groups. These data indicate that tests of speech perception using English must be interpreted with caution when administered to non-native English speakers, and that neither the SSW nor the dichotic CV tests may be assumed to be free of linguistic bias.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Keith1987,
      author = {R. W. Keith and B. Katbamna and S. Tawfik and L. H. Smolak},
      title = {The effect of linguistic background on staggered spondaic word and dichotic consonant vowel scores.},
      journal = {Br J Audiol},
      year = {1987},
      volume = {21},
      number = {1},
      pages = {21--26}
    }
    
    Khaldieh, S.A. The Relationship between Knowledge of Icraab, Lexical Knowledge, and Reading Comprehension of Nonnative Readers of Arabic 2001 The Modern Language Journal
    Vol. 85(3), pp. 416-431 
    article URL 
    Abstract: This article reports on an investigation into the role played by knowledge of both icraab and vocabulary in the reading comprehension of American learners of Arabic as a foreign language (AFL). Two groups (46 participants), proficient and less proficient, of nonnative readers of Arabic read an expository text, wrote an immediate recall protocol in their first language to measure their overall reading comprehension, and completed a vocabulary task and an icraab task. Whereas the analysis of the data revealed that vocabulary knowledge had a significant main effect, icraab was found not to have a significant role in reading comprehension. Although the issue of icraab needs further investigation, the results suggest that reading comprehension is independent of a knowledge of icraab and depends mainly on vocabulary knowledge.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Khaldieh2001,
      author = {Khaldieh, Salim A.},
      title = {The Relationship between Knowledge of Icraab, Lexical Knowledge, and Reading Comprehension of Nonnative Readers of Arabic},
      journal = {The Modern Language Journal},
      publisher = {Blackwell Publishing on behalf of the National Federation of Modern Language Teachers Associations},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {85},
      number = {3},
      pages = {416--431},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/1193109}
    }
    
    Khan, M.S. Miskawaih and Arabic Historiography 1969 Journal of the American Oriental Society
    Vol. 89(4), pp. 710-730 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The paper opens with a statement that broadly speaking the Arabic historians can be divided into two classes (i) the traditionists and jurists and (ii) the savants, courtiers and secretaries. The characteristics of the history writing of these two classes of historians have been discussed and Miskawaih has been compared with the major historians belonging to them, in order to bring out clearly the special features of his history writing. It has been stated that Miskawaih belonged to the second group of historians and his concept of history, which he outlined in his voluminous historical work TajÇ"‹¨«rib al-Umam, was astonishingly modern. The conclusion drawn is that Miskawaih occupies a unique place among the Arabic historians. He belongs to the group of courtiers and secretaries. Even in his own group he possesses a marked individuality and his history has many distinctive features. Although a Persian, he was a remarkable representative of the Arabic culture of his age. He had something to offer to Arabic historiography in the way of political thinking about history and interest in statecraft and civil administration. Miskawaih was the first Arabic historian with a definite concept of history and he applied this to the writing of the history of his own time. This was his personal contribution to Arabic historiography.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Khan1969,
      author = {Khan, M. S.},
      title = {Miskawaih and Arabic Historiography},
      journal = {Journal of the American Oriental Society},
      publisher = {American Oriental Society},
      year = {1969},
      volume = {89},
      number = {4},
      pages = {710--730},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/596943}
    }
    
    Khanji, R. & Weist, R.M. Spatial and temporal locations in child Jordanian Arabic. 1996 Percept Mot Skills
    Vol. 82(2), pp. 675-682 
    article  
    Abstract: The purpose of this research was to evaluate the influence of cognitive development on the acquisition of the spatial and temporal systems in Jordanian Arabic. 60 Jordanian children 2 to 6 years old received a comprehension test based on a 1991 sentence-picture matching task of Weist, wherein each problem contained a minimal morphological contrast. These contrasts were either spatial, e.g., 'in/on', or temporal, e.g., past/future tense. Further, the contrasts required either a single referent object or event, e.g., 'in/on' and past/future tense, or they required two or more referent objects or events, e.g., 'between' and 'before/after'. Firstly, significant change across age groups was noted. Secondly, problems which required two referent objects or events were more difficult than those requiring one referent object or event. Finally, spatial contrasts were easier than temporal ones. The findings were related to the general issue of the interaction of language and thought during the acquisition of language.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Khanji1996,
      author = {R. Khanji and R. M. Weist},
      title = {Spatial and temporal locations in child Jordanian Arabic.},
      journal = {Percept Mot Skills},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {82},
      number = {2},
      pages = {675--682}
    }
    
    Khanji, R. & Weist, R.M. Spatial and temporal locations in child Jordanian Arabic 1996 Perceptual and Motor Skills, pp. Motor-Skills  article  
    Abstract: Evaluated the influence of conceptual development on the acquisition of the spatial and temporal systems in Jordanian Arabic. 60 Jordanian children (aged 2-6 yrs) received a comprehension test based on a 1991 sentence-picture matching task of R. M. Weist (1991), wherein each problem contained a minimal morphological contrast. These contrasts were either spatial (e.g., in/on) or temporal (e.g., past/future tense). Further, the contrasts required either a single referent object or event (e.g., in/on and past/future tense) or they required 2 or more referent objects or events (e.g., between and before/after). Significant change across age groups was noted. Problems that required 2 referent objects or events were more difficult than those requiring 1 referent object or event were. In addition, spatial contrasts were easier than temporal ones. These findings were related to the general issue of the interaction of language and thought during the acquisition of language.
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Khanji, Rajai and Weist, Richard M.},
      title = {Spatial and temporal locations in child Jordanian Arabic},
      journal = {Perceptual and Motor Skills},
      year = {1996},
      pages = {Motor-Skills}
    }
    
    Khanji, R. & Weist, R.M. Spatial and temporal locations in child Jordanian Arabic 1996 Perceptual and Motor Skills, pp. Motor-Skills  article  
    Abstract: Evaluated the influence of conceptual development on the acquisition of the spatial and temporal systems in Jordanian Arabic. 60 Jordanian children (aged 2-6 yrs) received a comprehension test based on a 1991 sentence-picture matching task of R. M. Weist (1991), wherein each problem contained a minimal morphological contrast. These contrasts were either spatial (e.g., in/on) or temporal (e.g., past/future tense). Further, the contrasts required either a single referent object or event (e.g., in/on and past/future tense) or they required 2 or more referent objects or events (e.g., between and before/after). Significant change across age groups was noted. Problems that required 2 referent objects or events were more difficult than those requiring 1 referent object or event were. In addition, spatial contrasts were easier than temporal ones. These findings were related to the general issue of the interaction of language and thought during the acquisition of language.
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Khanji, Rajai and Weist, Richard M.},
      title = {Spatial and temporal locations in child Jordanian Arabic},
      journal = {Perceptual and Motor Skills},
      year = {1996},
      pages = {Motor-Skills}
    }
    
    Kharashi, I.A.A. & Sughaiyer, I.A.A. Rule Merging in a Rule-Based Arabic Stemmer 2002 #COLING02#, pp. 00-00  inproceedings URL 
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Kharashi02Rule,
      author = {Ibrahim A. Al Kharashi and Imad A. Al Sughaiyer},
      title = { Rule Merging in a Rule-Based Arabic Stemmer },
      booktitle = {#COLING02#},
      year = {2002},
      pages = {00-00},
      url = {http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/C02-1037.pdf}
    }
    
    Kharma, N., Ahmed, M. & Ward, R. A new comprehensive database of handwritten Arabic words, numbers, and signatures used for OCR testing 1999
    Vol. 2Proc. IEEE Canadian Conf. Electrical and Computer Engineering, pp. 766-768 
    inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Kharma1999,
      author = {Kharma, N. and Ahmed, M. and Ward, R. },
      title = {A new comprehensive database of handwritten Arabic words, numbers, and signatures used for OCR testing},
      booktitle = {Proc. IEEE Canadian Conf. Electrical and Computer Engineering},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {2},
      pages = {766--768},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/CCECE.1999.808042}
    }
    
    Khasawneh, Samer, Bates, Reid, Holton & Elwood, F. Construct validation of an Arabic version of the Learning Transfer System Inventory for use in Jordan 2006 International Journal of Training and Development
    Vol. 10(3), pp. 180-194 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Khasawneh2006Construct,
      author = {Khasawneh and Samer and Bates and Reid and Holton and Elwood, F.},
      title = {Construct validation of an Arabic version of the Learning Transfer System Inventory for use in Jordan},
      journal = {International Journal of Training and Development},
      publisher = {Blackwell Publishing},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {10},
      number = {3},
      pages = {180--194},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2419.2006.00253.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2419.2006.00253.x}
    }
    
    Kherallah, M. & Alimi, A.M. A new lecture support based on on-line arabic handwriting recognition 2008 Proc. Int. Conf. Innovations in Information Technology IIT 2008, pp. 673-677  inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Kherallah2008,
      author = {Kherallah, M. and Alimi, A. M. },
      title = {A new lecture support based on on-line arabic handwriting recognition},
      booktitle = {Proc. Int. Conf. Innovations in Information Technology IIT 2008},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {673--677},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/INNOVATIONS.2008.4781755}
    }
    
    Khorsheed, M.S. Offline recognition of omnifont Arabic text using the HMM ToolKit (HTK) 2007 Pattern Recognition Letters
    Vol. 28(12), pp. 1563-1571 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: This paper presents a cursive Arabic text recognition system. The system decomposes the document image into text line images and extracts a set of simple statistical features from a narrow window which is sliding a long that text line. It then injects the resulting feature vectors to the Hidden Markov Model Toolkit (HTK). HTK is a portable toolkit for speech recognition system. The proposed system is applied to a data corpus which includes Arabic text of more than 600 A4-size sheets typewritten in multiple computer-generated fonts.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Khorsheed2007Offline,
      author = {Khorsheed, M. S.},
      title = {Offline recognition of omnifont Arabic text using the HMM ToolKit (HTK)},
      journal = {Pattern Recognition Letters},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {28},
      number = {12},
      pages = {1563--1571},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.patrec.2007.03.014},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.patrec.2007.03.014}
    }
    
    Khorsheed, M.S. Off-Line Arabic Character Recognition - A Review 2002 Pattern Analysis & Applications
    Vol. 5(1), pp. 31-45 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Off-line recognition requires transferring the text under consideration into an image file. This represents the only available solution to bring the printed materials to the electronic media. However, the transferring process causes the system to lose the temporal information of that text. Other complexities that an off-line recognition system has to deal with are the lower resolution of the document and the poor binarisation, which can contribute to readability when essential features of the characters are deleted or obscured. Recognising Arabic script presents two additional challenges: orthography is cursive and letter shape is context sensitive. Certain character combinations form new ligature shapes, which are often font-dependent. Some ligatures involve vertical stacking of characters. Since not all letters connect, word boundary location becomes an interesting problem, as spacing may separate not only words, but also certain characters within a word. Various techniques have been implemented to achieve high recognition rates. These techniques have tackled different aspects of the recognition system. This review is organised into five major sections, covering a general overview, Arabic writing characteristics, Arabic text recognition system, Arabic OCR software and conclusions.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Khorsheed2002OffLine,
      author = {Khorsheed, M. S.},
      title = {Off-Line Arabic Character Recognition - A Review},
      journal = {Pattern Analysis & Applications},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {5},
      number = {1},
      pages = {31--45},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s100440200004},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s100440200004}
    }
    
    Khorsheed, M.S., Alhazmi, K.M. & Asiri, A.M. Developing typewritten Arabic corpus with multi-fonts (TRACOM) 2009 MOCR '09: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Multilingual OCR, pp. 1-6  inproceedings DOI  
    Abstract: Amongst the obstacles that have played an important role in delaying the character recognition systems for Arabic language as compared to other languages such as Latin and Chinese is the absence of support utilities such as a language corpus and electronic dictionaries. This paper aims to develop a diverse corpus of scanned page images with the corresponding ground-truth text and description files. This data is a TypewRitten Arabic Corpus with Multi-fonts and referred to as TRACOM. TRACOM may also serve as a benchmark for assessing the performance of Arabic text recognition system. The corpus includes data from the following sources: computer-generated documents, newspapers, magazines, books. The document images are coupled with the equivalent text i.e., ground-truth.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Khorsheed2009,
      author = {Khorsheed, Mohammed S. and Alhazmi, Khaled M. and Asiri, Adil M.},
      title = {Developing typewritten Arabic corpus with multi-fonts (TRACOM)},
      booktitle = {MOCR '09: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Multilingual OCR},
      publisher = {ACM},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {1--6},
      doi = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1577802.1577820}
    }
    
    Kihm, A. Nonsegmental Concatenation: A Study of Classical Arabic Broken Plurals and Verbal Nouns 2006 Morphology
    Vol. 16(1), pp. 69-105 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kihm2006Nonsegmental,
      author = {Kihm, Alain},
      title = {Nonsegmental Concatenation: A Study of Classical Arabic Broken Plurals and Verbal Nouns},
      journal = {Morphology},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {16},
      number = {1},
      pages = {69--105},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11525-006-0004-4},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11525-006-0004-4}
    }
    
    Killean, C.G. The Development of Western Grammars of Arabic 1984 Journal of Near Eastern Studies
    Vol. 43(3), pp. 223-230 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Killean1984,
      author = {Killean, Carolyn G.},
      title = {The Development of Western Grammars of Arabic},
      journal = {Journal of Near Eastern Studies},
      publisher = {The University of Chicago Press},
      year = {1984},
      volume = {43},
      number = {3},
      pages = {223--230},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/544462}
    }
    
    Killean, C.G. Review: Linguistic Models and Arabic Dialectology 1972 Journal of the American Oriental Society
    Vol. 92(1), pp. 65-69 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Sa'i: di Arabic as presented by Abdelghany Khalafallah in his book, A Descriptive Grammar of SA'I: DI Egyptian Colloquial Arabic, is chosen as an example of linguistic data whose organization and presentation vary greatly depending upon the linguistic model used in the description. Khalafallah's work offers an example of standard taxonomic, "segment and classify" analysis. This review presents another possible analysis based on a transformational model of linguistic structure which the author believes is more insightful and opens the way to more fruitful future work in comparative Arabic dialectology.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Killean1972,
      author = {Killean, Carolyn G.},
      title = {Review: Linguistic Models and Arabic Dialectology},
      journal = {Journal of the American Oriental Society},
      publisher = {American Oriental Society},
      year = {1972},
      volume = {92},
      number = {1},
      pages = {65--69},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/599649}
    }
    
    Kinberg, N. Some Temporal, Aspectual, and Modal Features of the Arabic Structure la-qad + Prefix Tense Verb 1988 Journal of the American Oriental Society
    Vol. 108(2), pp. 291-295 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The present paper aims to investigate an uncommon construction in Classical Arabic, namely la-qad yafÇS¶¨alu. This structure is not satisfactorily recorded in grammars of Classical Arabic, and I would like to call attention to its occurrence mainly in poetry and marginally in prose. With regard to the function of this structure within the verbal system of Classical Arabic, the following conclusions may be drawn: 1. The construction la-qad yafÇS¶¨alu, unlike the more common qad yafÇS¶¨alu, is marked as assertive and is restricted to initial position in main clauses; 2. It is marked as imperfective, denoting an iterative or a durative action (depending on the semantic category of the verb which follows it); 3. The time is not marked by this structure: it may denote either the present or the past, depending on the context. I have not recorded this structure with reference to future time, because the assertive future is usually expressed by la- followed by the energetic form of the verb (la-yafÇS¶¨alan/na).
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kinberg1988,
      author = {Kinberg, Naphtali},
      title = {Some Temporal, Aspectual, and Modal Features of the Arabic Structure la-qad + Prefix Tense Verb},
      journal = {Journal of the American Oriental Society},
      publisher = {American Oriental Society},
      year = {1988},
      volume = {108},
      number = {2},
      pages = {291--295},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/603655}
    }
    
    Kinberg, N. & Abu-Khadra, F. Causal and Adversative Meanings of the Particle lÇ"‹¨«kin in Arabic 1987 Journal of the American Oriental Society
    Vol. 107(4), pp. 761-765 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The Arabic coordinating particle lÇ"‹¨«kin generally has an adversative meaning, and is rendered by the English 'but', 'yet', 'however'. Arabic grammars and dictionaries do not record occurrences of lÇ"‹¨«kin with causal meaning, yet in some of the examples adduced in the present article, the context allows only a causal interpretation of lÇ"‹¨«kin, while in other examples both causal and adversative interpretations are acceptable. Non adversative usage of lÇ"‹¨«kin may be the result of different processes: 1. an ellipsis of a proposition preceding lÇ"‹¨«kin; 2. lÇ"‹¨«kin being a homonym derived from originally two different particles; 3. a semantic change blurring the original meaning of the particle. In view of recent studies dedicated to adversative coordinators in various languages, and in view of the fact that in several examples the context allows different interpretations of the logic relation between the propositions separated by lÇ"‹¨«kin, we would like to claim that causal usage of this particle is due to a semantic change resulting from its occurrence in what Lakoff calls "a denial of expectation" or "a denial of pre-supposition." This change of meaning is likely to take place when the underlying expectation or presupposition is so vague that the listener (or reader) does not necessarily share the same presupposition with the speaker (or writer). In this case he is likely to perceive a different relation between the two propositions. If the coordinating particle should frequently occur in such contexts, it might finally lose its original adversative meaning and turn into a causal particle.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kinberg1987,
      author = {Kinberg, Naphtali and Abu-Khadra, Fahid},
      title = {Causal and Adversative Meanings of the Particle lÇ"‹¨«kin in Arabic},
      journal = {Journal of the American Oriental Society},
      publisher = {American Oriental Society},
      year = {1987},
      volume = {107},
      number = {4},
      pages = {761--765},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/603314}
    }
    
    Kiraz, G.A. Multitiered nonlinear morphology using multitape finite automata: a case study on Syriac and Arabic 2000 #CL#
    Vol. 26(1), pp. 77-105 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{kriaz00,
      author = {George Anton Kiraz},
      title = {Multitiered nonlinear morphology using multitape finite automata: a case study on Syriac and Arabic},
      journal = {#CL#},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {26},
      number = {1},
      pages = {77-105},
      url = {http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/J00-1006.pdf}
    }
    
    Kirchhoff, K., Bilmes, J., Das, S., Duta, N., Egan, M., Ji, G., He, F., Henderson, J., Liu, D., Noamany, M., Schone, P., Schwartz, R. & Vergyri, D. Novel approaches to Arabic speech recognition: report from the 2002 Johns-Hopkins Summer Workshop 2003
    Vol. 1Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP '03) 
    inproceedings  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Kirchhoff2003,
      author = {Kirchhoff, K. and Bilmes, J. and Das, S. and Duta, N. and Egan, M. and Gang Ji and Feng He and Henderson, J. and Daben Liu and Noamany, M. and Schone, P. and Schwartz, R. and Vergyri, D. },
      title = {Novel approaches to Arabic speech recognition: report from the 2002 Johns-Hopkins Summer Workshop},
      booktitle = {Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP '03)},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {1}
    }
    
    Kirchhoff, K. & Vergyri, D. Cross-dialectal acoustic data sharing for Arabic speech recognition 2004
    Vol. 1Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP '04) 
    inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Kirchhoff2004,
      author = {Kirchhoff, K. and Vergyri, D. },
      title = {Cross-dialectal acoustic data sharing for Arabic speech recognition},
      booktitle = {Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP '04)},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {1},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICASSP.2004.1326098}
    }
    
    Kirchhoff, K., Vergyri, D., Bilmes, J., Duh, K. & Stolcke, A. Morphology-based language modeling for conversational Arabic speech recognition 2006 Computer Speech & Language
    Vol. 20(4), pp. 589-608 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Language modeling for large-vocabulary conversational Arabic speech recognition is faced with the problem of the complex morphology of Arabic, which increases the perplexity and out-of-vocabulary rate. This problem is compounded by the enormous dialectal variability and differences between spoken and written language. In this paper, we investigate improvements in Arabic language modeling by developing various morphology-based language models. We present four different approaches to morphology-based language modeling, including a novel technique called factored language models. Experimental results are presented for both rescoring and first-pass recognition experiments.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kirchhoff2006Morphologybased,
      author = {Kirchhoff, Katrin and Vergyri, Dimitra and Bilmes, Jeff and Duh, Kevin and Stolcke, Andreas},
      title = {Morphology-based language modeling for conversational Arabic speech recognition},
      journal = {Computer Speech & Language},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {20},
      number = {4},
      pages = {589--608},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.csl.2005.10.001},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.csl.2005.10.001}
    }
    
    Kishon-Rabin, L. & Rosenhouse, J. Speech perception test for Arabic-speaking children. 2000 Audiology
    Vol. 39(5), pp. 269-277 
    article  
    Abstract: The high incidence of hearing impairment in the Arabic-speaking population in Israel, as well as the use of advanced aural rehabilitation devices, motivated the development of Arabic speech assessment tests for this population. The purpose of this paper is twofold. The first goal is to describe features that are unique to the Arabic language and that need to be considered when developing such speech tests. These include Arabic diglossia (i.e., the sharp dichotomy between Literary and Colloquial Arabic), emphatization, and a simple vowel system. The second goal is to describe a new analytic speech test that assesses the perception of significant phonological contrasts in the Colloquial Arabic variety used in Israel. The perception of voicing, place, and manner of articulation, in both initial and final word positions, was tested at four sensation levels in 10 normally-hearing subjects using a binary forced-choice paradigm. Results show a relationship between percent correct and presentation level that is in keeping with articulation curves obtained with Saudi Arabic and English monosyllabic words. Furthermore, different contrasts yielded different articulation curves: emphatization was the easiest to perceive whereas place of articulation was the most difficult. The results can be explained by the specific acoustical features of Arabic.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kishon-Rabin2000,
      author = {L. Kishon-Rabin and J. Rosenhouse},
      title = {Speech perception test for Arabic-speaking children.},
      journal = {Audiology},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {39},
      number = {5},
      pages = {269--277}
    }
    
    Kong, Y.C. & Chen, D.S. Elucidation of Islamic drugs in Hui Hui Yao Fang: a linguistic and pharmaceutical approach. 1996 J Ethnopharmacol
    Vol. 54(2-3), pp. 85-102 
    article  
    Abstract: Hui Hui Yao Fang, an Islamic formulary, was probably the official formulary of the Mongolian administration during the Yuan dynasty (13th-14th century) in China. In the three chapters of prescriptions that remain extant today, there are 517 Islamic drugs carrying Arabic or Persian names, each with its Chinese transliteration. Chapter 12 deals with the 'wind' diseases, containing 199 Islamic drugs. In this research, 129 items were identified, and each of which was assigned to a definite taxon; these are the most frequently cited drugs in the formulary. Identifications were corroborated by botanical, pharmacological and phonetic considerations. This exercise demonstrates the inherent affinity between Islamic and Chinese medicines. The reciprocal influence between them greatly enriched the content of these two important bodies of drug science, thus, setting a pattern for the synthesis of drug knowledge and the regulation of therapeutic substances. Recognition of different bodies of ethnomedicine is necessary in view of the fact that there is an increasing mobility of people today, who tend to bring with them their drug knowledge.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kong1996,
      author = {Y. C. Kong and D. S. Chen},
      title = {Elucidation of Islamic drugs in Hui Hui Yao Fang: a linguistic and pharmaceutical approach.},
      journal = {J Ethnopharmacol},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {54},
      number = {2-3},
      pages = {85--102}
    }
    
    Kosayba, B., Alkhedr, H., Jdeed, F., Shriedi, A. & Al-mozaien, E. Arabic Phonetic Web Sites Platform Using VoiceXML 2008 Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. Information and Communication Technologies: From Theory to Applications ICTTA 2008, pp. 1-8  inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Kosayba2008,
      author = {Kosayba, B. and Alkhedr, H. and Jdeed, F. and Shriedi, A. and Al-mozaien, E. },
      title = {Arabic Phonetic Web Sites Platform Using VoiceXML},
      booktitle = {Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. Information and Communication Technologies: From Theory to Applications ICTTA 2008},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {1--8},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICTTA.2008.4530330}
    }
    
    Kraemer, R. Social psychological factors related to the study of Arabic among Israeli high school students: A test of Gardner's socioeducational model 1993 Studies in Second Language Acquisition
    Vol. 15(1), pp. 83-106 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Kraemer, Roberta},
      title = {Social psychological factors related to the study of Arabic among Israeli high school students: A test of Gardner's socioeducational model},
      journal = {Studies in Second Language Acquisition},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {15},
      number = {1},
      pages = {83-106}
    }
    
    Krotkoff, G. Arabic 'lm 'to Know' 1964 Journal of the American Oriental Society
    Vol. 84(2), pp. 170-171 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Krotkoff1964,
      author = {Krotkoff, George},
      title = {Arabic 'lm 'to Know'},
      journal = {Journal of the American Oriental Society},
      publisher = {American Oriental Society},
      year = {1964},
      volume = {84},
      number = {2},
      pages = {170--171},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/597104}
    }
    
    Kulwicki, A. An ethnographic study of illness perceptions and practices of Yemeni-Arabs in Michigan. 1996 J Cult Divers
    Vol. 3(3), pp. 80-89 
    article  
    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to explore the illness practices of Yemeni-Arab Americans and to generate illness themes based on informant reports. A convenient sample of 30 Yemeni-Arab American women was selected from Dearborn, Michigan. A content analysis of interview data was the basis for data analysis. The Arabic language was used in all the interviews due to enability of the informants to speak English. Thirty-three illness practices were identified by the study informants. Analysis of interview data indicated that informants relied heavily on religious explanations of illness practices. Several cultural themes were deduced from collected data. Among these were belief in an omnipotent deity who is the cause of all that is, confidence in the rational mind of man and empirical knowledge, susceptibility to disease based on gender, reliance and trust in health care providers and desirability of adapting to change.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kulwicki1996,
      author = {A. Kulwicki},
      title = {An ethnographic study of illness perceptions and practices of Yemeni-Arabs in Michigan.},
      journal = {J Cult Divers},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {3},
      number = {3},
      pages = {80--89}
    }
    
    Kuriyagawa, F., Sawashima, M., Niimi, S. & Hirose, H. Electromyographic study of emphatic consonants in standard Jordanian Arabic. 1988 Folia Phoniatr (Basel)
    Vol. 40(3), pp. 117-122 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Kuriyagawa1988,
      author = {F. Kuriyagawa and M. Sawashima and S. Niimi and H. Hirose},
      title = {Electromyographic study of emphatic consonants in standard Jordanian Arabic.},
      journal = {Folia Phoniatr (Basel)},
      year = {1988},
      volume = {40},
      number = {3},
      pages = {117--122}
    }
    
    Lagrange, F. Arabic in the City. Issues in dialect contact and language variation Arabica
    Vol. 56(6), pp. 609-614 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{LagrangeArabic,
      author = {Lagrange, Frederic},
      title = {Arabic in the City. Issues in dialect contact and language variation},
      journal = {Arabica},
      publisher = {BRILL},
      volume = {56},
      number = {6},
      pages = {609--614},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/057053909X12544602282475},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/057053909X12544602282475}
    }
    
    Lamel, L., Messaoudi, A. & Gauvain, J.-L. Automatic Speech-to-Text Transcription in Arabic 2009 ACM Transactions on Asian Language Information Processing (TALIP)
    Vol. 8(4), pp. 1-18 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The Arabic language presents a number of challenges for speech recognition, arising in part from the significant differences in the spoken and written forms, in particular the conventional form of texts being non-vowelized. Being a highly inflected language, the Arabic language has a very large lexical variety and typically with several possible (generally semantically linked) vowelizations for each written form. This article summarizes research carried out over the last few years on speech-to-text transcription of broadcast data in Arabic. The initial research was oriented toward processing of broadcast news data in Modern Standard Arabic, and has since been extended to address a larger variety of broadcast data, which as a consequence results in the need to also be able to handle dialectal speech. While standard techniques in speech recognition have been shown to apply well to the Arabic language, taking into account language specificities help to significantly improve system performance.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lamel2009,
      author = {Lamel, Lori and Messaoudi, Abdelkhalek and Gauvain, Jean-Luc},
      title = {Automatic Speech-to-Text Transcription in Arabic},
      journal = {ACM Transactions on Asian Language Information Processing (TALIP)},
      publisher = {ACM},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {8},
      number = {4},
      pages = {1--18},
      doi = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1644879.1644885}
    }
    
    Lammertyn, J. & Fias, W. Negative priming with numbers: no evidence for a semantic locus. 2005 Q J Exp Psychol A
    Vol. 58(7), pp. 1153-1172 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Selective attention has been studied extensively using the negative priming (NP) paradigm. An important issue regards the representational level at which NP occurs. We investigated this issue by using numbers as stimuli. Because numbers have a well-defined semantic organization, which can be clearly measured by means of the distance effect, they are very suitable for testing the assumption that NP is situated at a central semantic level. Four experiments are presented in which the numerical distance between prime distractor and probe target was manipulated. The task was magnitude comparison. Target and distractor were defined on the basis of colour. In Experiment 1, all numbers were presented in Arabic format; NP was observed only with identical prime distractor and probe target, and no distance-related NP was observed. This could not be explained by a decay of inhibition since in Experiment 2 similar results were obtained with a shortened response-to-stimulus interval. Experiment 3 showed that these observations also hold for numbers presented verbally. Nevertheless, a cross-notational experiment with Arabic prime and verbal probe (Experiment 4) revealed no NP whatsoever and excluded the possibility that the absence of distance-related negative priming was the result of a fine-tuned inhibitory mechanism operating at the semantic level. The results are considered in the light of current theories of negative priming.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lammertyn2005,
      author = {Jan Lammertyn and Wim Fias},
      title = {Negative priming with numbers: no evidence for a semantic locus.},
      journal = {Q J Exp Psychol A},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {58},
      number = {7},
      pages = {1153--1172},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02724980443000520},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02724980443000520}
    }
    
    Larkey, L.S., Ballesteros, L. & Connell, M.E. Improving stemming for Arabic information retrieval: light stemming and co-occurrence analysis 2002 SIGIR '02: Proceedings of the 25th annual international ACM SIGIR conference on Research and development in information retrieval, pp. 275-282  inproceedings DOI  
    Abstract: Arabic, a highly inflected language, requires good stemming for effective information retrieval, yet no standard approach to stem‹¨'‹ó¨ming has emerged. We developed several light stemmers based on heuristics and a statistical stemmer based on co-occurrence for Arabic retrieval. We compared the retrieval effectiveness of our stemmers and of a morphological analyzer on the TREC-2001 data. The best light stemmer was more effective for cross-lan‹¨'‹ó¨guage retrieval than a morphological stemmer which tried to find the root for each word. A repartitioning process consisting of vowel removal followed by clustering using co-occurrence analy‹¨'‹ó¨sis pro‹¨'‹ó¨duced stem classes which were better than no stemming or very light stemming, but still inferior to good light stemming or mor‹¨'‹ó¨phological analysis.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Larkey2002,
      author = {Larkey, Leah S. and Ballesteros, Lisa and Connell, Margaret E.},
      title = {Improving stemming for Arabic information retrieval: light stemming and co-occurrence analysis},
      booktitle = {SIGIR '02: Proceedings of the 25th annual international ACM SIGIR conference on Research and development in information retrieval},
      publisher = {ACM},
      year = {2002},
      pages = {275--282},
      doi = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/564376.564425}
    }
    
    Laufer, A. & Baer, T. The emphatic and pharyngeal sounds in Hebrew and in Arabic. 1988 Lang Speech
    Vol. 31 ( Pt 2), pp. 181-205 
    article  
    Abstract: This study addresses physiological, acoustic, and linguistic issues in the production of the emphatic sounds [in text] and the pharyngeal sounds [in text]. Approximately 300 minutes of video recordings were obtained from nine Hebrew and Arabic speakers, using a fiberscope positioned in the upper pharynx and simultaneous audio recording through an external microphone. We also studied a cineradiographic film of three Arabic speakers. Results clearly show that all the emphatic sounds, when pronounced as such, share pharyngealization as a secondary articulation. A constriction is formed between the pharyngeal walls and the tip of the epiglottis, which tilts backwards. To a lesser degree, the lower part of the root of the tongue is also retracted. The data show that all the emphatic and pharyngeal sounds we studied are made with qualitatively the same pharyngeal constriction. However, the pharyngeal constriction is more extreme and less variable for the pharyngeal sounds, where it is the primary articulation, than for the emphatic sounds, where it is a secondary articulation. Because the same sort of pharyngealization is seen for all the emphatics, we use a common notational symbol, [in text], for all of them, including [in text] in place of /q/. We note that where pharyngeals and pharyngealized sounds were realized, the Hebrew and Arabic speakers produced them in essentially the same way.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Laufer1988,
      author = {A. Laufer and T. Baer},
      title = {The emphatic and pharyngeal sounds in Hebrew and in Arabic.},
      journal = {Lang Speech},
      year = {1988},
      volume = {31 ( Pt 2)},
      pages = {181--205}
    }
    
    Lee, Y.S. Morphological Analysis for Statistical Machine Translation 2004 HLT-NAACL 2004: Short Papers, pp. 57-60  inproceedings URL 
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{LeeArabicMTHLT04,
      author = {Lee, Young S.},
      title = {Morphological Analysis for Statistical Machine Translation},
      booktitle = {HLT-NAACL 2004: Short Papers},
      publisher = {Association for Computational Linguistics},
      year = {2004},
      pages = {57--60},
      url = {http://acl.ldc.upenn.edu/N/N04/N04-4015.pdf}
    }
    
    Lee, Y.-S., Papineni, K., Roukos, S., Emam, O. & Hassan, H. Language Model Based Arabic Word Segmentation 2003 #acl41#, pp. 399-406  inproceedings URL 
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{LeeLanguageACL41,
      author = {Young-Suk Lee and Kishore Papineni and Salim Roukos and Ossama Emam and Hany Hassan},
      title = { Language Model Based Arabic Word Segmentation},
      booktitle = {#acl41#},
      year = {2003},
      pages = {399-406},
      url = {http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/P03-1051}
    }
    
    Lehn, W. Emphasis in Cairo Arabic 1963 Language
    Vol. 39(1), pp. 29-39 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lehn1963,
      author = {Lehn, Walter},
      title = {Emphasis in Cairo Arabic},
      journal = {Language},
      publisher = {Linguistic Society of America},
      year = {1963},
      volume = {39},
      number = {1},
      pages = {29--39},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/410760}
    }
    
    Leikin, M., Ibrahim, R., Eviatar, Z. & Sapir, S. Listening with an accent: speech perception in a second language by late bilinguals. 2009 J Psycholinguist Res
    Vol. 38(5), pp. 447-457 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: The goal of the present study was to examine functioning of late bilinguals in their second language. Specifically, we asked how native and non-native Hebrew speaking listeners perceive accented and native-accented Hebrew speech. To achieve this goal we used the gating paradigm to explore the ability of healthy late fluent bilinguals (Russian and Arabic native speakers) to recognize words in L2 (Hebrew) when they were spoken in an accent like their own, a native accent (Hebrew speakers), or another foreign accent (American accent). The data revealed that for Hebrew speakers, there was no effect of accent, whereas for the two bilingual groups (Russian and Arabic native speakers), stimuli with an accent like their own and the native Hebrew accent, required significantly less phonological information than the other foreign accents. The results support the hypothesis that phonological assimilation works in a similar manner in these two different groups.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Leikin2009,
      author = {Mark Leikin and Raphiq Ibrahim and Zohar Eviatar and Shimon Sapir},
      title = {Listening with an accent: speech perception in a second language by late bilinguals.},
      journal = {J Psycholinguist Res},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {38},
      number = {5},
      pages = {447--457},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10936-009-9099-1},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10936-009-9099-1}
    }
    
    Leonard, L.B. & Dromi, E. The use of Hebrew verb morphology by children with specific language impairment and children developing language normally 1994 First Language
    Vol. 14(42/3), pp. 283-304 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Leonard, Laurence B. and Dromi, Esther},
      title = {The use of Hebrew verb morphology by children with specific language impairment and children developing language normally},
      journal = {First Language},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {14(42/3)},
      pages = {283-304}
    }
    
    Leonard, L.B. & Eyer, J.A. Deficits of grammatical morphology in children with specific language impairment and their implications for notions of bootstrapping 1996   article  
    Abstract: (from the chapter) if children have difficulties processing grammatical morphology, they might be slower not only in forming initial grammatical representations of words but also in identifying the relevant linguistic boundaries before grammatical analysis can even begin / such children, it would seem, should show protracted--or even unusual--development of language / this might be especially so in the case of specifically language-impaired (SLI) children because, as [the authors] will argue, the grammatical morphemes with which they have the greatest difficulty seem to be those whose acoustic characteristics pose problems for perception /// examine the nature of SLI children's problems with grammatical morphology with an eye toward their potential effects on the bootstrapping process / begin with a brief review of the grammatical morpheme deficits in SLI children acquiring English [and Italian and Hebrew], as well as corroborating evidence suggesting that these children seem to have special difficulty with linguistic material of relatively brief duration / evidence consistent with this view will then be presented from SLI children acquiring languages whose grammatical morphology is less dependent upon forms of short duration / implications of this type of weakness for the identification of linguistic boundaries and grammatical analysis will be discussed
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Leonard, Laurence B. and Eyer, Julia A.},
      title = {Deficits of grammatical morphology in children with specific language impairment and their implications for notions of bootstrapping},
      year = {1996}
    }
    
    Leslau, W. Arabic Loanwords in Amharic 1957 Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London
    Vol. 19(2), pp. 221-244 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Leslau1957,
      author = {Leslau, Wolf},
      title = {Arabic Loanwords in Amharic},
      journal = {Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London},
      publisher = {Cambridge University Press on behalf of School of Oriental and African Studies},
      year = {1957},
      volume = {19},
      number = {2},
      pages = {221--244},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/610241}
    }
    
    Leslau, W. Arabic Loanwords in Argobba (South Ethiopic) 1957 Journal of the American Oriental Society
    Vol. 77(1), pp. 36-39 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Leslau1957a,
      author = {Leslau, Wolf},
      title = {Arabic Loanwords in Argobba (South Ethiopic)},
      journal = {Journal of the American Oriental Society},
      publisher = {American Oriental Society},
      year = {1957},
      volume = {77},
      number = {1},
      pages = {36--39},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/594874}
    }
    
    Leslau, W. Arabic Loanwords in Tigrinya 1956 Journal of the American Oriental Society
    Vol. 76(4), pp. 204-213 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Leslau1956,
      author = {Leslau, Wolf},
      title = {Arabic Loanwords in Tigrinya},
      journal = {Journal of the American Oriental Society},
      publisher = {American Oriental Society},
      year = {1956},
      volume = {76},
      number = {4},
      pages = {204--213},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/596147}
    }
    
    Leslau, W. South-East Semitic (Ethiopic and South-Arabic) 1943 Journal of the American Oriental Society
    Vol. 63(1), pp. 4-14 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Leslau1943,
      author = {Leslau, Wolf},
      title = {South-East Semitic (Ethiopic and South-Arabic)},
      journal = {Journal of the American Oriental Society},
      publisher = {American Oriental Society},
      year = {1943},
      volume = {63},
      number = {1},
      pages = {4--14},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/594146}
    }
    
    Levinger, M., Ornan, U. & Itai, A. Learning Morpho-Lexical Probabilities from an Untagged Corpus with an Application to Hebrew 1995 #CL#
    Vol. 21(3), pp. 383-404 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{levinger95,
      author = {Moshe Levinger and Uzzi Ornan and Alon Itai},
      title = {Learning Morpho-Lexical Probabilities from an Untagged Corpus with an Application to Hebrew},
      journal = {#CL#},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {21},
      number = {3},
      pages = {383-404},
      url = {http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/J95-3004.pdf}
    }
    
    Levy, Y. Morphology in children with congenital brain deficits: Evidence from children learning Hebrew 1995
    Vol. 348-358Proceedings of the 19th Boston University Conference on Language Development 
    inproceedings  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{,
      author = {Levy, Y.},
      title = {Morphology in children with congenital brain deficits: Evidence from children learning Hebrew},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 19th Boston University Conference on Language Development},
      publisher = {Cascadilla Press},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {348-358}
    }
    
    Levy, Y. The nature of early language: Evidence from the development of Hebrew morphology 1988 Categories and processes in language acquisition  incollection  
    BibTeX:
    @incollection{,
      author = {Levy, Yonata},
      title = {The nature of early language: Evidence from the development of Hebrew morphology},
      booktitle = {Categories and processes in language acquisition},
      publisher = {Erlbaum},
      year = {1988}
    }
    
    Levy, Y. Morphology and syntax in the language of children with congenital brain pathologies: A longitudinal follow-up 1996 Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, pp. Infant-Psychology  article  
    Abstract: Reports on a prospective, naturalistic, longitudinal study of the acquisition of Hebrew by 2 infants with congenital brain pathologies, with a focus on the development of formal aspects of morphology and syntax. Hebrew has a complex morphological system which poses interesting questions with regard to the development of formal linguistic systems that are particularly relevant in the context of the debate between functionalism and formalism in language acquisition. The children were in their 4th yr and Morpheme-Per-Utterance was 2.2-3.2. Findings suggest a delayed, yet relatively smooth development of formal morphological and selective syntactic aspects of Hebrew, along with marked difficulties in aspects of meaning that these forms convey. A comparison with other populations suggests that children with various types of congenital neurological deficits share common linguistic profiles. In all these populations there is a delay and slowness in development and the amount of errors observed is larger than normal, while distribution of error types and order of emergence of forms are similar to that observed in normally developing children.
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Levy, Yonata},
      title = {Morphology and syntax in the language of children with congenital brain pathologies: A longitudinal follow-up},
      journal = {Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology},
      year = {1996},
      pages = {Infant-Psychology}
    }
    
    Levy, Y. The Wug technique revisited 1987 Cognitive Development
    Vol. 2, pp. 71-87 
    article  
    Abstract: A group of 7-year-old and a group of 2-year-old Hebrew speakers were tested for their knowledge of pluralization of real and nonce (invented) nouns. The 2-year-olds pluralize nonce words in the same ways that they do real nouns: the 7-year-olds' handling of the nonce forms radically departs from their own ways of handling real nouns.
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Levy, Yonata},
      title = {The Wug technique revisited},
      journal = {Cognitive Development},
      year = {1987},
      volume = {2},
      pages = {71-87}
    }
    
    Levy, Y. Theoretical gains from the study of bilingualism: A case report 1985 Language Learning
    Vol. 35(4), pp. 541-554 
    article  
    Abstract: A case study is presented of a bilingual child learning Hebrew and English simultaneously. The study covers the period between 1:11 and 2:5 and demonstrates the child's translation skills from one language to another upon request. During the study 117 questions were asked, of which 78 probed nouns, 28 verbs and 11 closed-class items. It is argued that studying the development of skills in such cognitively demanding situations may be particularly fruitful for gaining insights into the young child's emerging linguistic competence
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Levy, Yonata},
      title = {Theoretical gains from the study of bilingualism: A case report},
      journal = {Language Learning},
      year = {1985},
      volume = {35(4)},
      pages = {541-554}
    }
    
    Levy, Y. The acquisition of Hebrew plurals: The case of the missing gender category 1983 Journal of Child Language
    Vol. 10, pp. 107-121 
    article  
    Abstract: Longitudinal data showed that between the ages of 2 and 3, children determine their choice of the plural morpheme according to the nature of the final syllable, and they seem insensitive to the semantic notion and syntactic notion of gender that govern the choice of plurals for animate nouns and noun-adjective agreement.
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Levy, Yonata},
      title = {The acquisition of Hebrew plurals: The case of the missing gender category},
      journal = {Journal of Child Language},
      year = {1983},
      volume = {10},
      pages = {107-121}
    }
    
    Levy, Y., Amir, N. & Shalev, R. Linguistic development of a child with a congenital, Localised L. H. Lesion 1992 Cognitive Neuropsychology
    Vol. Herts, pp. England (CogN) 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Levy, Yonata and Amir, Naomi and Shalev, Ruth},
      title = {Linguistic development of a child with a congenital, Localised L. H. Lesion},
      journal = {Cognitive Neuropsychology},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {Herts},
      pages = {England (CogN)}
    }
    
    Levy, Y. & Vainikka, A. Subjects in 'mixed' languages-evidence from the acquisition of Hebrew in press Language processing and language acquisition in a root-based morphology  incollection  
    BibTeX:
    @incollection{,
      author = {Levy, Y. and Vainikka, A},
      title = {Subjects in 'mixed' languages-evidence from the acquisition of Hebrew},
      booktitle = {Language processing and language acquisition in a root-based morphology},
      year = {in press}
    }
    
    Lewkowicz, N.K. Topic-Comment and Relative Clause in Arabic 1971 Language
    Vol. 47(4), pp. 810-825 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Three recent analyses of Arabic topic-comment sentences are re-examined, and some advantages of generating these structures as NP plus an embedded S, rather than by an optional transformation extracting a topic from an ordinary S, are pointed out. The possibility of topic-comment sentences being embedded as relative clauses is examined, and a severe restriction is proposed on the structure of the sentences to be embedded as relative clauses.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lewkowicz1971,
      author = {Lewkowicz, Nancy Kennedy},
      title = {Topic-Comment and Relative Clause in Arabic},
      journal = {Language},
      publisher = {Linguistic Society of America},
      year = {1971},
      volume = {47},
      number = {4},
      pages = {810--825},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/412158}
    }
    
    Lorigo, L. & Govindaraju, V. Segmentation and pre-recognition of Arabic handwriting 2005 Document Analysis and Recognition, 2005. Proceedings. Eighth International Conference onDocument Analysis and Recognition, 2005. Proceedings. Eighth International Conference on, pp. 605-609 Vol. 2  proceedings URL 
    Abstract: We propose a novel algorithm for the segmentation and prerecognition of offline handwritten Arabic text. Our character segmentation method over-segments each word, and then removes extra breakpoints using knowledge of letter shapes. On a test set of 200 images, 92.3% of the segmentation points were detected correctly, with 5.1% instances of over-segmentation. The prerecognition component annotates each detected letter with shape information, to be used for recognition in future work.
    BibTeX:
    @proceedings{Lorigo2005Segmentation,
      author = {Lorigo, L. and Govindaraju, V.},
      title = {Segmentation and pre-recognition of Arabic handwriting},
      booktitle = {Document Analysis and Recognition, 2005. Proceedings. Eighth International Conference on},
      journal = {Document Analysis and Recognition, 2005. Proceedings. Eighth International Conference on},
      year = {2005},
      pages = {605--609 Vol. 2},
      url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/absall.jsp?arnumber=1575616}
    }
    
    Lorigo, L.M. & Govindaraju, V. Offline Arabic handwriting recognition: a survey. 2006 IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell
    Vol. 28(5), pp. 712-724 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: The automatic recognition of text on scanned images has enabled many applications such as searching for words in large volumes of documents, automatic sorting of postal mail, and convenient editing of previously printed documents. The domain of handwriting in the Arabic script presents unique technical challenges and has been addressed more recently than other domains. Many different methods have been proposed and applied to various types of images. This paper provides a comprehensive review of these methods. It is the first survey to focus on Arabic handwriting recognition and the first Arabic character recognition survey to provide recognition rates and descriptions of test data for the approaches discussed. It includes background on the field, discussion of the methods, and future research directions.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lorigo2006,
      author = {Liana M Lorigo and Venu Govindaraju},
      title = {Offline Arabic handwriting recognition: a survey.},
      journal = {IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {28},
      number = {5},
      pages = {712--724},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPAMI.2006.102},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPAMI.2006.102}
    }
    
    Lorigo, L.M. & Govindaraju, V. Offline Arabic Handwriting Recognition: A Survey 2006 IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell.
    Vol. 28(5), pp. 712-724 
    article DOI  
    Abstract: The automatic recognition of text on scanned images has enabled many applications such as searching for words in large volumes of documents, automatic sorting of postal mail, and convenient editing of previously printed documents. The domain of handwriting in the Arabic script presents unique technical challenges and has been addressed more recently than other domains. Many different methods have been proposed and applied to various types of images. This paper provides a comprehensive review of these methods. It is the first survey to focus on Arabic handwriting recognition and the first Arabic character recognition survey to provide recognition rates and descriptions of test data for the approaches discussed. It includes background on the field, discussion of the methods, and future research directions.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lorigo2006a,
      author = {Lorigo, Liana M. and Govindaraju, Venu},
      title = {Offline Arabic Handwriting Recognition: A Survey},
      journal = {IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell.},
      publisher = {IEEE Computer Society},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {28},
      number = {5},
      pages = {712--724},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPAMI.2006.102}
    }
    
    Lorigo, L.M. & Govindaraju, V. Offline Arabic handwriting recognition: a survey 2006 Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, IEEE Transactions on
    Vol. 28(5), pp. 712-724 
    article URL 
    Abstract: The automatic recognition of text on scanned images has enabled many applications such as searching for words in large volumes of documents, automatic sorting of postal mail, and convenient editing of previously printed documents. The domain of handwriting in the Arabic script presents unique technical challenges and has been addressed more recently than other domains. Many different methods have been proposed and applied to various types of images. This paper provides a comprehensive review of these methods. It is the first survey to focus on Arabic handwriting recognition and the first Arabic character recognition survey to provide recognition rates and descriptions of test data for the approaches discussed. It includes background on the field, discussion of the methods, and future research directions.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lorigo2006Offline,
      author = {Lorigo, L. M. and Govindaraju, V.},
      title = {Offline Arabic handwriting recognition: a survey},
      journal = {Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, IEEE Transactions on},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {28},
      number = {5},
      pages = {712--724},
      url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/absall.jsp?arnumber=1608035}
    }
    
    Loya, A. The Detribalization of Arabic Poetry 1974 International Journal of Middle East Studies
    Vol. 5(2), pp. 202-215 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Loya1974,
      author = {Loya, Arieh},
      title = {The Detribalization of Arabic Poetry},
      journal = {International Journal of Middle East Studies},
      publisher = {Cambridge University Press},
      year = {1974},
      volume = {5},
      number = {2},
      pages = {202--215},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/162590}
    }
    
    Lucas & Christopher Jespersens cycle in Arabic and Berber 2007 Transactions of the Philological Society
    Vol. 105(3), pp. 398-431 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lucas2007Jespersens,
      author = {Lucas and Christopher},
      title = {Jespersens cycle in Arabic and Berber},
      journal = {Transactions of the Philological Society},
      publisher = {Blackwell Publishing},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {105},
      number = {3},
      pages = {398--431},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-968X.2007.00189.x},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-968X.2007.00189.x}
    }
    
    Lum, C. & Ellis, A.W. Why do some aphasics show an advantage on some tests of nonpropositional (automatic) speech? 1999 Brain Lang
    Vol. 70(1), pp. 95-118 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Sixteen aphasic patients were given three pairs of tasks that compared the production of the same items in either propositional or nonpropositional contexts. A nonpropositional number production task involved counting from 1 to 10 while the propositional version of that task involved naming the Arabic numbers 1 to 10 in nonconsecutive order. A nonpropositional picture-naming task involved naming pictures with the aid of familiar phrase cues (e.g., Don't beat around the BUSH) while in the propositional version the cues were novel phrases (e.g., Don't dig behind the BUSH). Finally a nonpropositional phrase repetition task involved repeating well-known phrases while the propositional version involved repeating novel phrases. The group as a whole showed strong nonpropositional advantages for number production and picture naming with a somewhat weaker advantage for phrase repetition. Only 5 of the individual patients showed nonpropositional advantages on all three pairs of tasks: the remaining 11 patients showed a significant nonpropositional advantage on one or two of the pairs of tasks, but not on all three. All of the patients showed a nonpropositional advantage on at least one pair of tasks, and there were no examples of better performance on the propositional than on the nonpropositional version of any task. Contrasting patterns of performance seen in different patients was related to their performance on a battery of cognitive and linguistic tasks that was given to each patient.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Lum1999,
      author = {C. Lum and A. W. Ellis},
      title = {Why do some aphasics show an advantage on some tests of nonpropositional (automatic) speech?},
      journal = {Brain Lang},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {70},
      number = {1},
      pages = {95--118},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/brln.1999.2147},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/brln.1999.2147}
    }
    
    Märgner, V. & El Databases and Competitions: Strategies to Improve Arabic Recognition Systems 2008 Arabic and Chinese Handwriting Recognition, pp. 82-103  incollection DOI URL 
    Abstract: The great success and high recognition rates of both OCR systems and recognition systems for handwritten words are unconceivable without the availability of huge datasets of real world data. This chapter gives a short survey of datasets used for recognition with special focus on their application. The main part of this chapter deals with Arabic handwriting, datasets for recognition systems, and their availability. A description of different datasets and their usability is given, and the results of a competition are presented. Finally, a strategy for the development of Arabic handwriting recognition systems based on datasets and competitions is presented.
    BibTeX:
    @incollection{Margner2008Databases,
      author = {Märgner, Volker and El},
      title = {Databases and Competitions: Strategies to Improve Arabic Recognition Systems},
      journal = {Arabic and Chinese Handwriting Recognition},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {82--103},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-78199-86},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-78199-8\_6}
    }
    
    Ma, J. & Matsoukas, S. Unsupervised Training on a Large Amount of Arabic Broadcast News Data 2007
    Vol. 2Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing ICASSP 2007 
    inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Ma2007,
      author = {Ma, J. and Matsoukas, S. },
      title = {Unsupervised Training on a Large Amount of Arabic Broadcast News Data},
      booktitle = {Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing ICASSP 2007},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {2},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICASSP.2007.366244}
    }
    
    Maass, A. & Russo, A. Directional bias in the mental representation of spatial events: nature or culture? 2003 Psychol Sci
    Vol. 14(4), pp. 296-301 
    article  
    Abstract: Previous research has shown a tendency for people to imagine simple sentences as evolving from left to right, with the sentence subject being located to the left of the object. In two cross-cultural studies comparing Italian and Arab participants, we investigated whether this bias is a function of hemispheric specialization or of directionality of written language (left to right in Italian, right to left in Arabic). Both studies found a reversal of directional bias in Arabs. Italians tended to position the subject to the left of the object, and Arabs tended to position the subject to the right of the object (Experiment 1); both groups were facilitated in a sentence-picture matching task when the subject was drawn in the position that it would usually occupy in the written language (left for Italians, right for Arabs; Experiment 2). In Experiment 2, an additional, language-independent facilitation was observed when action evolved from left to right, suggesting that both hemispheric specialization and scanning habit affect visual imaging.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Maass2003,
      author = {Anne Maass and Aurore Russo},
      title = {Directional bias in the mental representation of spatial events: nature or culture?},
      journal = {Psychol Sci},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {14},
      number = {4},
      pages = {296--301}
    }
    
    Macdonald, D.B. Arabic for the Wayfarer 1910 The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures
    Vol. 27(1), pp. 92-94 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Macdonald1910,
      author = {Macdonald, Duncan B.},
      title = {Arabic for the Wayfarer},
      journal = {The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures},
      publisher = {The University of Chicago Press},
      year = {1910},
      volume = {27},
      number = {1},
      pages = {92--94},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/528298}
    }
    
    Macleod, C. & Fraser, B. Development, validation and application of a modified Arabic translation of the What Is Happening In this Class? (WIHIC) questionnaire Learning Environments Research  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Abstract&nbsp;&nbsp;This article reports the development, translation, validation and application of a modified Arabic version of a modified form of the What Is Happening In this Class? (WIHIC) questionnaire. When parallel Arabic and English versions of this questionnaire were field tested with a sample of 763 college students in 82 classes, the WIHIC exhibited sound factorial validity and internal consistency reliability for both its actual and preferred forms, and the actual form differentiated between the perceptions of students in different classrooms. Comparison of students' scores on actual and preferred forms of the questionnaires revealed that students preferred a more positive classroom environment on all scales.
    BibTeX:
    @article{MacleodDevelopment,
      author = {Macleod, Cheri and Fraser, Barry},
      title = {Development, validation and application of a modified Arabic translation of the What Is Happening In this Class? (WIHIC) questionnaire},
      journal = {Learning Environments Research},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10984-008-9052-5},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10984-008-9052-5}
    }
    
    Madison, W., Leonard, L., Bortolini, U., Caselli, M., McGregor, K. & Sabbadini, L. SLI across several languages: Some new findings 2002
    Vol. 21, pp. 151-179 
    misc  
    BibTeX:
    @misc{Leonard2002,
      author = {WI Madison and L Leonard and U Bortolini and M Caselli and K McGregor and L Sabbadini},
      title = {SLI across several languages: Some new findings},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {21},
      pages = {151--179}
    }
    
    Magdy, W. & Darwish, K. Effect of OCR error correction on Arabic retrieval 2008 Inf. Retr.
    Vol. 11(5), pp. 405-425 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Magdy2008Effect,
      author = {Magdy, Walid and Darwish, Kareem},
      title = {Effect of OCR error correction on Arabic retrieval},
      journal = {Inf. Retr.},
      publisher = {Kluwer Academic Publishers},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {11},
      number = {5},
      pages = {405--425},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10791-008-9055-y},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10791-008-9055-y}
    }
    
    Magdy, W. & Darwish, K. Arabic OCR Error Correction Using Character Segment Correction, Language Modeling, and Shallow Morphology 2006 Proceedings of the 2006 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, pp. 408-414  inproceedings URL 
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{magdy-darwish:2006:EMNLP,
      author = {Magdy, Walid and Darwish, Kareem},
      title = {Arabic OCR Error Correction Using Character Segment Correction, Language Modeling, and Shallow Morphology},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2006 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing},
      publisher = {Association for Computational Linguistics},
      year = {2006},
      pages = {408--414},
      url = {http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/W/W06/W06-1648}
    }
    
    Magdy, W. & Darwish, K. Word-Based Correction for Retrieval of Arabic OCR Degraded Documents 2006 String Processing and Information Retrieval, pp. 205-216  incollection DOI URL 
    Abstract: Arabic documents that are available only in print continue to be ubiquitous and they can be scanned and subsequently OCR'ed to ease their retrieval. This paper explores the effect of word-based OCR correction on the effectiveness of retrieving Arabic OCR documents using different index terms. The OCR correction uses an improved character segment based noisy channel model and is tested on real and synthetic OCR degradation. Results show that the effect of OCR correction depends on the length of the index term used and that indexing using short n-grams is perhaps superior to word-based error correction. The results are potentially applicable to other languages. Keywords: OCR, Retrieval, and Error Correction.
    BibTeX:
    @incollection{Magdy2006WordBased,
      author = {Magdy, Walid and Darwish, Kareem},
      title = {Word-Based Correction for Retrieval of Arabic OCR Degraded Documents},
      journal = {String Processing and Information Retrieval},
      year = {2006},
      pages = {205--216},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/1188056117},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/11880561\_17}
    }
    
    Magdy, W., Darwish, K., Emam, O. & Hassan, H. Arabic Cross-Document Person Name Normalization 2007 Proceedings of the 2007 Workshop on Computational Approaches to Semitic Languages: Common Issues and Resources, pp. 25-32  inproceedings URL 
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{magdy-EtAl:2007:CASL2007,
      author = {Magdy, Walid and Darwish, Kareem and Emam, Ossama and Hassan, Hany},
      title = {Arabic Cross-Document Person Name Normalization},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2007 Workshop on Computational Approaches to Semitic Languages: Common Issues and Resources},
      publisher = {Association for Computational Linguistics},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {25--32},
      url = {http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/W/W07/W07-0804}
    }
    
    Mahdihassan, S. Triphala and its Arabic and Chinese synonyms. 1978 Indian J Hist Sci
    Vol. 13(1), pp. 50-55 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mahdihassan1978,
      author = {S. Mahdihassan},
      title = {Triphala and its Arabic and Chinese synonyms.},
      journal = {Indian J Hist Sci},
      year = {1978},
      volume = {13},
      number = {1},
      pages = {50--55}
    }
    
    Mahgoub, H. & Hashish, M. A Matrix Representation Of The Inflectional Forms Of Arabic Words: A Study Of Co-Occurrence Patterns 1990
    Vol. 3#COLING90projnotes#, pp. 415-416 
    inproceedings URL 
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{MahgoubColing90,
      author = {H.E. Mahgoub and M.A. Hashish },
      title = { A Matrix Representation Of The Inflectional Forms Of Arabic Words: A Study Of Co-Occurrence Patterns },
      booktitle = {#COLING90projnotes#},
      year = {1990},
      volume = {3},
      pages = {415-416},
      url = {http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/C90-3090.pdf}
    }
    
    Mahmoud, M.A., Al-Khafaji, J.T.J., Al-Shorbaji, N., Sara, K., Al-Ubaydli, M., Ghazzaoui, R., Liu, F. & Fontelo, P. BabelMeSH and PICO Linguist in Arabic. 2008 AMIA Annu Symp Proc, pp. 944  article  
    Abstract: BabelMeSH is a multilanguage search for MEDLINE/PubMed. We created a database of Arabic translations of MeSH terms and other medical terms using MySQL and developed a Web interface for searching MEDLINE/PubMed in Arabic. We evaluated the accuracy of BabelMeSH using a list of medical terms from BMJ Clinical Evidence. The accuracy was 58% (machine scoring) and 65% human review.) The result obtained may be explained by variations in expressing medical terms in Arabic.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mahmoud2008a,
      author = {Mai A Mahmoud and Jawad Thamer Jawad Al-Khafaji and Najeeb Al-Shorbaji and Kaseem Sara and Mohammad Al-Ubaydli and Ramez Ghazzaoui and Fang Liu and Paul Fontelo},
      title = {BabelMeSH and PICO Linguist in Arabic.},
      journal = {AMIA Annu Symp Proc},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {944}
    }
    
    Mahmoud, S.A. Arabic (Indian) handwritten digits recognition using Gabor-based features 2008 Proc. Int. Conf. Innovations in Information Technology IIT 2008, pp. 683-687  inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Mahmoud2008,
      author = {Mahmoud, S. A. },
      title = {Arabic (Indian) handwritten digits recognition using Gabor-based features},
      booktitle = {Proc. Int. Conf. Innovations in Information Technology IIT 2008},
      year = {2008},
      pages = {683--687},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/INNOVATIONS.2008.4781779}
    }
    
    Mahmoud, S.A. & Mahmoud, A.S. Arabic Character Recognition using Modified Fourier Spectrum (MFS) 2006 Proc. Geometric Modeling and Imaging--New Trends, pp. 155-159  inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Mahmoud2006,
      author = {Mahmoud, S. A. and Mahmoud, A. S. },
      title = {Arabic Character Recognition using Modified Fourier Spectrum (MFS)},
      booktitle = {Proc. Geometric Modeling and Imaging--New Trends},
      year = {2006},
      pages = {155--159},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/GMAI.2006.8}
    }
    
    Mahmoud, S. & Mahmoud, A. The use of Hartley transform in OCR with application to printed Arabic character recognition Pattern Analysis & Applications  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Abstract&nbsp;&nbsp;Fast Hartley transform (FHT) is an integral transform which shares some features with the Fourier transform. Fourier transform is used successfully in computing the Fourier descriptors which are used in the recognition of characters and objects. In this paper, printed Arabic optical character recognition using Hartley transform is presented. The Hartley descriptors are estimated by applying the FHT to the Arabic printed characters. The contour of the Arabic character primary part is extracted and then FHT is applied to the extracted contours. Hartley features are extracted from the FHT domain. These features are used for the recognition of Arabic characters. It was experimentally proven that the use of 10ǽƒ'ªƒ_o20 descriptors gives the best recognition rate. Hence, ten descriptors were used to save computation and processing times. Experimental results using ten Hartley descriptors resulted in a recognition rate of 97% and an error rate of 3 Arabic characters' dots and holes were used in addition to the ten Hartley descriptors to enhance the recognition rate. The use of these features resulted in a 97.3 recognition rate, 2% rejection rate, and 0.7% error rate. The dot feature was also used to reduce the number of classes of the Arabic characters without affecting the recognition rate or the number of recognized characters. This technique, based on Hartley descriptors, was compared with the Fourier descriptors calculated from the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and with modified Fourier spectrum (MFS) descriptors. Experimental results have shown that the Hartley descriptors are comparable to the FFT-based Fourier descriptors in terms of recognition rate. The Hartley and FFT-based descriptors are better than the MFS descriptors in terms of recognition rate.
    BibTeX:
    @article{MahmoudUse,
      author = {Mahmoud, Sabri and Mahmoud, Ashraf},
      title = {The use of Hartley transform in OCR with application to printed Arabic character recognition},
      journal = {Pattern Analysis & Applications},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10044-008-0128-8},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10044-008-0128-8}
    }
    
    Mak, D.S. Some Syrian Arabic Proverbs 1949 Journal of the American Oriental Society
    Vol. 69(4), pp. 223-228 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mak1949,
      author = {Dayton S. Mak},
      title = {Some Syrian Arabic Proverbs},
      journal = {Journal of the American Oriental Society},
      publisher = {American Oriental Society},
      year = {1949},
      volume = {69},
      number = {4},
      pages = {223--228},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/596248}
    }
    
    Mannai, Al, H., Everatt & John Phonological processing skills as predictors of literacy amongst Arabic speaking Bahraini children 2005 Dyslexia
    Vol. 11(4), pp. 269-291 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mannai2005Phonological,
      author = {Mannai and Al, Haya and Everatt and John},
      title = {Phonological processing skills as predictors of literacy amongst Arabic speaking Bahraini children},
      journal = {Dyslexia},
      publisher = {John Wiley &amp; Sons, Ltd.},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {11},
      number = {4},
      pages = {269--291},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dys.303},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dys.303}
    }
    
    al Mannai, H. & Everatt, J. Phonological processing skills as predictors of literacy amongst Arabic speaking Bahraini children. 2005 Dyslexia
    Vol. 11(4), pp. 269-291 
    article  
    Abstract: This paper reports a study of the reading and spelling skills of grades 1-3 Arabic-speaking children in Bahrain. Children were tested on their literacy skills (single word reading and spelling), their ability to decode letter strings (non-word reading) and measures of phonological awareness, short-term memory, speed of processing and non-verbal ability. These tests were included to identify the best predictors of literacy skills amongst Arabic young readers. The results were consistent with the literature based on tests of English-speaking children in that measures of phonological skills (decoding and awareness) were the best predictors of variability in reading and spelling among the Bahraini children. The results are discussed in terms of the literacy experiences of the children and the use of short vowels in Arabic writing.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mannai2005,
      author = {Haya al Mannai and John Everatt},
      title = {Phonological processing skills as predictors of literacy amongst Arabic speaking Bahraini children.},
      journal = {Dyslexia},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {11},
      number = {4},
      pages = {269--291}
    }
    
    Manour, S., Sima'an, K. & Winter, Y. Smoothing a Lexicon-based POS Tagger for Arabic and Hebrew 2007 Proceedings of the 2007 Workshop on Computational Approaches to Semitic Languages: Common Issues and Resources, pp. 97-103  inproceedings URL 
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{manour-simaan-winter:2007:CASL2007,
      author = {Manour, Saib and Sima'an, Khalil and Winter, Yoad},
      title = {Smoothing a Lexicon-based POS Tagger for Arabic and Hebrew},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2007 Workshop on Computational Approaches to Semitic Languages: Common Issues and Resources},
      publisher = {Association for Computational Linguistics},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {97--103},
      url = {http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/W/W07/W07-0813}
    }
    
    Manzar, S. The English language and Arabic medical students. 1999 Med Educ
    Vol. 33(5), pp. 394-395 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Manzar1999,
      author = {S. Manzar},
      title = {The English language and Arabic medical students.},
      journal = {Med Educ},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {33},
      number = {5},
      pages = {394--395}
    }
    
    Margner, V. & Pechwitz, M. Synthetic data for Arabic OCR system development 2001 Proc. Sixth Int Document Analysis and Recognition Conf, pp. 1159-1163  inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Margner2001,
      author = {Margner, V. and Pechwitz, M. },
      title = {Synthetic data for Arabic OCR system development},
      booktitle = {Proc. Sixth Int Document Analysis and Recognition Conf},
      year = {2001},
      pages = {1159--1163},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICDAR.2001.953967}
    }
    
    Margner, V., Pechwitz, M. & Abed, H.E. ICDAR 2005 Arabic handwriting recognition competition 2005 Document Analysis and Recognition, 2005. Proceedings. Eighth International Conference onDocument Analysis and Recognition, 2005. Proceedings. Eighth International Conference on, pp. 70-74 Vol. 1  proceedings URL 
    Abstract: This paper describes the Arabic handwriting recognition competition for ICDAR 2005. With the presentation of the IFN/ENIT-database in the year 2002 a database with handwritten Arabic town names was made available for free to non commercial research groups. Till now more than 30 groups are working with this data worldwide. By announcing a competition of Arabic handwriting recognition systems based on the IFN/ENIT-database, we hope to contribute to the development of Arabic handwriting recognition systems. The use of the same database by different research groups allows the comparison of different systems. We compare the systems on the most important characteristic: recognition rate, but also features like word length, writing style, and character connectivity will be discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @proceedings{Margner2005ICDAR,
      author = {Margner, V. and Pechwitz, M. and Abed, H. E.},
      title = {ICDAR 2005 Arabic handwriting recognition competition},
      booktitle = {Document Analysis and Recognition, 2005. Proceedings. Eighth International Conference on},
      journal = {Document Analysis and Recognition, 2005. Proceedings. Eighth International Conference on},
      year = {2005},
      pages = {70--74 Vol. 1},
      url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/absall.jsp?arnumber=1575512}
    }
    
    Marsi, E., van den Bosch, A. & Et Memory-based morphological analysis generation and part-of-speech tagging of Arabic   misc URL 
    Abstract: We explore the application of memorybased
    learning to morphological analysis
    and part-of-speech tagging of written
    Arabic, based on data from the Arabic
    Treebank. Morphological analysis -- the
    construction of all possible analyses of
    isolated unvoweled wordforms -- is performed
    as a letter-by-letter operation prediction
    task, where the operation encodes
    segmentation, part-of-speech, character
    changes, and vocalization. Part-of-speech
    tagging is carried out by a bi-modular tagger...
    BibTeX:
    @misc{MarsiMemorybased,
      author = {Marsi, Erwin and van den Bosch, Antal and Et},
      title = {Memory-based morphological analysis generation and part-of-speech tagging of Arabic},
      url = {http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.59.8760}
    }
    
    Masun, H. A hybrid neural network for Arabic Internet navigator commands recognition 2004 Proc. Int Information and Communication Technologies: From Theory to Applications Conf, pp. 607-608  inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Masun2004,
      author = {Masun, H. },
      title = {A hybrid neural network for Arabic Internet navigator commands recognition},
      booktitle = {Proc. Int Information and Communication Technologies: From Theory to Applications Conf},
      year = {2004},
      pages = {607--608},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICTTA.2004.1307909}
    }
    
    Mayer, E., Reicherts, M., Deloche, G., Willadino-Braga, L., Taussik, I., Dordain, M., der Linden, M.V. & Annoni, J.-M. Number processing after stroke: anatomoclinical correlations in oral and written codes. 2003 J Int Neuropsychol Soc
    Vol. 9(6), pp. 899-912 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Calculation and number-processing abilities were studied in 49 patients with chronic single vascular brain lesions by means of a standardized multitask assessment battery (EC301), as well as through other tasks, testing functions thought to be implicated in calculation such as language, visuo-perceptive abilities, verbal and spatial working memory, planning, and attention. The results show that (1) lesions involving parietal areas-particularly left parietal lesions-are prone to alter calculation processing. A more detailed analysis showed that patients with lesions involving left parietal areas were impaired in both digital (i.e., comprehension and production of numbers written in Arabic code) and oral (i.e., comprehension and production of numbers heard or expressed orally) processing while lesions involving right parietal areas lead to an impairment in digital processing only. However, linguistically related alphanumerical processing (i.e., comprehension and production of numbers written orthographically) was not influenced by parietal lesions. (2) Semantic representations (knowledge of the magnitude related to a given number) as well as rote arithmetical knowledge are also impaired following damage to parietal and particularly left parietal lesions, suggesting that these areas are also implicated in magnitude comparisons and in the retrieval of arithmetical facts. (3) Performance in calculation is highly correlated with language. (4) Moreover, we found a highly significant correlation between performances in oral calculation and verbal working memory, and between written-digit calculation and visuospatial working memory. Performances in regard to visuo-perceptive abilities, planning, and attention were less consistently correlated with calculation. These results stress the close correlation, but relative independence between calculation and language, as well as a dissociated sensitivity of oral and digital processing to brain lesions.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mayer2003,
      author = {EugÇùne Mayer and Michael Reicherts and GǸrard Deloche and Lucia Willadino-Braga and IrÇùne Taussik and Monique Dordain and Martial Van der Linden and Jean-Marie Annoni},
      title = {Number processing after stroke: anatomoclinical correlations in oral and written codes.},
      journal = {J Int Neuropsychol Soc},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {9},
      number = {6},
      pages = {899--912},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1355617703960103},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1355617703960103}
    }
    
    Mcclave, Evelyn, Kim, Helen, Tamer, Rita, Mileff & Milo Head movements in the context of speech in Arabic, Bulgarian, Korean, and African-American Vernacular English 2007 Gesture
    Vol. 7(3), pp. 343-390 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mcclave2007Head,
      author = {Mcclave and Evelyn and Kim and Helen and Tamer and Rita and Mileff and Milo},
      title = {Head movements in the context of speech in Arabic, Bulgarian, Korean, and African-American Vernacular English},
      journal = {Gesture},
      publisher = {John Benjamins Publishing Company},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {7},
      number = {3},
      pages = {343--390},
      url = {http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/jbp/gest/2007/00000007/00000003/art00003}
    }
    
    McClenahan, R.S. Review: A New Arabic Textbook 1919 The American Journal of Theology
    Vol. 23(3), pp. 368-369 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{McClenahan1919,
      author = {McClenahan, R. S.},
      title = {Review: A New Arabic Textbook},
      journal = {The American Journal of Theology},
      publisher = {The University of Chicago Press},
      year = {1919},
      volume = {23},
      number = {3},
      pages = {368--369},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/3155301}
    }
    
    McCord, M. & Cavalli-Sforza, V. An Arabic Slot Grammar Parser 2007 Proceedings of the 2007 Workshop on Computational Approaches to Semitic Languages: Common Issues and Resources, pp. 81-88  inproceedings URL 
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{mccord-cavallisforza:2007:CASL2007,
      author = {McCord, Michael and Cavalli-Sforza, Violetta},
      title = {An Arabic Slot Grammar Parser},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2007 Workshop on Computational Approaches to Semitic Languages: Common Issues and Resources},
      publisher = {Association for Computational Linguistics},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {81--88},
      url = {http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/W/W07/W07-0811}
    }
    
    McIlvenny, S., Ahmed, M.H., Dunn, E., Swadi, H. & Balshie, M. The translation into Arabic and revalidation of a fatigue questionnaire. 1999 East Mediterr Health J
    Vol. 5(3), pp. 503-514 
    article  
    Abstract: The aim of this study was to translate a fatigue questionnaire, which had been developed in England for use in epidemiological studies and in community settings, into Arabic. It was intended that the translated questionnaire could be used in any setting where Arabic is the first language of the patient. The process of translating the questionnaire and the revalidation method are described. The Arabic translation was shown to be both reliable and valid in the United Arab Emirates setting.
    BibTeX:
    @article{McIlvenny1999,
      author = {S. McIlvenny and M. H. Ahmed and E. Dunn and H. Swadi and M. Balshie},
      title = {The translation into Arabic and revalidation of a fatigue questionnaire.},
      journal = {East Mediterr Health J},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {5},
      number = {3},
      pages = {503--514}
    }
    
    Mellenius, I. Children's comprehension of Swedish nominal compounds 1996   article  
    Abstract: (from the chapter) examines children's ability to detect the formal structure of a set of words, that is, morphology / report on an experiment that was designed to capture children's notions of the rules that are involved in the formal interpretation of novel compounds in Swedish / the 1st section, on the attention that children's word formation has received, and the 2nd section, on compounding in Swedish, set the scene for the present experiment, which is described in the 3rd section, along with its results / [discuss] the implications of the results obtained, together with some concluding remarks /// word formation in language acquistion theory / a description of compounding in Swedish / the comprehension experiment [comparison of Swedish, English, and Hebrew] / [Ss were 2.0-5.4 yr olds / the chapter is followed by an appendix listing the compounds used in the comprehension experiment]
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Mellenius, Ingmarie},
      title = {Children's comprehension of Swedish nominal compounds},
      year = {1996},
      note = {detection of morphology and rules in formal interpretation and comprehension of novel compounds in Swedish, 2.0 5.4 yr olds}
    }
    
    Melnik, N. Extending partial pro-drop in Modern Hebrew: A comprehensive analysis 2007 The Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar, pp. 173-193  inproceedings URL 
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Melnik:07,
      author = {Nurit Melnik},
      title = {Extending partial pro-drop in Modern Hebrew: A comprehensive analysis},
      booktitle = {The Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar},
      publisher = {CSLI Publications},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {173--193},
      url = {http://cslipublications.stanford.edu/HPSG/8/}
    }
    
    Mendenhall, G.E. Arabic in Semitic Linguistic History 2006 Journal of the American Oriental Society
    Vol. 126(1), pp. 17-26 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mendenhall2006,
      author = {Mendenhall, George E.},
      title = {Arabic in Semitic Linguistic History},
      journal = {Journal of the American Oriental Society},
      publisher = {American Oriental Society},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {126},
      number = {1},
      pages = {17--26},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/20064451}
    }
    
    Mesfar, S. Named Entity Recognition for Arabic Using Syntactic Grammars 2007 Natural Language Processing and Information Systems, pp. 305-316  incollection DOI URL 
    Abstract: Named entities (NE) occur frequently in Arabic texts, and their recognition is essential. Recognizing and categorizing NE requires both internal (morphological) and external (syntactic) evidences. This paper describes a system that combines a morphological parser and a syntactic parser, that are built with the NooJ linguistic development environment.
    BibTeX:
    @incollection{Mesfar2007Named,
      author = {Mesfar, Slim},
      title = {Named Entity Recognition for Arabic Using Syntactic Grammars},
      journal = {Natural Language Processing and Information Systems},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {305--316},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-73351-527},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-73351-5\_27}
    }
    
    Messaoudi & Alain The Teaching of Arabic in French Algeria and Contemporary France 2006 French History
    Vol. 20(3), pp. 297-317 
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Messaoudi2006Teaching,
      author = {Messaoudi and Alain},
      title = {The Teaching of Arabic in French Algeria and Contemporary France},
      journal = {French History},
      publisher = {Oxford University Press},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {20},
      number = {3},
      pages = {297--317},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/fh/crl020},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/fh/crl020}
    }
    
    Miled, H. & Amara, N.E.B. Planar Markov modeling for Arabic writing recognition: advancement state 2001 Proc. Sixth Int Document Analysis and Recognition Conf, pp. 69-73  inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Miled2001,
      author = {Miled, H. and Amara, N. E. B. },
      title = {Planar Markov modeling for Arabic writing recognition: advancement state},
      booktitle = {Proc. Sixth Int Document Analysis and Recognition Conf},
      year = {2001},
      pages = {69--73},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICDAR.2001.953757}
    }
    
    Miller, C.J., Joseph, J., Safa, W., Flood, P.E., Dunn, E.V. & Shaheen, H.M. Accuracy of Arabic versions of three asthma symptoms questionnaires against the clinical diagnosis of asthma. 2007 J Asthma
    Vol. 44(1), pp. 29-34 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Validation studies of asthma symptom questionnaires against provocation tests of bronchial hyperresponsiveness have shown comparable performances of written and video taped questionnaires. This study aimed to determine the test characteristics of Arabic versions of two written and one video taped questionnaires when compared to the clinical diagnosis of asthma made by two respiratory physicians. The written International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire had higher sensitivities and greater accuracy than the other two questionnaires. Comparisons between corresponding questions and scenes in the ISAAC questionnaires in general revealed no significant differences in performance. The ISAAC written questionnaire had test characteristics consistent with its potential use as a screening instrument for asthma in this population of children.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Miller2007,
      author = {C. J. Miller and J. Joseph and W. Safa and P. E. Flood and E. V. Dunn and H. M. Shaheen},
      title = {Accuracy of Arabic versions of three asthma symptoms questionnaires against the clinical diagnosis of asthma.},
      journal = {J Asthma},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {44},
      number = {1},
      pages = {29--34},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02770900601034361},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02770900601034361}
    }
    
    Mimouni, Z., Kehayia, E. & Jarema, G. The mental representation of singular and plural nouns in Algerian Arabic as revealed through auditory priming in agrammatic aphasic patients. 1998 Brain Lang
    Vol. 61(1), pp. 63-87 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Working within the theoretical framework of prosodic nonconcatenative morphology developed by McCarthy (1975) for Semitic languages, we addressed, in the present paper, the issues of lexical representation, morphological relatedness, and modes of access in Algerian Arabic--a dialect of Standard Arabic--in an auditory morphological priming experiment. More specifically, we investigated the process of word recognition of singular and plural nouns in the performance of 24 non-brain-damaged subjects and 2 Algerian-speaking agrammatic aphasics. Plurals in Arabic involve either suffixation as in the sound plural (e.g., lbas "dress"/lbasat "dresses"), or stem-internal changes as in the broken plurals (e.g., kursi "chair"/krasa "chairs"). Our findings reveal a differential processing of the two forms, indicating whole word access for broken plurals and decomposition into word and suffix for suffixed plurals. Further, the evidence suggests for Algerian Arabic an architecture of the lexicon reflecting a family-like organization which takes into account language-specific features.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mimouni1998,
      author = {Z. Mimouni and E. Kehayia and G. Jarema},
      title = {The mental representation of singular and plural nouns in Algerian Arabic as revealed through auditory priming in agrammatic aphasic patients.},
      journal = {Brain Lang},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {61},
      number = {1},
      pages = {63--87},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/brln.1997.1879},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/brln.1997.1879}
    }
    
    Mitchell, T. Some Preliminary Observations on the Arabic Koine 1975 Bulletin (British Society for Middle Eastern Studies)
    Vol. 2(2), pp. 70-86 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mitchell1975,
      author = {Mitchell, T.F.},
      title = {Some Preliminary Observations on the Arabic Koine},
      journal = {Bulletin (British Society for Middle Eastern Studies)},
      publisher = {Taylor & Francis, Ltd.},
      year = {1975},
      volume = {2},
      number = {2},
      pages = {70--86},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/194776}
    }
    
    Mitchell, T.F. Prominence and Syllabication in Arabic 1960 Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London
    Vol. 23(2), pp. 369-389 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mitchell1960,
      author = {Mitchell, T. F.},
      title = {Prominence and Syllabication in Arabic},
      journal = {Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London},
      publisher = {Cambridge University Press on behalf of School of Oriental and African Studies},
      year = {1960},
      volume = {23},
      number = {2},
      pages = {369--389},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/609703}
    }
    
    Moalla, I., Elbaati, A., Alimi, A.A. & Benhamadou, A. Extraction of Arabic text from multilingual documents 2002
    Vol. 4Proc. IEEE Int Systems, Man and Cybernetics Conf 
    inproceedings  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Moalla2002,
      author = {Moalla, I. and Elbaati, A. and Alimi, A. A. and Benhamadou, A. },
      title = {Extraction of Arabic text from multilingual documents},
      booktitle = {Proc. IEEE Int Systems, Man and Cybernetics Conf},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {4}
    }
    
    Mohamad, R.A.-H., Likforman-Sulem, L. & Mokbel, C. Combining slanted-frame classifiers for improved HMM-based Arabic handwriting recognition. 2009 IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell
    Vol. 31(7), pp. 1165-1177 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: The problem addressed in this study is the offline recognition of handwritten Arabic city names. The names are assumed to belong to a fixed lexicon of about 1,000 entries. A state-of-the-art classical right-left hidden Markov model (HMM)-based recognizer (reference system) using the sliding window approach is developed. The feature set includes both baseline-independent and baseline-dependent features. The analysis of the errors made by the recognizer shows that the inclination, overlap, and shifted positions of diacritical marks are major sources of errors. In this paper, we propose coping with these problems. Our approach relies on the combination of three homogeneous HMM-based classifiers. All classifiers have the same topology as the reference system and differ only in the orientation of the sliding window. We compare three combination schemes of these classifiers at the decision level. Our reported results on the benchmark IFN/ENIT database of Arabic Tunisian city names give a recognition rate higher than 90 percent accuracy and demonstrate the superiority of the neural network-based combination. Our results also show that the combination of classifiers performs better than a single classifier dealing with slant-corrected images and that the approach is robust for a wide range of orientation angles.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mohamad2009,
      author = {Ramy Al-Hajj Mohamad and Laurence Likforman-Sulem and Chafic Mokbel},
      title = {Combining slanted-frame classifiers for improved HMM-based Arabic handwriting recognition.},
      journal = {IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {31},
      number = {7},
      pages = {1165--1177},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPAMI.2008.136},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPAMI.2008.136}
    }
    
    Mohamed, I. & Ouhalla, J. Negation and modality in early child arabic 1995
    Vol. VIIPerspectives on Arabic Linguistics, pp. 69-90 
    incollection  
    BibTeX:
    @incollection{,
      author = {Mohamed, Ibrahim and Ouhalla, Jamal},
      title = {Negation and modality in early child arabic},
      booktitle = {Perspectives on Arabic Linguistics},
      publisher = {Benjamins},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {VII},
      pages = {69-90},
      note = {Papers from 7th Annual Symposium on Arabic Ling}
    }
    
    Mohammad, A.M. Word order, agreement and pronominalization in standard and Palestinian Arabic 2000   book  
    BibTeX:
    @book{Mohammad2000,
      author = {Mohammad, A M},
      title = {Word order, agreement and pronominalization in standard and Palestinian Arabic},
      publisher = {Amsterdam: John Benjamins},
      year = {2000}
    }
    
    Momani, M. & Faraj, J. A Novel Algorithm to Extract Tri-Literal Arabic Roots 2007 Proc. IEEE/ACS Int. Conf. Computer Systems and Applications AICCSA '07, pp. 309-315  inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Momani2007,
      author = {Momani, M. and Faraj, J. },
      title = {A Novel Algorithm to Extract Tri-Literal Arabic Roots},
      booktitle = {Proc. IEEE/ACS Int. Conf. Computer Systems and Applications AICCSA '07},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {309--315},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/AICCSA.2007.370899}
    }
    
    Montelle, C. [`]Having the Answers': Writing the History of Mathematics in India 2010 Historia Mathematica
    Vol. In Press, Corrected Proof, pp. -  
    article DOI URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Montelle2010,
      author = {Clemency Montelle},
      title = {[`]Having the Answers': Writing the History of Mathematics in India},
      journal = {Historia Mathematica},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {In Press, Corrected Proof},
      pages = { - },
      url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6WG9-505GDG3-2/2/be552b43aa6860f2d41ee62013fa410c},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hm.2010.03.007}
    }
    
    Moradi, T., Sidorchuk, A. & Hallqvist, J. Translation of questionnaire increases the response rate in immigrants: Filling the language gap or feeling of inclusion? 2010 Scand J Public Health  article DOI URL 
    Abstract: Sweden has a long history of conducting questionnaire-based Public Health Surveys (PHS) to monitor health determinants. As Sweden has become a multi-ethnic society a linguistically adapted instrument to collect data was first used in Stockholm PHS 2006 to overcome the barrier of lack of Swedish language proficiency, but more importantly to overcome the psychological barrier of being excluded. The questionnaire was translated into the six most spoken languages among Swedish immigrants, namely Arabic, English, Farsi, Finnish, Spanish, and Turkish. In spite of a decrease in participation rate (-2.9 p < 0.0001) among native Swedes in PHS 2006 compared with PHS 2002, there was a substantial increase in participation rate among immigrants in PHS 2006 who received a translated questionnaire or were interviewed in their mother tongue. The increase in response rate varied from 2.1% among Finnish-speaking immigrants up to 12.4% among Turkish-speaking immigrants and was significant for Arabic-speaking (p < 0.0001), Farsi-speaking (p = 0.003), Spanish-speaking (p < 0.0001) and Turkish-speaking (p < 0.0001) immigrants. Various attempts to increase participation rate will be of importance to policy makers involved in the integration of the immigrant population, to healthcare professionals, and obviously to the public.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Moradi2010,
      author = {Tahereh Moradi and Anna Sidorchuk and Johan Hallqvist},
      title = {Translation of questionnaire increases the response rate in immigrants: Filling the language gap or feeling of inclusion?},
      journal = {Scand J Public Health},
      year = {2010},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1403494810374220},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1403494810374220}
    }
    
    Moreno, G., Walker, K.O. & Grumbach, K. Self-reported fluency in non-english languages among physicians practicing in California. 2010 Fam Med
    Vol. 42(6), pp. 414-420 
    article  
    Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: With increasing numbers of people with limited English proficiency in the United States, there is growing concern about the potential adverse effect of language barriers on patient care. We sought to compare the non-English language fluency of practicing physicians by physician race/ethnicity and location of medical school education. METHODS: We used cross-sectional analyses of California Medical Board Survey (2007) data of 61,138 practicing physicians. Measures examined were self-reported physician language fluency in 34 languages, race/ethnicity, and medical school of graduation. RESULTS: Forty-two percent of physicians reported having fluency in at least one language other than English. Fifty-six percent of international medical graduates (IMGs) reported fluency in a language other than English, compared to 37% of US medical graduates (USMG). Although the majority of physicians with fluency in Spanish are not Latino, fluency in Asian languages is primarily restricted to physicians who are of Asian race/ethnicity. Eighty-seven percent of physicians with fluency in Mandarin, Cantonese, or other Chinese languages are of Chinese ethnicity. A similar association between ethnicity and fluency was found for Southeast Asian languages, Pacific Island languages, and South Asian languages. IMGs constituted more than 80% of the physicians with fluency in Arabic, South Asian, and Pacific Islander languages. CONCLUSIONS: IMGs contribute to the diversity of languages spoken by California physicians.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Moreno2010,
      author = {Gerardo Moreno and Kara Odom Walker and Kevin Grumbach},
      title = {Self-reported fluency in non-english languages among physicians practicing in California.},
      journal = {Fam Med},
      year = {2010},
      volume = {42},
      number = {6},
      pages = {414--420}
    }
    
    Mortaji, L.E. Writing ability and strategies in two discourse types : a cognitive study of multilingual Moroccan university students writing in Arabic (L1) and English (L3) 2001 School: Dept. of Language and Linguistics, University of Essex  phdthesis URL 
    BibTeX:
    @phdthesis{Mortaji2001,
      author = {Latifa El Mortaji},
      title = {Writing ability and strategies in two discourse types : a cognitive study of multilingual Moroccan university students writing in Arabic (L1) and English (L3)},
      school = {Dept. of Language and Linguistics, University of Essex},
      year = {2001},
      url = {http://serlib0.essex.ac.uk/record=b1483785~S5}
    }
    
    Most, T., Levin, I. & Sarsour, M. The effect of modern standard arabic orthography on speech production by Arab children with hearing loss. 2008 J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ
    Vol. 13(3), pp. 417-431 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: This article examined the effect of Modern Standard Arabic orthography on speech production quality (syllable stress and vowels) by 23 Arabic-speaking children with severe or profound hearing loss aged 8-12 years. Children produced 15 one-syllable minimal pairs of words that differed in vowel length (short vs. long) and 20 two-syllable minimal pairs differing in stress pattern. Each word was produced in three tasks: reading partially or fully vowelized words and imitation of aural stimuli. Results showed that fully vowelized words ensured vowel production: high-quality productions appeared on 99 74 and 59% of productions on reading fully vowelized words, partially vowelized words, and on imitation, respectively. Moreover, correct vowel production affected correct consonant production. Correct production of stress was best on reading fully vowelized words, appearing on 54 21 and 33% of productions for fully vowelized words, partially vowelized words, or imitation, respectively. Findings suggest the need to present fully vowelized written texts when teaching speech production to children with hearing loss. Such presentations enable more accurate productions that result in more intelligible speech.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Most2008,
      author = {Tova Most and Iris Levin and Marwa Sarsour},
      title = {The effect of modern standard arabic orthography on speech production by Arab children with hearing loss.},
      journal = {J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {13},
      number = {3},
      pages = {417--431},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/deafed/enm060},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/deafed/enm060}
    }
    
    Motawa, D., Amin, A. & Sabourin, R. Segmentation of Arabic cursive script 1997 Document Analysis and Recognition, 1997., Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on
    Vol. 2Document Analysis and Recognition, 1997., Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on, pp. 625-628 vol.2 
    proceedings URL 
    Abstract: The main theme of the paper is the automatic segmentation of Arabic words using mathematical morphology tools. The proposed algorithm has been tested with a set of Arabic words written by different writers, ranging from poor to acceptable quality. The initial experimental results are very encouraging and promising
    BibTeX:
    @proceedings{Motawa1997Segmentation,
      author = {Motawa, D. and Amin, A. and Sabourin, R.},
      title = {Segmentation of Arabic cursive script},
      booktitle = {Document Analysis and Recognition, 1997., Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on},
      journal = {Document Analysis and Recognition, 1997., Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {2},
      pages = {625--628 vol.2},
      url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/absall.jsp?arnumber=620580}
    }
    
    Mouakket, A. The concept of Kernel sentences as it applies to language acquisition 1993 Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics  article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Mouakket, Ahmed},
      title = {The concept of Kernel sentences as it applies to language acquisition},
      journal = {Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics},
      year = {1993}
    }
    
    Moubaiddin, A. Quantificational phenomena in Arabic 1992 School: Dept. of Language and Linguistics, University of Essex  phdthesis URL 
    BibTeX:
    @phdthesis{Moubaiddin1992,
      author = {Asma Moubaiddin},
      title = {Quantificational phenomena in Arabic},
      school = {Dept. of Language and Linguistics, University of Essex},
      year = {1992},
      url = {http://serlib0.essex.ac.uk/record=b1026516~S5}
    }
    
    Mpofu, D.J., Lanphear, J., Stewart, T., Das, M., Ridding, P. & Dunn, E. Facility with the English language and problem-based learning group interaction: findings from an Arabic setting. 1998 Med Educ
    Vol. 32(5), pp. 479-485 
    article  
    Abstract: The Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences (FMHS), United Arab Emirates (UAE) University is in a unique position to explore issues related to English language proficiency and medical student performance. All students entering the FMHS have English as a second language. This study focused on the issues of students' proficiency in English as measured by the TOEFL test, student background factors and interaction in problem-based learning (PBL) groups. Using a modification of Bales Interaction Process Analysis, four problem-based learning groups were observed over four thematic units, to measure the degree of student interaction within PBL groups and to compare this to individual TOEFL scores and key background variables. The students' contributions correlated highly with TOEFL test results in the giving of information (range r = 0.67-0.74). The female students adhered to interacting in English during group sessions, whereas the male students were more likely to revert to using Arabic in elaborating unclear phenomena (p < 0.01). The educational level of the student's mother was highly predictive of TOEFL scores for the male students, but not for female students. Multivariate analysis was undertaken to analyse the relative contribution of the TOEFL, parental education and years of studying in English. The best predictor of students' contributions in PBL groups was identified as TOEFL scores. The study demonstrates the importance of facilitating a locally acceptable level of English proficiency prior to admission to the FMHS. However, it also highlights the importance of not focusing only on English proficiency but paying attention to additional factors in facilitating medical students in maximizing benefits from interactions in PBL settings.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mpofu1998,
      author = {D. J. Mpofu and J. Lanphear and T. Stewart and M. Das and P. Ridding and E. Dunn},
      title = {Facility with the English language and problem-based learning group interaction: findings from an Arabic setting.},
      journal = {Med Educ},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {32},
      number = {5},
      pages = {479--485}
    }
    
    Mukari, S.Z. & Said, H. The development of Malay speech audiometry. 1991 Med J Malaysia
    Vol. 46(3), pp. 262-268 
    article  
    Abstract: Speech audiometry is a method for assessing the ability of the auditory system using speech sounds as stimuli. A list of phonemically balanced bisyllabic consonant-vowel-consonant-vowel (c-v-c-v) Malay words was produced. All the bisyllabic words (c-v-c-v) thought to be commonly used in everyday conversations were listed from the Dewan Bahasa dictionary and their suitability assessed. The chosen words were divided into 25 groups containing 10 words each. The list was then recorded by a professional male newscaster in a sound proof studio. A normal speech audiometry curve was obtained by testing 60 normal hearing subjects using the prerecorded speech material. The result of the study showed that the normal Malay speech audiometry curve was comparable to those of English and Arabic speech audiometry, in which it was sigmoidal with the optimum discrimination score of 40 dB and half peak level of 17.5 dB.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mukari1991,
      author = {S. Z. Mukari and H. Said},
      title = {The development of Malay speech audiometry.},
      journal = {Med J Malaysia},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {46},
      number = {3},
      pages = {262--268}
    }
    
    Munro, M.J. Productions of English vowels by native speakers of Arabic: acoustic measurements and accentedness ratings. 1993 Lang Speech
    Vol. 36 ( Pt 1), pp. 39-66 
    article  
    Abstract: Productions of ten English vowels in /bVt/ and /bVd/ contexts were elicited from a group of native American English speakers and a group of native Arabic speakers who had learned English in adulthood. When a variety of acoustic measurements, including vowel durations, F1 and F2 frequencies, and movement in F1 and F2 were examined, the two groups were found to differ on at least one of these parameters for nearly every vowel considered. A subset of the Arabic speakers' productions, and the productions of two native English speakers, were rated for accentedness by five native English judges. The rating data indicated that only a minority of the Arabic group's productions were regarded by the judges as "native-like". When the acoustic measurement data were regressed on the mean ratings, it was found that the accentedness scores were correlated primarily with F1 frequency and movement in F2, although the significant predictors varied from vowel to vowel.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Munro1993,
      author = {M. J. Munro},
      title = {Productions of English vowels by native speakers of Arabic: acoustic measurements and accentedness ratings.},
      journal = {Lang Speech},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {36 ( Pt 1)},
      pages = {39--66}
    }
    
    Mustafa, S.H. Arabic string searching in the context of character code standards and orthographic variations 1998 Computer Standards & Interfaces
    Vol. 20(1), pp. 31-51 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: In this paper, the problems of searching in Arabic text for finding a given pattern is considered from a practical perspective. Orthographic and character encoding variations are discussed. Four of the well known string searching algorithms have been modified to handle Arabic text and their performance has been examined and analyzed using vocalized and unvocalized Arabic texts of varying length. All algorithms could be modified to support the handling of diacritics, but only three could support spelling variant checking. The empirical results show that the Boyer-Moore-Horspool algorithm provides the best overall running time performance in dealing with Arabic text in terms of both the average number of comparisons and the average actual machine execution time. Most of the increase rate in the complexity of BMH is attributed to spelling variant checking, in comparison with the efficiency of handling diacritics.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mustafa1998Arabic,
      author = {Mustafa, Suleiman H.},
      title = {Arabic string searching in the context of character code standards and orthographic variations},
      journal = {Computer Standards & Interfaces},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {20},
      number = {1},
      pages = {31--51},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0920-5489(98)00032-4},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0920-5489(98)00032-4}
    }
    
    Mutawa, A.M., Alnajem, S. & Alzhouri, F. An HPSG approach to Arabic nominal sentences 2008 Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology
    Vol. 59(3), pp. 422-434 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mutawa:Alnajem:ea:08,
      author = {A. M. Mutawa and Salah Alnajem and Fadi Alzhouri},
      title = {An HPSG approach to Arabic nominal sentences},
      journal = {Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology},
      publisher = {John Wiley & Sons, Inc.},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {59},
      number = {3},
      pages = {422--434},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/asi.v59:3}
    }
    
    Müller, S. Towards an HPSG Analysis of Maltese 2009 (113)Introducing Maltese Linguistics. Papers from the 1st International Conference on Maltese Linguistics (Bremen/Germany, 18--20 October, 2007), pp. 83-112  incollection URL 
    BibTeX:
    @incollection{MuellerMalteseSketch,
      author = {Stefan Müller},
      title = {Towards an HPSG Analysis of Maltese},
      booktitle = {Introducing Maltese Linguistics. Papers from the 1st International Conference on Maltese Linguistics (Bremen/Germany, 18--20 October, 2007)},
      publisher = {John Benjamins Publishing Co.},
      year = {2009},
      number = {113},
      pages = {83--112},
      url = {http://hpsg.fu-berlin.de/~stefan/Pub/maltese-sketch.html}
    }
    
    Müller, S. Persian Complex Predicates and the Limits of Inheritance-Based Analyses \toappear{} 2010 Journal of Linguistics
    Vol. 46 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{MuellerPersian,
      author = {Stefan Müller},
      title = {Persian Complex Predicates and the Limits of Inheritance-Based Analyses},
      journal = {Journal of Linguistics},
      year = { 2010},
      volume = {46},
      url = {http://hpsg.fu-berlin.de/~stefan/Pub/persian-cp.html}
    }
    
    Nachshon, I. Directional preferences of bilingual children 1983 Perceptual and Motor Skills
    Vol. 56, pp. 747-750 
    article  
    Abstract: Children in grades 1-6 showed increasing left-right directional preference to all stimuli but Hebrew letters. Data suggest the effects of reading and writing habits on directional preferences.
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Nachshon, I.},
      title = {Directional preferences of bilingual children},
      journal = {Perceptual and Motor Skills},
      year = {1983},
      volume = {56},
      pages = {747-750}
    }
    
    Nacira, A. Sentential complementation in French, English and Arabic 1988 School: Dept. of Language and Linguistics, University of Essex  phdthesis URL 
    BibTeX:
    @phdthesis{Nacira1988,
      author = {Abdelmoumene Nacira},
      title = {Sentential complementation in French, English and Arabic},
      school = {Dept. of Language and Linguistics, University of Essex},
      year = {1988},
      url = {http://serlib0.essex.ac.uk/record=b1088862~S5}
    }
    
    Nasir, L.S. & Nasir, A.K. Introducing Arabic language patient education materials in Jordan. 2006 Patient Educ Couns
    Vol. 60(2), pp. 142-145 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To describe the development and introduction of patient education materials in a primary care setting in Jordan. METHODS: During the 2003-2004 academic year, the authors collaborated to produce more than 25 Arabic language written patient education materials designed to conform to cultural and social norms and expectations. RESULTS: Patient education materials were frequently shared with friends and family members. Readability of materials was judged to be excellent when materials were presented at approximately a sixth grade reading level. CONCLUSIONS: Patient education materials are greatly needed in Jordan. A thorough understanding of the culture facilitates alignment of the health message with social norms and establishment of credibility with the target audience. The materials developed were well received by patients and physicians. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: The routine integration of patient education into all medical consultations in Jordan is an important goal. Practice based research will be vital in identifying and eliminating barriers to the introduction of patient education in the clinical setting.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Nasir2006,
      author = {Laeth S Nasir and Arwa K Nasir},
      title = {Introducing Arabic language patient education materials in Jordan.},
      journal = {Patient Educ Couns},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {60},
      number = {2},
      pages = {142--145},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2004.12.006},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2004.12.006}
    }
    
    Natour, Y.S. & Wingate, J.M. Fundamental frequency characteristics of Jordanian Arabic speakers. 2009 J Voice
    Vol. 23(5), pp. 560-566 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: This study is the first in a series of investigations designed to test the acoustic characteristics of the normal Arabic voice. The subjects were three hundred normal Jordanian Arabic speakers (100 adult males, 100 adult females, and 100 children). The subjects produced a sustained phonation of the vowel /a:/ and stated their complete names (i.e. first, second, third and surname) using a carrier phrase. The samples were analyzed using the Multi Dimensional Voice Program (MDVP). Fundamental frequency (F0) from the /a:/ and speaking fundamental frequency (SF0) from the sentence were analyzed. Results revealed a significant difference of both F0 and SF0 values among adult Jordanian Arabic-speaking males (F0=131.34Hz +/- 18.65, SF0=137.45 +/- 18.93), females (F0=231.13Hz +/- 20.86, SF0=230.84 +/- 16.50) and children (F0=270.93Hz +/- 20.01, SF0=278.04 +/- 32.07). Comparison with other ethnicities indicated that F0 values of adult Jordanian Arabic-speaking males and females are generally consistent with adult Caucasian and African-American values. However, for Jordanian Arabic-speaking children, a higher trend in F0 values was present than their Western counterparts. SF0 values for adult Jordanian Arabic-speaking males are generally consistent with the adult Caucasian male SF0 values. However, SF0 values of adult Jordanian-speaking females and children were relatively higher than the reported Western values. It is recommended that speech-language pathologists in Arabic-speaking countries, Jordan in specific, utilize the new data provided (F0 and SF0) when evaluating and/or treating Arabic-speaking patients. Due to its cross-linguistic variability, SF0 emerged as a preferred measurement when conducting cross-cultural comparisons of voice features.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Natour2009,
      author = {Yaser S Natour and Judith M Wingate},
      title = {Fundamental frequency characteristics of Jordanian Arabic speakers.},
      journal = {J Voice},
      year = {2009},
      volume = {23},
      number = {5},
      pages = {560--566},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvoice.2008.01.005},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvoice.2008.01.005}
    }
    
    Nawaz, S.N., Sarfraz, M., Zidouri, A. & Al-Khatib, W.G. An approach to offline Arabic character recognition using neural networks 2003 Electronics, Circuits and Systems, 2003. ICECS 2003. Proceedings of the 2003 10th IEEE International Conference on
    Vol. 3Electronics, Circuits and Systems, 2003. ICECS 2003. Proceedings of the 2003 10th IEEE International Conference on, pp. 1328-1331 Vol.3 
    proceedings URL 
    Abstract: Character recognition system can contribute tremendously towards the advancement of automation process and can be useful in many other applications such as Data Entry, Check Verification etc. This paper presents a technique for the automatic recognition of Arabic Characters. The technique is based on Neural Pattern Recognition Approach. The main features of the system are preprocessing of the text, segmentation of the text to individual characters, Feature extraction using centralized moments technique and recognition using RBF Network. The system is implemented in Java Programming Language under Windows Environment. The System is designed for a single font multi size character set.
    BibTeX:
    @proceedings{Nawaz2003Approach,
      author = {Nawaz, S. N. and Sarfraz, M. and Zidouri, A. and Al-Khatib, W. G.},
      title = {An approach to offline Arabic character recognition using neural networks},
      booktitle = {Electronics, Circuits and Systems, 2003. ICECS 2003. Proceedings of the 2003 10th IEEE International Conference on},
      journal = {Electronics, Circuits and Systems, 2003. ICECS 2003. Proceedings of the 2003 10th IEEE International Conference on},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {3},
      pages = {1328--1331 Vol.3},
      url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/absall.jsp?arnumber=1301760}
    }
    
    Nejad, F. & Rahmati, M. A New Method for Writer Identification and Verification Based on Farsi/Arabic Handwritten Texts 2007 Document Analysis and Recognition, 2007. ICDAR 2007 Vol. 2. Ninth International Conference on
    Vol. 2Document Analysis and Recognition, 2007. ICDAR 2007 Vol. 2. Ninth International Conference on, pp. 829-833 
    proceedings URL 
    Abstract: Most studies about writer identification are based on English documents and to our knowledge no research has been reported on Farsi or Arabic documents. In this paper, we have proposed a method for off-line writer identification and verification based on Farsi handwriting, which is text-dependent. Based on the idea that has been presented in the previous studies, here we assume handwriting as texture image and after normalization step, the Gabor filters are applied to image and then new features are extracted. Substantially, the property of proposed method is using of the bank of Gabor filters which is appropriate for the structure of Farsi handwritten texts and vision system. Also, a new method for feature extraction from output of Gabor filters is proposed which is based on moments and nonlinear transform. In this paper, with definition a confidence criterion, a new method for writer verification is proposed. Evaluation of other methods and proposed method demonstrates that proposed method achieves better performance on Farsi handwritten from 40 peoples.
    BibTeX:
    @proceedings{Nejad2007New,
      author = {Nejad, F. and Rahmati, M.},
      title = {A New Method for Writer Identification and Verification Based on Farsi/Arabic Handwritten Texts},
      booktitle = {Document Analysis and Recognition, 2007. ICDAR 2007 Vol. 2. Ninth International Conference on},
      journal = {Document Analysis and Recognition, 2007. ICDAR 2007 Vol. 2. Ninth International Conference on},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {2},
      pages = {829--833},
      url = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/absall.jsp?arnumber=4377031}
    }
    
    Nelken, R. & Shieber, S.M. Arabic Diacritization Using Weighted Finite-State Transducers 2005 Proceedings of the ACL Workshop on Computational Approaches to Semitic Languages, pp. 79-86  inproceedings URL 
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{nelken-shieber:2005:Semitic,
      author = {Nelken, Rani and Shieber, Stuart M.},
      title = {Arabic Diacritization Using Weighted Finite-State Transducers},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the ACL Workshop on Computational Approaches to Semitic Languages},
      publisher = {Association for Computational Linguistics},
      year = {2005},
      pages = {79--86},
      url = {http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/W/W05/W05-0711}
    }
    
    Nelson, G., Al-Batal, M. & Echols, E. Arabic and English Compliment Responses: Potential for Pragmatic Failure 1996 Applied Linguistics
    Vol. 17(4), pp. 411-432 
    article DOI URL 
    Abstract: This study investigated similarities and differences between Syrian and American compliment responses Interviews with Americans yielded 87 compliment/compliment response sequences and interviews with Syrians resulted in 52 sequences Americans were interviewed in English and Syrians in Arabic Data consisted of demographic information and transcriptions of the sequences The entire set of data was examined recursively This examination suggested three broad categories (acceptances, mitigations, and rejections) and subcategones Two trained raters coded each of the English and Arabic compliment responses as belonging to one of the categories Intercoder reliability for the American data was 92 per cent and 88 per cent for the Syrian data Of the American compliment responses, 50 per cent were coded as acceptances, 45 per cent as mitigations, and 3 per cent as rejections Of the Syrian compltment responses, 67 per cent were coded as acceptances, 33 per cent as mitigations, and 0 per cent as rejections Results suggest that both Syrians and Americans are more likely to either accept or mitigate the force of the compliment than to reject it Both groups employed similar response types (e g agreeing utterances, compliment returns, and deflecting or qualifying comments), however, they also differed in their responses US recipients were much more likely than the Syrians to use appreciation tokens and a preferred Syrian response, acceptance + formula, does not appear in the US data at all 10.1093/applin/17.4.411
    BibTeX:
    @article{Nelson1996Arabic,
      author = {Nelson, Gaylel and Al-Batal, Mahmoud and Echols, Erin},
      title = {Arabic and English Compliment Responses: Potential for Pragmatic Failure},
      journal = {Applied Linguistics},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {17},
      number = {4},
      pages = {411--432},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/applin/17.4.411},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/applin/17.4.411}
    }
    
    Netzer, Y.D. & Elhadad, M. Bilingual Hebrew-English Generation of Possessives and Partitives: Raising the Input Abstraction Level 1999 #ACL37#, pp. 144-151  inproceedings URL 
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Elhadad-ACL-99,
      author = {Yael Dahan Netzer and Michael Elhadad},
      title = {Bilingual Hebrew-English Generation of Possessives and Partitives: Raising the Input Abstraction Level},
      booktitle = {#ACL37#},
      year = {1999},
      pages = {144-151},
      url = {http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/P99-1019.pdf}
    }
    
    Neuman, A., Greenberg, D.F., Labovitz, D.R. & Suzuki, L.A. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Sensory Profile: establishing linguistic equivalency of the Hebrew version. 2004 Occupational therapy international
    Vol. 11(2), pp. 112-130 
    article URL 
    Abstract: In the process of translating assessment tools from one language to another, researchers often run the risk of altering the intended meaning of the test items, and consequently affecting the validity of the assessment tool. In this study, the accuracy of a Hebrew translation of the Sensory Profile (Dunn, 1999) was validated. A multi-step process, based on back-translation and the bilingual method was undertaken to examine whether the Hebrew translation was linguistically equivalent to the original Sensory Profile. Quantitative and qualitative measures were used to detect and explain inconsistencies in the translation. The analysis of the back-translation revealed that the discrepancies found in a number of items stemmed from inaccurate translation or back-translation, erroneous substitution, omission, or addition of words/phrases, and from substitution of words/phrases because there was no equivalent in the Hebrew language. Of the 59 back-translated items, which were not linguistically equivalent to the original Sensory Profile items, only 12 items generated inconsistent responses by the bilingual parents. Overall, the responses of the bilingual parents to the Hebrew and the English version were inconsistent in 26 of the 125 Sensory Profile items. The coefficient alpha values in all sections of the Hebrew version (except for section N) were above.70, indicating a good overall reliability. Based on proposed criteria, results indicate that the Hebrew translation of the Sensory Profile is accurate. Inconsistencies found in a number of items may relate to connotation effect, language effect, and measurement errors.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Neuman2004Crosscultural,
      author = {Neuman, A. and Greenberg, D. F. and Labovitz, D. R. and Suzuki, L. A.},
      title = {Cross-cultural adaptation of the Sensory Profile: establishing linguistic equivalency of the Hebrew version.},
      journal = {Occupational therapy international},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {11},
      number = {2},
      pages = {112--130},
      url = {http://view.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15181481}
    }
    
    Newby, G.D. Observations about an Early Judaeo-Arabic 1971 The Jewish Quarterly Review
    Vol. 61(3), pp. 212-221 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Newby1971,
      author = {Gordon D. Newby},
      title = {Observations about an Early Judaeo-Arabic},
      journal = {The Jewish Quarterly Review},
      publisher = {University of Pennsylvania Press},
      year = {1971},
      volume = {61},
      number = {3},
      pages = {212--221},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/1453756}
    }
    
    Ng, T., Nguyen, K., Zbib, R. & Nguyen, L. Improved morphological decomposition for Arabic broadcast news transcription 2009 Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing ICASSP 2009, pp. 4309-4312  inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Ng2009,
      author = {Tim Ng and Kham Nguyen and Rabih Zbib and Long Nguyen},
      title = {Improved morphological decomposition for Arabic broadcast news transcription},
      booktitle = {Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing ICASSP 2009},
      year = {2009},
      pages = {4309--4312},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICASSP.2009.4960582}
    }
    
    Ninio, A. Picture-book reading in mother-infant dyads belonging to two subgroups in Israel 1980 Child Development
    Vol. 51, pp. 587-90 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Ninio, Anat},
      title = {Picture-book reading in mother-infant dyads belonging to two subgroups in Israel},
      journal = {Child Development},
      year = {1980},
      volume = {51},
      pages = {587-90}
    }
    
    Ninio, A. Picture-book reading in mother-infant dyads belonging to two subgroups in Israel 1980 Child Development
    Vol. 51, pp. 587-90 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{,
      author = {Ninio, Anat},
      title = {Picture-book reading in mother-infant dyads belonging to two subgroups in Israel},
      journal = {Child Development},
      year = {1980},
      volume = {51},
      pages = {587-90}
    }
    
    Noaman, H.M., Elmougy, S., Ghoneim, A. & Hamza, T. Naive Bayes Classifier based Arabic document categorization 2010 Proc. 7th Int Informatics and Systems (INFOS) Conf, pp. 1-5  inproceedings  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Noaman2010,
      author = {Noaman, H. M. and Elmougy, S. and Ghoneim, A. and Hamza, T. },
      title = {Naive Bayes Classifier based Arabic document categorization},
      booktitle = {Proc. 7th Int Informatics and Systems (INFOS) Conf},
      year = {2010},
      pages = {1--5}
    }
    
    Nwesri, A.F.A., Tahaghoghi, S.M.M. & Scholer, F. Answering English Queries in Automatically Transcribed Arabic Speech 2007 Proc. 6th IEEE/ACIS Int. Conf. Computer and Information Science ICIS 2007, pp. 11-16  inproceedings DOI  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Nwesri2007,
      author = {Nwesri, A. F. A. and Tahaghoghi, S. M. M. and Scholer, F. },
      title = {Answering English Queries in Automatically Transcribed Arabic Speech},
      booktitle = {Proc. 6th IEEE/ACIS Int. Conf. Computer and Information Science ICIS 2007},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {11--16},
      doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICIS.2007.61}
    }
    
    Nwesri, A.F., Tahaghoghi, S. & Scholer, F. Finding Variants of Out-of-Vocabulary Words in Arabic 2007 Proceedings of the 2007 Workshop on Computational Approaches to Semitic Languages: Common Issues and Resources, pp. 49-56  inproceedings URL 
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{nwesri-tahaghoghi-scholer:2007:CASL2007,
      author = {Nwesri, Abdusalam F.A. and Tahaghoghi, S.M.M. and Scholer, Falk},
      title = {Finding Variants of Out-of-Vocabulary Words in Arabic},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2007 Workshop on Computational Approaches to Semitic Languages: Common Issues and Resources},
      publisher = {Association for Computational Linguistics},
      year = {2007},
      pages = {49--56},
      url = {http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/W/W07/W07-0807}
    }
    
    Nwesri, A.F., Tahaghoghi, S. & Scholer, F. Capturing Out-of-Vocabulary Words in Arabic Text 2006 Proceedings of the 2006 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, pp. 258-266  inproceedings URL 
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{nwesri-tahaghoghi-scholer:2006:EMNLP,
      author = {Nwesri, Abdusalam F.A. and Tahaghoghi, S.M.M. and Scholer, Falk},
      title = {Capturing Out-of-Vocabulary Words in Arabic Text},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2006 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing},
      publisher = {Association for Computational Linguistics},
      year = {2006},
      pages = {258--266},
      url = {http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/W/W06/W06-1631}
    }
    
    Nykl, A.R. Arabic-Spanish Etymologies 1925 Modern Philology
    Vol. 23(1), pp. 103-104 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Nykl1925,
      author = {Nykl, A. R.},
      title = {Arabic-Spanish Etymologies},
      journal = {Modern Philology},
      publisher = {The University of Chicago Press},
      year = {1925},
      volume = {23},
      number = {1},
      pages = {103--104},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/433856}
    }
    
    Nykl, A.R. Two Arabic Words in the "Romancero" 1919 Modern Philology
    Vol. 17(3), pp. 167-168 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{Nykl1919,
      author = {Nykl, A. R.},
      title = {Two Arabic Words in the "Romancero"},
      journal = {Modern Philology},
      publisher = {The University of Chicago Press},
      year = {1919},
      volume = {17},
      number = {3},
      pages = {167--168},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/433166}
    }
    
    O'Connor, M. The Arabic Loanwords in Nabatean Aramaic 1986 Journal of Near Eastern Studies
    Vol. 45(3), pp. 213-229 
    article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{O'Connor1986,
      author = {O'Connor, M.},
      title = {The Arabic Loanwords in Nabatean Aramaic},
      journal = {Journal of Near Eastern Studies},
      publisher = {The University of Chicago Press},
      year = {1986},
      volume = {45},
      number = {3},
      pages = {213--229},
      url = {http://www.jstor.org/stable/544859}
    }
    
    O'Neil, E.N., Jones, G.W. & Nye, C. Acoustic characteristics of children who speak Arabic. 1997 Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol
    Vol. 42(2), pp. 117-124 
    article  
    Abstract: The vocal characteristics of mean fundamental frequency, jitter, shimmer, harmonics-to-noise ratio, and breathiness were analyzed in 110 (F = 54, M = 56) Arabic-speaking children. The subjects were from Amman, Jordan, ranging in age from 5 to 20 years. Each subject was tape recorded during the production of the vowels /a/ and /i/. Two second samples of each vowel were analyzed using GW Instrument's Sound Scope software program. Means, standard deviations, and ranges were obtained and summarized for the acoustic measures in each age and gender category.
    BibTeX:
    @article{O'Neil1997,
      author = {E. N. O'Neil and G. W. Jones and C. Nye},
      title = {Acoustic characteristics of children who speak Arabic.},
      journal = {Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {42},
      number = {2},
      pages = {117--124}
    }
    
    Olivier, C., Miled, H., Romeo, K. & Lecourtier, Y. Segmentation and Coding of Arabic Handwritten Words 1996 ICPR '96: Proceedings of the International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR '96) Volume III-Volume 7276  inproceedings URL 
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Olivier1996Segmentation,
      author = {Olivier, C. and Miled, H. and Romeo, K. and Lecourtier, Y.},
      title = {Segmentation and Coding of Arabic Handwritten Words},
      booktitle = {ICPR '96: Proceedings of the International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR '96) Volume III-Volume 7276},
      publisher = {IEEE Computer Society},
      year = {1996},
      url = {http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=839288.842109}
    }
    
    Olivier, G., Miled, H., Romeo, K. & Lecourtier, Y. Segmentation and coding of Arabic handwritten words 1996 Pattern Recognition, 1996., Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on
    Vol. 3Pattern Recognition, 1996., Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on, pp. 264-268 vol.3 
    proceedings URL 
    Abstract: We propose a segmentation method and handwritten word coding method by human observation for automatic document processing in Arabic. The system is composed of three levels. The first level deals with the word segmentation into portions of characters called graphemes. The second level analyses these graphemes and codes the word by a sequence of observations similar to human perception. The results of these two levels are used in the recognition level (the third level) which are presented as perspective in this paper
    BibTeX:
    @proceedings{Olivier1996Segmentation,
      author = {Olivier, G. and Miled, H. and Romeo, K. and Lecourtier, Y.},
      title = {Segmentation and coding of Arabic handwritten words},
      booktitle = {Pattern Recognition, 1996., Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on},
      journ